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Mar 6th 2015 GMT
volume 56, issue 1, 2015
  1. Mgf Martin, Old Acquaintance: Russell, Memory and Problems with Acquaintance.
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  2. James R. Shaw, De Re Belief and Cumming's Puzzle.
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volume 25, issue 1, 2015
  1. DIRECT SUBMISSION
    Sergio A. Gallegos, Measurement and Metaphysics in van Fraassen's Scientific Representation.
    Van Fraassen has presented in Scientific Representation an attractive notion of measurement as an important part of the empiricist structuralism that he endorses. However, he has been criticized on the grounds that both his notion of measurement and his empiricist structuralism force him to do the very thing he objects to in other philosophical projects—to endorse a controversial metaphysics. This paper proposes a defense of van Fraassen by arguing that his project is indeed a ‘metaphysical’ project, but one which is (...)
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forthcoming articles
  1. Stephen Wright, Internalism in the Epistemology of Testimony.
    This paper objects to internalist theories of justification from testimony on the grounds that they can’t accommodate intuitions about a pair of cases. The pair of cases involved is a testimonial version of the cases involved in the New Evil Demon Argument. The role of New Evil Demon cases in motivating contemporary internalist theories of knowledge and justification notwithstanding, it is argued here that testimonial cases make an intuitive case against internalist theories of justification from testimony.
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volume 35, issue 1, 2015
  1. Louise Cummings, The Use of 'No Evidence' Statements in Public Health.
    Public health communication makes extensive use of a linguistic formulation that will be called the “no evidence” statement. This is a written or spoken statement of the form “There is no evidence that P” where P stands for a proposition that typically describes a human health risk. Danger lurks in these expressions for the hearer or reader who is not logically perspicacious, as arguments that use them are only warranted under certain conditions. The extent to which members of the public (...)
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  2. I. L. Editors & A. M. Tamminga, Else Margarete Barth.
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  3. David Godden & Frank Zenker, Denying Antecedents and Affirming Consequents: The State of the Art.
    Recent work on conditional reasoning argues that denying the antecedent [DA] and affirming the consequent [AC] are defeasible but cogent patterns of argument, either because they are effective, rational, albeit heuristic applications of Bayesian probability, or because they are licensed by the principle of total evidence. Against this, we show that on any prevailing interpretation of indicative conditionals, the premises of DA and AC arguments do not license their conclusions without additional assumptions. The cogency of DA and AC inferences rather (...)
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  4. David Hitchcock, Freeman's Syntactic Criterion for Linkage.
    Freeman’s syntactic criterion for linked argument structure is often readily applicable, captures intuitively linked structures, and implies that refuting a single premiss of a linked argument suffices to refute the argument. But one cannot sharply separate analysis from inference evaluation in applying it, whether an argument satisfies it can be uncertain, it under-generates cases where refuting one premiss suffices to refute an argument, some arguments satisfying it can be easily rescued if a single premiss is refuted, and Freeman’s underlying account (...)
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  5. Fabio Paglieri, Bogency and Goodacies: On Argument Quality in Virtue Argumentation Theory.
    Virtue argumentation theory has been charged of being incomplete, given its alleged inability to account for argument cogency in virtue-theoretical terms. Instead of defending VAT against that challenge, I suggest it is misplaced, since it is based on a premise VAT does not endorse, and raises an issue that most versions of VAT need not consider problematic. This in turn allows distinguishing several varieties of VAT, and clarifying what really matters for them.
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volume 32, issue 1, 2015
  1. Christoph Bublitz, Moral Enhancement and Mental Freedom.
    Promotion of pro-social attitudes and moral behaviour is a crucial and challenging task for social orders. As traditional ways such as moral education have some, but apparently and unfortunately only limited effect, some authors have suggested employing biomedical means such as pharmaceuticals or electrical stimulation of the brain to alter individual psychologies in a more direct way — moral bioenhancement. One of the salient questions in the nascent ethical debate concerns the impact of such interventions on human freedom. Advocates argue (...)
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    Jovana Davidovic, Finding Space for Criminal Prosecutions Post‐Conflict.
