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Nov 26th 2014 GMT
forthcoming articles
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    Thomas Pradeu, Toolbox Murders: Putting Genes in Their Epigenetic and Ecological Contexts: A Review of Griffiths and Stotz, Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction. [REVIEW]
    Griffiths and Stotz’s Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction offers a very good overview of scientific and philosophical issues raised by present-day genetics. Examining, in particular, the questions of how a “gene” should be defined and what a gene does from a causal point of view, the authors explore the different domains of the life sciences in which genetics has come to play a decisive role, from Mendelian genetics to molecular genetics, behavioural genetics, and evolution. In this review, I highlight what (...)
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  1. John Russell Roberts, Axiarchism and Selectors in Advance.
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  1. Michael McGowan, Google It in Advance.
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  1. Lubomira V. Radoilska, Autonomy in Psychiatric Ethics.
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    Wesley H. Holliday (2013). Response to Egré and Xu. In Johan van Benthem Fenrong Liu (ed.), Logic Across the University: Foundations and Applications. College Publications. 39-46.
    In this note, I respond to comments by Paul Egré and Xu Zhaoqing on my “Epistemic Closure and Epistemic Logic I: Relevant Alternatives and Subjunctivism” (Journal of Philosophical Logic).
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Nov 25th 2014 GMT
forthcoming articles
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    Neven Sesardic & Rafael De Clercq, Women in Philosophy: Problems with the Discrimination Hypothesis.
    A number of philosophers attribute the underrepresentation of women in philosophy largely to bias against women or some kind of wrongful discrimination. They cite six sources of evidence to support their contention: (1) gender disparities that increase along the path from undergraduate student to full time faculty member; (2) anecdotal accounts of discrimination in philosophy; (3) research on gender bias in the evaluation of manuscripts, grants, and curricula vitae in other academic disciplines; (4) psychological research on implicit bias; (5) psychological (...)
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volume 28, issue 9, 2014
  1. Flora Colledge & Bernice Elger, Getting a Fair Share: Attitudes and Perceptions of Biobank Stakeholders Concerning the Fairness of Sample Sharing.
    Biobanks are essential tools for furthering a broad range of medical research areas. However, despite the plethora of national and international laws and guidelines which apply to them, the access and sharing policies of biobanks are only sparsely addressed by regulatory bodies. The ‘give and take’ process of biosample sharing is largely left up to biobank stakeholders themselves to oversee; it is therefore both in stakeholders' power, and in their interest, to ensure that sample accessibility is fair. This is an (...)
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  2. Roland Kipke, Why Not Commercial Assistance for Suicide? On the Question of Argumentative Coherence of Endorsing Assisted Suicide.
    Most people who endorse physician-assisted suicide are against commercially assisted suicide – a suicide assisted by professional non-medical providers against payment. The article questions if this position – endorsement of physician-assisted suicide on the one hand and rejection of commercially assisted suicide on the other hand – is a coherent ethical position. To this end the article first discusses some obvious advantages of commercially assisted suicide and then scrutinizes six types of argument about whether they can justify the rejection of (...)
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  3. Bridget Pratt & Adnan A. Hyder, Reinterpreting Responsiveness for Health Systems Research in Low and Middle‐Income Countries.
    The ethical concept of responsiveness has largely been interpreted in the context of international clinical research. In light of the increasing conduct of externally funded health systems research (HSR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), this article examines how responsiveness might be understood for such research and how it can be applied. It contends that four features (amongst others) set HSR in LMICs apart from international clinical research: a focus on systems; being context-driven; being policy-driven; and being closely linked to (...)
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  4. Susanne Uusitalo & Barbara Broers, Rethinking Informed Consent in Research on Heroin‐Assisted Treatment.
    Can heroin addicts give consent to research on trials in which heroin is prescribed to them? Analyses of addicts and informed consent have been objects of debate in several articles. Informed consent requires the agent not only to be competent but also to give consent voluntarily. This has been questioned because of alleged features of heroin addiction. Until recently the discussion has focused on heroin addicts' desires for heroin, whether these are irresistible and thus pose a problem for giving consent. (...)
