New books and articles

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Jan 28th 2015 GMT
New books
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    Jon Stewart, Steven M. Emmanuel & William McDonald (eds.) (2015). Volume 15, Tome V. Kierkegaard's Concepts: Objectivity to Sacrifice. Ashgate.
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    J. Tyler Friedman & Sebastian Luft (eds.) (forthcoming). The Philosophy of Ernst Cassirer. A Novel Assessment. de Gruyter.
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  1. Paolo Cotogno, Buttresses of the Turing Barrier.
    The ‘Turing barrier’ is an evocative image for 0′, the degree of the unsolvability of the halting problem for Turing machines—equivalently, of the undecidability of Peano Arithmetic . The ‘barrier’ metaphor conveys the idea that effective computability is impaired by restrictions that could be removed by infinite methods. Assuming that the undecidability of PA is essentially depending on the finite nature of its computational means, decidability would be restored by the ω-rule. Hypercomputation, the hypothetical realization of infinitary machines through relativistic (...)
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    Diego E. Machuca, Suspension, Equipollence, and Inquiry: A Reply to Wieland.
    It is generally thought that suspension of judgment about a proposition p is the doxastic attitude one is rationally compelled to adopt whenever the epistemic reasons for and against p are equipollent or equally credible, that is, whenever the total body of available evidence bearing on p epistemically justifies neither belief nor disbelief in p. However, in a recent contribution to this journal, Jan Wieland proposes “to broaden the conditions for suspension, and argue that it is rational to suspend belief (...)
     
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volume 16, issue 1, 2015
  1. Pauline S. C. Kouwenhoven, Natasja J. H. Raijmakers, Johannes J. M. van Delden, Judith A. C. Rietjens, Donald G. Van Tol, Suzanne van de Vathorst, Nienke de Graeff, Heleen A. M. Weyers, Agnes van der Heide & Ghislaine J. M. W. van Thiel, Opinions About Euthanasia and Advanced Dementia: A Qualitative Study Among Dutch Physicians and Members of the General Public.
    The Dutch law states that a physician may perform euthanasia according to a written advance euthanasia directive when a patient is incompetent as long as all legal criteria of due care are met. This may also hold for patients with advanced dementia. We investigated the differing opinions of physicians and members of the general public on the acceptability of euthanasia in patients with advanced dementia.
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  1. Peter Dews, Dialectics and the Transcendence of Dialectics: Adorno's Relation to Schelling.
    The influence of the thought of the great German Idealist philosopher G.W.F Hegel on the thought of Theodor Adorno, the leading thinker of the first generation of the Frankfurt School, is unmistakeable, and has been the subject of much commentary. Much less discussed, however, is the influence of Hegel's prominent contemporary, F.W.J. Schelling. This article investigates the influence of Schelling on Adorno, and the sometimes striking parallels between fundamental motifs in the work of both thinkers. It argues that Adorno's critique (...)
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  1. Michael Slote, The Philosophical Reset Button: A Manifesto.
    This article is very different from other philosophy articles: it really is a manifesto addressed to Chinese philosophers. On the whole, Western thought has been exceedingly intellectualistic and rationalistic, and in this article I outline some of the ways in which those deep one-sided tendencies need to be corrected or rebalanced. However, I also claim that the Chinese are in the best position to correct and rebalance philosophy as a discipline. Chinese thought has never gone to the extremes of Western (...)
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  1. Jeremy R. Bell, Ἡ Δημεραστία in Advance.
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  1. Tracy B. Strong, Glory and the Law in Hobbes.
    A central argument of the Leviathan has to do with the political importance of education. Hobbes wants his book to be taught in universities and expounded much in the manner that Scripture was. Only thus will citizens realize what is in their hearts as to the nature of good political order. Glory affects this process in two ways. The pursuit of glory by a citizen leads to political chaos and disorder. On the other hand, God’s glory is such that one (...)
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  1. Ulf Persson, Is Falsification Falsifiable?
    This is a response to a claim by Sven Ove Hansson to the effect that Poppers dictum that falsification lies at the heart of all pursuit of science has once and for all been falsified by his study of articles published in Nature during the year 2000. We claim that this is based on a misunderstanding of Poppers philosophy of science interpreting it too literally, and that alternative readings of those papers are fully compliant with falsification. We scrutinize Hansson’s arguments (...)
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volume 8, issue 330, 2014
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    Nils-Frederic Wagner & Georg Northoff, Habits: Bridging the Gap Between Personhood and Personal Identity.
    In philosophy, the criteria for personhood (PH) at a specific point in time (synchronic), and the necessary and sufficient conditions of personal identity (PI) over time (diachronic) are traditionally separated. Hence, the transition between both timescales of a person's life remains largely unclear. Personal habits reflect a decision-making (DM) process that binds together synchronic and diachronic timescales. Despite the fact that the actualization of habits takes place synchronically, they presuppose, for the possibility of their generation, time in a diachronic sense. (...)
