Perspective-Taking and Depth of Theory-of-Mind Reasoning in Sequential-Move Games

Cognitive Science 36 (3):560-573 (2012)
Abstract
Theory-of-mind (ToM) involves modeling an individual’s mental states to plan one’s action and to anticipate others’ actions through recursive reasoning that may be myopic (with limited recursion) or predictive (with full recursion). ToM recursion was examined using a series of two-player, sequential-move matrix games with a maximum of three steps. Participants were assigned the role of Player I, controlling the initial and the last step, or of Player II, controlling the second step. Appropriate for the assigned role, participants either anticipated or planned Player II’s strategy at the second step, and then determined Player I’s optimal strategy at the first step. Participants more readily used predictive reasoning as Player II (i.e., planning one’s own move) than as Player I (i.e., anticipating an opponent’s move), although they did not differ when translating reasoning outcome about the second step to optimal action in the first step. Perspective-taking influenced likelihood of predictive reasoning, but it did not affect the rate at which participants acquired it during the experimental block. We conclude that the depth of ToM recursion (related to perspective-taking mechanisms) and rational application of belief–desire to action (instrumental rationality) constitute separate cognitive processes in ToM reasoning
Keywords Working memory  Recursive reasoning  Reflexive reasoning  First‐person perspective  Iterated reasoning  Third‐person perspective  Belief–desire psychology  Mental model  Game theory  Rationality  Intention
Categories (categorize this paper)
Options
 Save to my reading list
Follow the author(s)
My bibliography
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Revision history Request removal from index
 
Download options
PhilPapers Archive


Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy on self-archival     Papers currently archived: 11,412
External links
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library
References found in this work BETA

View all 9 references

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Similar books and articles
Chris Freiling (1984). Banach Games. Journal of Symbolic Logic 49 (2):343-375.
Joseph Greenberg (2000). The Right to Remain Silent. Theory and Decision 48 (2):193-204.
Analytics

Monthly downloads

Added to index

2012-03-22

Total downloads

15 ( #109,982 of 1,103,038 )

Recent downloads (6 months)

10 ( #21,045 of 1,103,038 )

How can I increase my downloads?

My notes
Sign in to use this feature


Discussion
Start a new thread
Order:
There  are no threads in this forum
Nothing in this forum yet.