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  5. Alan T. Wilson, Counterfactual Consent and the Use of Deception in Research.
    The use of deception for the purposes of research is a widespread practice within many areas of study. If we want to avoid either absolute acceptance or absolute rejection of this practice then we require some method of distinguishing between those uses of deception which are morally acceptable and those which are not. In this article I discuss the concept of counterfactual consent, and propose a related distinction between counterfactual-defeating deception and counterfactual-compatible deception. The aim is to show that this (...)
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  6. Anthony Wrigley, An Eliminativist Approach to Vulnerability.
    The concept of vulnerability has been subject to numerous different interpretations but accounts are still beset with significant problems as to their adequacy, such as their contentious application or the lack of genuine explanatory role for the concept. The constant failure to provide a compelling conceptual analysis and satisfactory definition leaves the concept open to an eliminativist move whereby we can question whether we need the concept at all. I highlight problems with various kinds of approach and explain why a (...)
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volume 38, issue 8, 2014
  1. Richard A. Hullinger, John K. Kruschke & Peter M. Todd, An Evolutionary Analysis of Learned Attention.
    Humans and many other species selectively attend to stimuli or stimulus dimensions—but why should an animal constrain information input in this way? To investigate the adaptive functions of attention, we used a genetic algorithm to evolve simple connectionist networks that had to make categorization decisions in a variety of environmental structures. The results of these simulations show that while learned attention is not universally adaptive, its benefit is not restricted to the reduction of input complexity in order to keep it (...)
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forthcoming articles
  1. Andrea Staiti, On Husserl's Alleged Cartesianism and Conjunctivism: A Critical Reply to Claude Romano.
    In this paper I criticize Claude Romano’s recent characterization of Husserl’s phenomenology as a form of Cartesianism. Contra Romano, Husserl is not committed to the view that since individual things in the world are dubitable, then the world as a whole is dubitable. On the contrary, for Husserl doubt is a merely transitional phenomenon which can only characterize a temporary span of experience. Similarly, illusion is not a mode of experience in its own right but a retrospective way of characterizing (...)
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  1. Brandon Brown, Using the Ebola Outbreak as an Opportunity to Educate on Vaccine Utility.
    The first domestic death from Ebola in the United States occurred in Texas in October 2014. Family members who were potentially exposed to the infected individual were legally and involuntarily quarantined. Quarantine may not be a recent normal practice in the United States, but it was used extensively during the influenza pandemic in the early 20th century. However, health care ethics comes into play when we quarantine someone whose infection status is unknown versus active. To prevent the spread of a (...)
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  1. J. B. Delston, The Criminalization of Money Laundering and Terrorism in Global Contexts: A Hybrid Solution.
    What obligations do global actors have to prevent terrorism? Is consent required to create an international obligation, or does the correctness of its goals ground its legitimacy? In this paper, I consider these questions with respect to a subset of international law often overlooked: anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT). AML/CFT comprises peaceful response to violence and terrorism, making it a significant component of international justice and diplomacy. First, I present the current legal framework for AML/CFT institutions (...)
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  1. Jeremy Gray, Grothendieck and the Transformation of Algebraic Geometry.
    No mathematician did more to change mathematics in the second half of the twentieth century than Alexandre Grothendieck. This would have been true even if he had been a quiet figure with a liking for playing the piano and walking in the hills but, as this book makes very clear, he was far from that, and his character and his way of working enhanced his impact. Above all, there was his abrupt departure from the world of mathematics in 1970 and (...)
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  2. Theophanes Grammenos, Geometry, Relativity, and (Hidden) Philosophy.
    David Malament, now emeritus at the University of California, Irvine, where since 1999 he served as a Distinguished Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science after having spent twenty-three years as a faculty member at the University of Chicago (David B. and Clara E. Stern Professor of Philosophy since 1989 and Chairman of the Committee on the Conceptual Foundations of Science from 1995 to 1998), is well known as the author of numerous articles on the mathematical and philosophical foundations of (...)
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  3. Jeroen van Dongen, The Historical Contingency of Rationality: The Social Sciences and the Cold War.