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  1. Steven Gross, The Metaphysics of Meaning: Hopkins on Wittgenstein.
    Jim Hopkins defends a ‘straight’ response to Wittgenstein’s rule-following considerations, a response he ascribes to Wittgenstein himself. According to this response, what makes it the case that A means that P is that it is possible for another to interpret A as meaning that P. Hopkins thus advances a form of interpretivist judgment-dependence about meaning. I argue that this response, as well as a variant, does not succeed.
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  1. Steven French, Gerhard Schurz: Philosophy of Science—A Unified Approach.
    Professor Schurz has written a book that is ambitious in both scope and aims. It begins with an introductory chapter on the historical development and general aims of the philosophy of science itself, moves on to issues associated with establishing a basis for a unified approach to science, with extensive consideration of the conceptual toolkit required, then takes us through chapters on laws and empirical testing, the empirical evaluation of theories more generally, including issues of realism and empiricism, before concluding (...)
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volume 24, issue 2, 2014
  1. John Biro, Consideraciones en torno a la pragma-dialéctica.
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  1. Eric Racine, Emily Bell, Natalie Zizzo & Courtney Green, Public Discourse on the Biology of Alcohol Addiction: Implications for Stigma, Self-Control, Essentialism, and Coercive Policies in Pregnancy.
    International media have reported cases of pregnant women who have had their children apprehended by social services, or who were incarcerated or forced into treatment programs based on a history of substance use or lack of adherence to addiction treatment programs. Public discourse on the biology of addiction has been criticized for generating stigma and a diminished perception of self-control in individuals with an addiction, potentially contributing to coercive approaches and criminalization of women who misuse substances during pregnancy. We explored (...)
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    Chris Tucker, Satisficing and Motivated Submaximization (in the Philosophy of Religion).
    In replying to certain objections to the existence of God, Robert Adams, Bruce Langtry, and Peter van Inwagen assume that God can appropriately choose a suboptimal world, a world less good than some other world God could have chosen. A number of philosophers, such as Michael Slote and Klaas Kraay, claim that these theistic replies are therefore committed to the claim that satisficing can be appropriate. Kraay argues that this commitment is a significant liability. I argue, however, that the relevant (...)
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volume 10, issue 2, 2015
  1. Fiery Cushman, Punishment in Humans: From Intuitions to Institutions.
    Humans have a strong sense of who should be punished, when, and how. Many features of these intuitions are consistent with a simple adaptive model: Punishment evolved as a mechanism to teach social partners how to behave in future interactions. Yet, it is clear that punishment as practiced in modern contexts transcends any biologically evolved mechanism; it also depends on cultural institutions including the criminal justice system and many smaller analogs in churches, corporations, clubs, classrooms, and so on. These institutions (...)
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  2. Joshua Rottman, Deborah Kelemen & Liane Young, Hindering Harm and Preserving Purity: How Can Moral Psychology Save the Planet?
    The issues of climate change and environmental degradation elicit diverse responses. This paper explores how an understanding of human moral psychology might be used to motivate conservation efforts. Moral concerns for the environment can relate to issues of harm or impurity . Aversions to harm are linked to concern for current or future generations, non-human animals, and anthropomorphized aspects of the environment. Concerns for purity are linked to viewing the environment as imbued with sacred value and therefore worthy of being (...)
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  3. Nicolas Standaert, Don't Mind the Gap: Sinology as an Art of In‐Betweenness.
    Sinology is like a Chinese ritual dance: the key is not the movement, but rather the positions , the moments of non-action ‘in between’, that make rhythm and transformation possible. Sinology itself occupies an in-between position in the landscape of academic disciplines, though it is not the only one to undertake this dance, as various disciplines engage themselves into a similar quest. Its distinctiveness as intellectual inquiry is to point at intervals, interstices, gaps, cracks, pauses, poses, in-between moments or zones (...)
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  4. Eric Steinhart, Naturalistic Theories of Life After Death.
    After rejecting substance dualism, some naturalists embrace patternism. It states that persons are bodies and that bodies are material machines running abstract person programs. Following Aristotle, these person programs are souls. Patternists adopt four-dimensionalist theories of persistence: Bodies are 3D stages of 4D lives. Patternism permits at least six types of life after death. It permits quantum immortality, teleportation, salvation through advanced technology, promotion out of a simulated reality, computational monadology, and the revision theory of resurrection.
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  5. Eric Steinhart, Teaching and Learning Guide For: Naturalistic Theories of Life After Death.
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  6. Katia Vavova, Evolutionary Debunking of Moral Realism.
    Evolutionary debunking arguments move from a premise about the influence of evolutionary forces on our moral beliefs to a skeptical conclusion about those beliefs. My primary aim is to clarify this empirically grounded epistemological challenge. I begin by distinguishing among importantly different sorts of epistemological attacks. I then demonstrate that instances of each appear in the literature under the ‘evolutionary debunking’ title. Distinguishing them clears up some confusions and helps us better understand the structure and potential of evolutionary debunking arguments.
