Meinongian type theory and its applications

Studia Logica 41 (2-3):297-307 (1982)
Abstract
<span class='Hi'></span> In this paper I propose a fundamental modification of standard type theory,<span class='Hi'></span> produce a new kind of type theoretic language,<span class='Hi'></span> and couch in this language a comprehensive theory of abstract individuals and abstract properties and relations of every type.<span class='Hi'></span> I then suggest how to employ the theory to solve the four following philosophical problems:<span class='Hi'></span> (A)<span class='Hi'></span> the identification and ontological status of Frege's Senses;<span class='Hi'></span> (B)<span class='Hi'></span> the deviant behavior of terms in propositional attitude contexts;<span class='Hi'></span> (C)<span class='Hi'></span> the non-identity of necessarily equivalent propositions,<span class='Hi'></span> and <span class='Hi'></span>(D)<span class='Hi'></span> the paradox of analysis.<span class='Hi'></span> We can roughly describe these solutions as follows:<span class='Hi'></span> (A)<span class='Hi'></span> the senses of English names and descriptions which denote individuals will be modelled as abstract individuals;<span class='Hi'></span> the senses of English relation denoting expressions of a given type will be modelled as abstract relations of that type.<span class='Hi'></span> (B)<span class='Hi'></span> Inside de dicto attitude contexts,<span class='Hi'></span> these English expressions denote <span class='Hi'></span>(the abstract objects which serve as)<span class='Hi'></span> their senses.<span class='Hi'></span> (C)<span class='Hi'></span> Relations and propositions will not be identified with their extensions,<span class='Hi'></span> nor with functions or sets of any kind.<span class='Hi'></span> They will be taken as primitive,<span class='Hi'></span> and precise being and identity conditions will be proposed consistent with the view that necessarily equivalent relations and propositions may be distinct.<span class='Hi'></span> (D)<span class='Hi'></span> With the modelling described in <span class='Hi'></span>(A)<span class='Hi'></span>, the expressions being a brother and being a male sibling may both denote the same property,<span class='Hi'></span> though <span class='Hi'></span>(the abstract properties which serve as)<span class='Hi'></span> their senses may differ.<span class='Hi'></span> Just as Frege predicts,<span class='Hi'></span> being a brother just is being a male sibling is an informative identity statement because the terms flanking the identity sign have the same denotation,<span class='Hi'></span> though distinct senses.
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