    During World War II, Niels Bohr realized that the nature of war had changed irrevocably due to the introduction of the atomic bomb. This, in his opinion, meant that nation states had to be open about nuclear knowledge and negotiate toward peace. The bomb presented a threat, yet at the same time, an opportunity, as Bohr would argue in his characteristic way. It is not too difficult to point to the epistemological origin of Bohr’s argument: One easily identifies resonances with (...)
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    Erick Ramirez, Receptivity, Reactivity and the Successful Psychopath.
    I argue that psychopathy undermines three important assumptions thought to favor moderate reasons responsiveness. First, I argue that psychopathic agency suggests that the systems underlying receptivity to reason bifurcate. Next, I claim that this bifurcation suggests that reactivity is not 'all of a piece.' Lastly, I argue that attempts by Fischer and Ravizza to address these concerns contain an appeal to internalism. Since Fischer and Ravizza do not want their theory to depend on the outcome of debates about the nature (...)
     
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  1. Roy T. Cook, Possible Predicates and Actual Properties.
    In “Properties and the Interpretation of Second-Order Logic” (Hale, Philos Math 21:133–156, 2013) Bob Hale develops and defends a deflationary conception of properties where a property with particular satisfaction conditions actually (and in fact necessarily) exists if and only if it is possible that a predicate with those same satisfaction conditions exists. He argues further that, since our languages are finitary, there are at most countably infinitely many properties and, as a result, the account fails to underwrite the standard semantics (...)
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  2. Christoph Jäger & Eva Bänninger-Huber, Looking Into Meta-Emotions.
    There are many psychic mechanisms by which people engage with their selves. We argue that an important yet hitherto neglected one is self-appraisal via meta-emotions. We discuss the intentional structure of meta-emotions and explore the phenomenology of a variety of examples. We then present a pilot study providing preliminary evidence that some facial displays may indicate the presence of meta-emotions. We conclude by arguing that meta-emotions have an important role to play in higher-order theories of psychic harmony and that Frankfurt-style (...)
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volume 35, issue 6, 2014
  1. Maria M. Boscolo Contadin & Renata Trevisan, Alicia Ouellette: Bioethics and Disability: Toward a Disability-Conscious Bioethics.
    Alicia Ouellette’s Bioethics and Disability: Toward a Disability-Conscious Bioethics is the result of her “ten-year journey toward disability consciousness” (p. 5). By saying so, Ouellette suggests a bioethics “mindful of and knowledgeable about the fact of disability in bioethical cases” (p. 316). Thus, a common struggle should be overcome: bioethics versus the disability rights community.The book begins with an introduction to (and a brief history of) Bioethics on the one side and the disability rights community on the other. Ouellette then (...)
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  2. Daniel Takarabe Kim, Paul Farmer, Jim Yong Kim, Arthur Kleinman, and Matthew Basilico (Eds.): Reimagining Global Health: An Introduction.
    The last decade has seen an explosion of interest in the health and welfare of marginalized communities around the world. In one striking indicator, public and private development assistance for health programs increased from $8.65 billion in 1998 to $21.79 billion in 2007 [1]. There has been emergent academic interest as well, with growing ranks of undergraduate and graduate students and professionals adopting the field as their specialty. Despite the burgeoning interest, however, much about the field remains unclear. Reimagining Global (...)
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  3. Melissa Moschella, Rethinking the Moral Permissibility of Gamete Donation.
    The dominant philosophical view of gamete donation as morally permissible (when practiced in the right way) rests on two premises: (1) parental obligations are triggered primarily by playing a causal role (as agent cause) in procreation, not by genetic ties, and (2) those obligations are transferable—that is, they are obligations to make adequate provision for the child’s needs, not necessarily to raise the child oneself. Thus while gamete donors are indeed agent causes of the children that their donation helps to (...)
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  4. Gregory S. Poore, Glenn McGee: Bioethics for Beginners: 60 Cases and Cautions From the Moral Frontier of Healthcare.