    Post-conflict criminal prosecutions for the worst of crimes can play a meaningful role in achieving transitional justice. This once-common view has recently been the subject of widespread criticism that is rooted in the belief that criminal prosecutions undermine reconciliation. This has lead some scholars to argue that we must either abandon criminal prosecutions post-conflict or that we ought to use them for more general transitional justice aims, like restorative justice. This article argues against abandoning criminal prosecutions post conflict and against (...)
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  3. Federico Picinali, Base‐Rates of Negative Traits: Instructions for Use in Criminal Trials.
    Decision-makers in institutional and non-institutional contexts are sometimes confronted with the issue of whether to use generalisations expressing the statistical incidence of a negative trait in a disadvantaged and discriminated-against social group in order to draw an inference concerning a member of that group. If a criminal court were confronted with such a question, what answer should it give? First, the article argues that, our qualms notwithstanding, morality does not demand that these generalisations be disregarded. In doing so, the article (...)
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  4. Angela M. Smith, Attitudes, Tracing, and Control.
    There is an apparent tension in our everyday moral responsibility practices. On the one hand, it is commonly assumed that moral responsibility requires voluntary control: an agent can be morally responsible only for those things that fall within the scope of her voluntary control. On the other hand, we regularly praise and blame individuals for mental states and conditions that appear to fall outside the scope of their voluntary control, such as desires, emotions, beliefs, and other attitudes. In order to (...)
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  5. Jessica Toit, Is Having Pets Morally Permissible?
    In this article, I consider the question of whether having pets is morally permissible. However, I do so indirectly by considering three objections to the practice of having pets — what I shall call the ‘restriction of freedom objection’, the ‘property objection’, and the ‘dependency objection’. The restriction of freedom objection is dismissed relatively easily. The property objection also fails to show that having pets is morally impermissible. However, my consideration of this second objection does lead to the conclusion that (...)
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  6. Gerhard Øverland, Why Kamm's Principle of Secondary Permissibility Cannot Save the Doctrine of Double Effect.
    The DDE yields counterintuitive verdicts about certain cases: it may deem it permissible to kill a certain number of people when they are not used as means and their death is not intended, but deny that killing fewer of these people is permissible if that requires intending their death, or using them as means. To accommodate the judgement that we may kill the lesser number in such cases, supporters of the DDE may appeal to Frances Kamm's Principle of Secondary Permissibility (...)
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forthcoming articles
  1. Camila Orozco Espinel, Finding Equilibrium: Arrow, Debreu, McKenzie and the Problem of Scientific Credit.
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  2. Nicola Giocoli, Old Lady Charm: Explaining the Persistent Appeal of Chicago Antitrust.
    The paper deals with the mysterious persistence of the Chicago approach as the main analytical engine driving antitrust enforcement in American courts. While the approach has been almost completely replaced in contemporary industrial economics by the so-called Post-Chicago view, Chicago arguments still permeate antitrust case law at all judicial levels. Chicago’s rise to dominance was allegedly due to the superiority of its economic analysis. Why did the Post-Chicago approach, which is supposed to have a clear analytical edge, fail to do (...)
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  3. Michiru Nagatsu, Philosophy of Economics.
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  4. Vlad Tarko, The Challenge of Empirically Assessing the Effects of Constitutions.
    Mutually supporting methodologies are necessary for building a convincing case establishing a particular effect. Strengths and weaknesses of four empirical methods are discussed. Econometric methods quantify the relative importance of different factors and may assess the time frame over which constitutions matter, but have difficulties in dealing with nonlinear interactions among constitutional and cultural details. Cluster analysis can be a pre-requisite to other methods, and an analytic method in itself, useful for identifying the details that really matter and discovering surprising (...)
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volume 40, issue 2, 2015
  1. Guoda Azguridienė & Corinna Delkeskamp-Hayes, Public Health Care in Europe: Moral Aspirations, Ideological Obsessions, and Structural Pitfalls in a Post-Enlightenment Culture.
    This essay focuses on the challenge European states have imposed on themselves, namely, to provide state-of-the-art health care equally to all and for less than market price. Continued endorsement of that challenge in these states hinges on their character as media democracies: the public is moved by a supposed morally warranted expectation that all should receive adequate health care at no significant personal cost. The structural and economic constraints that hamper such forms of healthcare delivery result in systems that are (...)
