Cognitive Science 36 (3):560-573 (2012)
|Abstract||Theory-of-mind (ToM) involves modeling an individual’s mental states to plan one’s action and to anticipate others’ actions through recursive reasoning that may be myopic (with limited recursion) or predictive (with full recursion). ToM recursion was examined using a series of two-player, sequential-move matrix games with a maximum of three steps. Participants were assigned the role of Player I, controlling the initial and the last step, or of Player II, controlling the second step. Appropriate for the assigned role, participants either anticipated or planned Player II’s strategy at the second step, and then determined Player I’s optimal strategy at the first step. Participants more readily used predictive reasoning as Player II (i.e., planning one’s own move) than as Player I (i.e., anticipating an opponent’s move), although they did not differ when translating reasoning outcome about the second step to optimal action in the first step. Perspective-taking influenced likelihood of predictive reasoning, but it did not affect the rate at which participants acquired it during the experimental block. We conclude that the depth of ToM recursion (related to perspective-taking mechanisms) and rational application of belief–desire to action (instrumental rationality) constitute separate cognitive processes in ToM reasoning|
|Keywords||Working memory Recursive reasoning Reflexive reasoning First‐person perspective Iterated reasoning Third‐person perspective Belief–desire psychology Mental model Game theory Rationality Intention|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
|Through your library||Configure|
Similar books and articles
Steven J. Brams (1982). Omniscience and Omnipotence: How They May Help - or Hurt - in a Game. Inquiry 25 (2):217 – 231.
Stephen J. Willson (1998). Long-Term Behavior in the Theory of Moves. Theory and Decision 45 (3):201-240.
Chris Freiling (1984). Banach Games. Journal of Symbolic Logic 49 (2):343-375.
Edward Epsen (2007). Games with Zero-Knowledge Signaling. Studia Logica 86 (3):403 - 414.
Christian W. Bach & Conrad Heilmann (2011). Agent Connectedness and Backward Induction. International Game Theory Review 13 (2):195-208.
Gilbert Laffond, Jean-François Laslier & Michel Le Breton (2000). KâPlayer Additive Extension of Two-Player Games with an Application to the Borda Electoral Competition Game. Theory and Decision 48 (2):129-137.
Joseph Greenberg (2000). The Right to Remain Silent. Theory and Decision 48 (2):193-204.
Andrés Perea (2007). A One-Person Doxastic Characterization of Nash Strategies. Synthese 158 (2):251 - 271.
Chitta Baral & Nam Tran (2005). Representation and Reasoning About Evolutions of the World in the Context of Reasoning About Actions. Studia Logica 79 (1):33 - 46.
Nejat Anbarci (2001). Divide-the-Dollar Game Revisited. Theory and Decision 50 (4):295-303.
Michael Bacharach (1992). Backward Induction and Beliefs About Oneself. Synthese 91 (3):247 - 284.
Cristina Bicchieri (1993). Counterfactuals, Belief Changes, and Equilibrium Refinements. Philosophical Topics 21 (1):21-52.
Added to index2012-03-22
Total downloads5 ( #170,048 of 722,919 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #61,087 of 722,919 )
How can I increase my downloads?