    Reading and reflecting on real cases helps ethics come alive for students. Good cases grip our attention, engage our imagination, and show the real-life implications of abstract ethical theories, ideals, commitments, and policies. Finding good case studies is both difficult and time-consuming for instructors, so I was excited to learn about Glenn McGee’s book Bioethics for Beginners: 60 Cases and Cautions from the Moral Frontier of Healthcare. According to the publisher, its target audiences are “courses in bioethics, medical ethics, and (...)
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  5. Fredrik Svenaeus, The Phenomenology of Suffering in Medicine and Bioethics.
    This article develops a phenomenology of suffering with an emphasis on matters relevant to medical practice and bioethics. An attempt is made to explain how suffering can involve many different things—bodily pains, inability to carry out everyday actions, and failure to realize core life values—and yet be a distinct phenomenon. Proceeding from and expanding upon analyses found in the works of Eric Cassell and Elaine Scarry, suffering is found to be a potentially alienating mood overcoming the person and engaging her (...)
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  6. Tomasz Żuradzki, Moral Uncertainty in Bioethical Argumentation: A New Understanding of the Pro-Life View on Early Human Embryos.
    In this article, I present a new interpretation of the pro-life view on the status of early human embryos. In my understanding, this position is based not on presumptions about the ontological status of embryos and their developmental capabilities but on the specific criteria of rational decisions under uncertainty and on a cautious response to the ambiguous status of embryos. This view, which uses the decision theory model of moral reasoning, promises to reconcile the uncertainty about the ontological status of (...)
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forthcoming articles
  1. Amelia Gangemi, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde & Francesco Mancini, Feelings of Error in Reasoning—in Search of a Phenomenon.
    Recent research shows that in reasoning tasks, subjects usually produce an initial intuitive answer, accompanied by a metacognitive experience, which has been called feeling of rightness. This paper is aimed at exploring the complimentary experience of feeling of error (FOE), that is, the spontaneous, subtle sensation of cognitive uneasiness arising from conflict detection during thinking. We investigate FOE in two studies with the ?bat-and-ball? (B&B) reasoning task, in its standard and isomorphic control versions. Study 1 is a generation study, in (...)
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  2. Hugo Mercier, Emmanuel Trouche, Hiroshi Yama, Christophe Heintz & Vittorio Girotto, Experts and Laymen Grossly Underestimate the Benefits of Argumentation for Reasoning.
    Many fields of study have shown that group discussion generally improves reasoning performance for a wide range of tasks. This article shows that most of the population, including specialists, does not expect group discussion to be as beneficial as it is. Six studies asked participants to solve a standard reasoning problem?the Wason selection task?and to estimate the performance of individuals working alone and in groups. We tested samples of U.S., Indian, and Japanese participants, European managers, and psychologists of reasoning. Every (...)
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volume 3, issue 3, 2014
  1. Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson, Bragging.
    The speech act of bragging has never been subjected to conceptual analysis until now. We argue that a speaker brags just in case she makes an utterance that (1) is an assertion and (2) is intended to impress the addressee with something about the speaker via the belief produced by the speaker's assertion. We conclude by discussing why it is especially difficult to cancel a brag by prefacing it with, ‘I'm not trying to impress you, but…’ and connect this discussion (...)
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Manuscripts
  1. Fabian Dorsch, The Diversity of Disjunctivism: Review Article.
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  2. Susan James, Are Moral Rights Natural or Artificial? Hobbes and Spinoza.
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  3. Susan James, Spinoza on Philosophy, Religion and Politics.
    Event synopsis: Professor Susan James inverses Leo Strauss’ reading of Spinoza. Whereas Strauss emphasized the hidden subtext of Spinoza’s arguments, James revives the explicit debates of his time within which Spinoza's Theologico-Political Treatise was situated. But this is not a simple historical reconstruction. James’ close reading of the Treatise offers a radically new perspective on Spinoza’s revolutionary book – a reading that presents startling new perspective on the political, metaphysical and theological implications of the book. Given the importance of Spinoza’s (...)
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  4. Susan James, Wollstonecraft and Rights.
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  5. Nils Kurbis, What is Interpretation? A Dilemma for Davidson.