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  2. Stéphane Bauzon, Classical Distributive Justice and the European Healthcare System: Rethinking the Foundations of European Health Care in an Age of Crises.
    The state subvention and distribution of health care not only jeopardize the financial sustainability of the state, but also restrict without a conclusive rational basis the freedom of patients to decide how much health care and of what quality is worth what price. The dominant biopolitics of European health care supports a healthcare monopoly in the hands of the state and the medical profession, which health care should be opened to the patient’s authority to deal directly for better basic health (...)
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  3. Friedrich Breyer & Hartmut Kliemt, Priority of Liberty” and the Design of a Two-Tier Health Care System.
    Libertarian views on rights tend to rule out coercive redistribution for purposes of public health care guarantees, whereas liberal conceptions support coercive funding of potentially unlimited access to medical services in the name of medical needs. Taking the “priority of liberty” seriously as supreme political value, a plausible prudential argument can avoid these extremes by providing systematic reasons for both delivering and limiting publicly financed guarantees. Given impending demographic change and rapid technical progress in medicine, only a two-tier system with (...)
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  4. Corinna Delkeskamp-Hayes, Morality at the Expense of Others: Equality, Solidarity, Taxes, and Debts in European Public Health Care.
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  5. John Meadowcroft, Just Healthcare? The Moral Failure of Single-Tier Basic Healthcare.
    This article sets out the moral failure of single-tier basic healthcare. Single-tier basic healthcare has been advocated on the grounds that the provision of healthcare should be divorced from ability to pay and unequal access to basic healthcare is morally intolerable. However, single-tier basic healthcare encounters a host of catastrophic moral failings. Given the fact of human pluralism it is impossible to objectively define “basic” healthcare. Attempts to provide single-tier healthcare therefore become political processes in which interest groups compete for (...)
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  6. Alberto Mingardi, Healthcare and the Slippery Slope of State Growth: Lessons From the Past.
    All over Europe, the provision of healthcare services is widely considered a primary duty of the government. Universal access to medical care can be considered a basic ingredient of the so-called “European social model.” But if universal access to medical care is seldom questioned, European governments—faced with expanding costs caused by an increasing demand driven by an aging population and technology-driven improvements—are contemplating the possibility of “rationing”1 treatments, or the possibility of allowing a greater role for private suppliers. If a (...)
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  7. Wim J. A. Van Den Heuvel, Value Reorientation and Intergenerational Conflicts in Ageing Societies.
    The Ageing of societies is a unique historical development of mankind. Today, such ageing is recognized as a threat for developed societies. There is fear of increasing inequality in health and in access to health care. Apart from the costs of ageing and care, such fear creates intergenerational conflicts. This paper explores what values are at stake when a society ages. At issue here is the social position of the old citizens and the way in which they are regarded by (...)
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forthcoming articles
  1. Thomas Müller, Time and Determinism.
    This paper gives an overview of logico-philosophical issues of time and determinism. After a brief review of historical roots and 20th century developments, three current research areas are discussed: the definition of determinism, space-time indeterminism, and the temporality of individual things and their possibilities.
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  2. Gabriella Pigozzi, The Logic of Group Decisions: Judgment Aggregation.
    Judgment aggregation studies how individual opinions on a given set of propositions can be aggregated to form a consistent group judgment on the same propositions. Despite the simplicity of the problem, seemingly natural aggregation procedures fail to return consistent collective outcomes, leading to what is now known as the doctrinal paradox. The first occurrences of the paradox were discovered in the legal realm. However, the interest of judgment aggregation is much broader and extends to political philosophy, epistemology, social choice theory, (...)
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forthcoming articles
  1. Alexis Wellwood, On the Semantics of Comparison Across Categories.
    This paper explores the hypothesis that all comparative sentences— nominal, verbal, and adjectival—contain instances of a single morpheme that compositionally introduces degrees. This morpheme, sometimes pronounced much, semantically contributes a structure-preserving map from entities, events, or states, to their measures along various dimensions. A major goal of the paper is to argue that the differences in dimensionality observed across domains are a consequence of what is measured, as opposed to which expression introduces the measurement. The resulting theory has a number (...)
