Les implications politiques des trois ordres selon Pascal

Abstract
Les implications théoriques de la doctrine des trois ordres se font également sentir sur le plan politique. Non au sens où cette doctrine relèverait prioritairement d'une lecture politique (ou politico-sociologique), mais à l'inverse au sens où les concepts politiques sont retravaillés et redéfinis par Pascal en fonction de la doctrine des trois ordres. Pascal ne se contente pas de définir le lieu du politique, il repense le statut et la fonction du politique. En son ultime signification, le politique, y compris à travers la doctrine pascalienne des ordres incommensurables atteste la discordance postlapsaire entre la cité de l'homme et la cité de Dieu, entre le royaume de la concupiscence et le royaume de la charité, malgré la figuration du second par le premier. Ce point apparaît de manière plus manifeste encore lorsqu'on compare les positions de Pascal avec celles de Leibniz. L'étude des implications politiques des trois ordres nous conduit à examiner successivement : 1/ L'exemplification des déterminations de la notion d'ordre dans les textes et les fragments politiques et la réforme des concepts politiques. 2/ Les fonctions politiques de la doctrine des ordres : critique et légitimation. 3/ Ordres ou degrés : discordance ou conciliation entre la cité de l'homme et la cité de Dieu. The doctrine of the three orders has theoretical implications in the political field. This does not mean that the said doctrine should be primarily interpreted from a political (or political-sociological) point of view, but on the opposite, that Pascal re-elaborates and redefines political concepts in the light of the doctrine of the three orders. Pascal does not only define the location of the political: he produces a new theory of the status and function of the political. The ultimate meaning of the political interpreted in the light of Pascal's doctrine of the incommensurable orders attests the post-lapsarian discrepancy between the city of man and the city of God, between the kingdom of concupiscence and the kingdom of charity, though the latter is a figure of the former. The latter point is even more manifest when Pascal's positions are compared with those of Leibniz. As we study the political implications of the three orders, we shall successively consider: 1/ The examples of the determinations of the notion of order given in the political texts and fragments and the reform of political concepts. 2/ The political functions of the doctrine of the orders: criticism and legitimation. 3/ Orders or degrees? discrepancy or conciliation between the city of man and the city of God.
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