    The core idea of Davidson’s philosophy of language is that a theory of truth constructed as an empirical theory by a radical interpreter is a theory of meaning. I discuss an ambiguity that arises from Davidson's notion of interpretation: it can either be understood as the hypothetical process of constructing a theory of truth for a language or as a process that actually happens when speakers communicate. I argue that each disambiguation is problematic and does not result in a theory (...)
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  6. Robert Northcott, Opinion Polling and Election Predictions.
    Election prediction by means of opinion polling is a rare empirical success story for social science, but one not previously considered by philosophers. I examine the details of a prominent case and draw two lessons of more general interest: 1) Methodology over metaphysics. Traditional metaphysical criteria were not a useful guide to whether successful prediction would be possible; instead, the crucial thing was selecting an effective methodology. 2) Which methodology? Success required sophisticated use of case-specific evidence from opinion polling. The (...)
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  7. Zhaochen Wang, Vincent H. di ZhangNg, Reidar Lie & Xiaomei Zhai, Following the Giant's Paces-Governance Issues and Bioethical Reflections in China.

    Background: China has become a global player in the field of biosamples research and analysis of genetic data. The Beijing Genomics Institute is a genetics factory where enormous amounts of biosamples/data from all over the world are being analyzed. Most of the global bioethics discussions focused on research conducted by scientists from industrialized countries with subjects from poorer countries. Today, however, samples from industrialized nations are being analyzed in China on an unprecedented scale. This means that one should not just (...)

    Discussion: In this paper, we will analyze the case of BGI in the context of the Chinese regulatory system in order to identify methods to regulate genetic research more effectively and to strengthen BGI’s role in international collaborative research projects. Three main issues concerning sample collection and samples/data management are addressed. Firstly, an ambiguous definition of research, which does not specifically include biosamples/data, when applied to genetic research, may cause confusion and leave loopholes in governance. Secondly, the current regulations do not provide sufficient guidelines on the details of what information to present to prospective subjects, and how to combine informed consent with strategies of re-consent, withdrawal and feedback from research. Finally, the existing regulations do not adequately address issues of genetic privacy and data protection.

    Summary: Bioethical issues related to genetic research in China may be partially due to the nature of genetic research and partially stems from the strategy of simply adopting general international guidelines into the Chinese context without detailed considerations of the local needs. However, there are no perfect readymade ethical solutions for everyone; every country faces different open questions and challenges behind what appears to be unified guidelines. Given the importance of China in international genetic research, other countries ought to be concerned about the bioethical developments in China. China should also have a substantive discussion with the international community on bioethics issues.

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    John-Michael Kuczynski, Mathematics as the Science of Pure Structure.
    A brief but rigorous description of the logical structure of mathematical truth.
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forthcoming articles
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    Patrick Todd, Fatalism.
    In contemporary philosophy, arguments for “fatalism” are arguments for the conclusion that no human actions are free. Such arguments typically come in two varieties: logical and theological. Arguments for logical fatalism proceed, roughly, from truths about future actions to the conclusion that those actions are unavoidable, and hence unfree. Arguments for theological fatalism, on the other hand, proceed, roughly, from divine beliefs about future actions to the conclusion that those actions are unavoidable, and hence unfree. What is characteristic of any (...)
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Nov 24th 2014 GMT
forthcoming articles
  1. Narciso Santos Yanguas, Cuadro cronológico.
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  2. Narciso Santos Yanguas, Capítulo III. Cultos romanos en la Asturias antigua.
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  3. Narciso Santos Yanguas, Capítulo I. Documentación sobre la religiosidad antigua.
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  4. Narciso Santos Yanguas, Capítulo IV. El culto a Júpiter en la Asturias romana.
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  5. Narciso Santos Yanguas, Capítulo IX. Ejército romano y religiosidad.
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  6. Narciso Santos Yanguas, Capítulo II. El cristianismo en Asturias en época visigoda.
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  7. Narciso Santos Yanguas, Capítulo I. Fuentes de información: epigrafía y religiosidad.
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  8. Narciso Santos Yanguas, Capítulo IV. La mujer y el mundo religioso castreño.
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  9. Narciso Santos Yanguas, Capítulo II. Los cultos indígenas en el marco de la religiosidad astur-romana.
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