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volume 25, issue 1, 2014
  1. Michael A. Cerullo, Uploading and Branching Identity.
    If a brain is uploaded into a computer, will consciousness continue in digital form or will it end forever when the brain is destroyed? Philosophers have long debated such dilemmas and classify them as questions about personal identity. There are currently three main theories of personal identity: biological, psychological, and closest continuer theories. None of these theories can successfully address the questions posed by the possibility of uploading. I will argue that uploading requires us to adopt a new theory of (...)
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  2. Heiko Lex, Christoph Schütz, Andreas Knoblauch & Thomas Schack, Cognitive Representation of a Complex Motor Action Executed by Different Motor Systems.
    The present study evaluates the cognitive representation of a kicking movement performed by a human and a humanoid robot, and how they are represented in experts and novices of soccer and robotics, respectively. To learn about the expertise-dependent development of memory structures, we compared the representation structures of soccer experts and robot experts concerning a human and humanoid robot kicking movement. We found different cognitive representation structures for both expertise groups under two different motor performance conditions . In general, the (...)
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  3. Bernardo Aguilera, Behavioural Explanation in the Realm of Non-Mental Computing Agents.
    Recently, many philosophers have been inclined to ascribe mentality to animals on the main grounds that they possess certain complex computational abilities. In this paper I contend that this view is misleading, since it wrongly assumes that those computational abilities demand a psychological explanation. On the contrary, they can be just characterised from a computational level of explanation, which picks up a domain of computation and information processing that is common to many computing systems but is autonomous from the domain (...)
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  4. Solvi Arnold, Reiji Suzuki & Takaya Arita, Selection for Representation in Higher-Order Adaptation.
    A theory of the evolution of mind cannot be complete without an explanation of how cognition became representational. Artificial approximations of cognitive evolution do not, in general, produce representational cognition. We take this as an indication that there is a gap in our understanding of what drives evolution towards representational solutions, and propose a theory to fill this gap. We suggest selection for learning and selection for second order learning as the causal factors driving the emergence of innate and acquired (...)
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  5. Matteo Colombo, Bryce Huebner: Macrocognition: A Theory of Distributed Minds and Collective Intentionality.
    Bryce Huebner’s Macrocognition is a book with a double mission. The first and main mission is “to show that there are cases of collective mentality in our world” . Cases of collective mentality are cases where groups, teams, mobs, firms, colonies or some other collectivities possess cognitive capacities or mental states in the same sense that we individually do. To accomplish this mission, Huebner develops an account of macrocognition, where “the term ‘macrocognition’ is intended as shorthand for the claim that (...)
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  6. Juan Felipe Martinez Florez, Lambros Malafouris: How Things Shape the Mind: A Theory of Material Engagement.
    Cognitive Archaeology is a theoretical perspective in archaeology, the boundaries of which fade into the field of cognitive science. From a classic perspective, Cognitive Archaeology is, according to Huffman Beach , “the study of prehistoric ideology: the ideals, values, and beliefs that constitute a society’s worldview” . For this purpose a cognitive archaeologist studies historical and archaeological evidence in a series of diverse objects like material symbols, tools, the relation with the space, political and religious thinking. However, an approach to (...)
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  7. José Hernández-Orallo, Derek Partridge: What Makes You Clever: The Puzzle of Intelligence.
    Mundus vult decipi, ergo decipiatur—the world wants to be deceived, so let it be deceived.Artificial intelligence has been a deceiving discipline: AI addresses those tasks that, if performed by humans, would require intelligence, but have been solved without featuring any genuine intelligence. This delusion has come, in return, with algorithmic techniques that can reliably solve many of these tasks, from game playing to pattern recognition. AI applications are a success.However, AI has not solved “what makes [us] clever, the puzzle of (...)
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  8. Jordi Vallverdú, Lorenzo Magnani and Ping Li : Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Western and Eastern Studies.
    With the title “Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Western and Eastern Studies,” the average reader can expect to find at least three things: a book on the main relationships between cognitive science and philosophy, a text that compares the academic research on cognitive science in Western contexts with Eastern contexts , and finally a significant representation of main Western and Eastern countries, at least those participating in contemporary research. Astonishingly none of these three aspects can be found reading this book. The (...)
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  9. Travis J. Wiltshire, A Prospective Framework for the Design of Ideal Artificial Moral Agents: Insights From the Science of Heroism in Humans.
    The growing field of machine morality has becoming increasingly concerned with how to develop artificial moral agents. However, there is little consensus on what constitutes an ideal moral agent let alone an artificial one. Leveraging a recent account of heroism in humans, the aim of this paper is to provide a prospective framework for conceptualizing, and in turn designing ideal artificial moral agents, namely those that would be considered heroic robots. First, an overview of what it means to be an (...)
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volume 35, issue 1, 2015
  1. Lee A. Bygrave, Information Concepts in Law: Generic Dreams and Definitional Daylight.
    This article concerns the legal significance of basic information concepts, such as ‘data’ and ‘information’. It describes how the application of laws increasingly turns on the meaning of these concepts. This development partly reflects lawmakers’ generic dreams—that is, a desire to keep abreast of technological change by drafting laws using relatively generic terminology rather than technology- or media-specific rules. The overriding argument is that while the regulatory importance of basic information concepts grows, legal discussion about their meaning is far from (...)
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  2. Carmine Conte, From Only the ‘Bottom-Up’? Legitimate Forms of Judicial Reasoning in Private Law.
    This article explores the dichotomy between ‘bottom-up’ and ‘top-down’ legal reasoning in the private law context. It considers the High Court of Australia’s recent allegations that: first, ‘top-down’ legal reasoning is illegitimate in private law judicial decision-making; secondly, any arguments adopting this reasoning structure are unacceptable, such as those deriving from the Birksian model of unjust enrichment; and, thirdly, as a result unjust enrichment methodology exhibits dangerous features and leads to adverse consequences. This article contests those allegations. It argues that (...)
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  3. Donald Feaver & Benedict Sheehy, The Political Division of Regulatory Labour: A Legal Theory of Agency Selection.
    The objective of this paper is to present a legal theory of agency selection. The theory posits why certain legal forms of agency are chosen when agencies are created by the executive branch of government. At the core of the theory is the idea that the executive branch chooses agency forms that strike a politically optimal balance between maximising its control while minimising its legal and political accountability for agency activities. This optimal balance is determined on an issue by issue (...)
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  4. Sacha Garben, Confronting the Competence Conundrum: Democratising the European Union Through an Expansion of its Legislative Powers.
    This paper argues for a fundamental overhaul of the current competence constellation in the EU, which is necessary to address the problem that the current arrangement does not respect the important values that it is supposed to uphold, namely those of democracy, subsidiarity and national diversity. While pretending otherwise, it effectively contains neither negative nor positive EU integration in areas of Member State competence. Furthermore, it enables European integration of these areas through even less accountable intergovernmental mechanisms. It will be (...)
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  5. Christopher McCrudden, Human Rights Histories.
    This review article considers Samuel Moyn's book The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History in the context of recent trends in the writing of human rights history. A central debate among historians of human rights, in seeking to account for the genesis and spread of human rights, is how far current human rights practice demonstrates continuity or radical discontinuity with previous attempts to secure rights. Moyn's discontinuity thesis and the controversy surrounding it exemplify this debate. Whether Moyn is correct is (...)
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  6. Luke Rostill, Relative Title and Deemed Ownership in English Personal Property Law.
    This article is concerned with two elementary propositions of English property law: in general, a person acquires a title in respect of a tangible chattel if and when he or she obtains possession of it; and titles are relative. Neither claim is as straightforward as it seems. Much hinges on the answer to one question: is a title a property right, or is it something else? A number of prominent property law scholars have claimed that, for the purposes of and (...)
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  7. Ana Carolina Alfinito Vieira & Alex Graser, Taming the Biased Black Box? On the Potential Role of Behavioural Realism in Anti-Discrimination Policy.
    Anti-discrimination laws have long been established in many legal systems, and the relevant body of rules has constantly grown. But findings from social psychology research suggest that these policies are based on unrealistic premises and are therefore bound to remain unsuccessful in many instances. While legal scholarship has begun to reflect upon these insights and to discuss a number of individual policy responses, this essay seeks to provide a more comprehensive framework within which the implications of implicit social cognition for (...)
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