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    Darrell P. Rowbottom, Scientific Progress Without Increasing Verisimilitude: In Response to Niiniluoto.
    First, I argue that scientific progress is possible in the absence of increasing verisimilitude in science’s theories. Second, I argue that increasing theoretical verisimilitude is not the central, or primary, dimension of scientific progress. Third, I defend my previous argument that unjustified changes in scientific belief may be progressive. Fourth, I illustrate how false beliefs can promote scientific progress in ways that cannot be explicated by appeal to verisimilitude.
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    Ross Inman, Omnipresence and the Location of the Immaterial.
    I first offer a broad taxonomy of models of divine omnipresence in the Christian tradition, both past and present. I then examine the recent model proposed by Hud Hudson (2009, 2014) and Alexander Pruss (2013)—ubiquitous entension—and flag a worry with their account that stems from predominant analyses of the concept of ‘material object’. I then attempt to show that ubiquitous entension has a rich Latin medieval precedent in the work of Augusine and Anselm. I argue that the model of omnipresence (...)
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    Thomas Mormann, From Mathematics to Quantum Mechanics - On the Conceptual Unity of Cassirer's Philosophy of Science (1907 - 1937).
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    Desh Raj Sirswal, Swami Vivekananda , Indian Youth and Value Education.
    Swami Vivekananda (January 12, 1863 – July 4, 1902) is considered as one of the most influential spiritual educationist and thinker of India. He was disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and the founder of Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission. He is considered by many as an icon for his fearless courage, his positive exhortations to the youth, his broad outlook to social problems, and countless lectures and discourses on Vedanta philosophy. For him, “Education is not the amount of information that is (...)
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    Martijn Boven, Kierkegaard's Concepts: Psychological Experiment.
    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not interested in the representation of historical individuals in actual situations, but in the construction of fictional characters that are placed in hypothetical situations; this allows him to set the categories in motion “in order to observe completely (...)
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Jan 27th 2015 GMT
volume 55, issue 4, 2014
  1. Elizabeth Barnes, Fundamental Indeterminacy.
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    Berit Brogaard, Intuitions as Intellectual Seemings.
    In Philosophy Without Intuitions Herman Cappelen argues that unlike what is commonly thought, contemporary analytic philosophers do not typically rely on intuitions as evidence. If they do indeed rely on intuitions, that should be evident from their written works, either explicitly in the form of ‘intuition’ talk or by means of other indicators. However, Cappelen argues, while philosophers do engage in ‘intuition’ talk, that is not a good indicator that they rely on intuitions, as ‘intuition’ and its cognates have many (...)
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  3. Rachel Katharine Sterken, Generics, Content and Cognitive Bias.
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  1. Nomy Arpaly, Consciousness and Moral Responsibility, by Neil Levy.
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    Joshua Wilburn, Plato's Protagoras the Hedonist.
    I advocate an ad hominem reading of the hedonism that appears in the final argument of the Protagoras. I that attribute hedonism both to the Many and to Protagoras, but my focus is on the latter. I argue that the Protagoras in various ways reflects Plato’s view that the sophist is an inevitable advocate for, and himself implicitly inclined toward, hedonism, and I show that the text aims through that characterization to undermine Protagoras’ status as an educator. One of my (...)
     
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  1. Earl Conee, Debasing Skepticism Refuted.
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volume 18, issue 1, 2015
  1. Sandrine Berges, Is Motherhood Compatible with Political Participation? Sophie de Grouchy’s Care-Based Republicanism.
    Motherhood, as it is practiced, constitutes an obstacle to gender equality in political participation. Several options are available as a potential solution to this problem. One is to advice women not to become mothers, or if they do, to devote less time and energy to caring for their children. However this will have negative repercussions for those who need to be cared for, whether children, sick people or the elderly. A second solution is to reject the view that political participation (...)
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  2. James W. Boettcher, Against the Asymmetric Convergence Model of Public Justification.
    Compared to standard liberal approaches to public reason and justification, the asymmetric convergence model of public justification allows for the public justification of laws and policies based on a convergence of quite different and even publicly inaccessible reasons. The model is asymmetrical in the sense of identifying a broader range of reasons that may function as decisive defeaters of proposed laws and policies. This paper raises several critical questions about the asymmetric convergence model and its central but ambiguous presumption against (...)
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  3. Wim Dubbink, A Moral Grounding of the Duty to Further Justice in Commercial Life.
    This paper argues that economic agents, including corporations, have the duty to further justice, not just a duty merely to comply with laws and do their share. The duty to further justice is the requirement to assist in the establishment of just arrangements when they do not exist in society. The paper is grounded in liberal theory and draws heavily on one liberal theorist, Kant. We show that the duty to further justice must be interpreted as a duty of virtue (...)
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  4. Christos Kyriacou, Critical Discussion of David Velleman, Foundations for Moral Relativism, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2013. Pp. X +109. Price: £12.95. [REVIEW]
    Foundations for Moral Relativism consists of five self-standing, though loosely related, essays on the nature of agency and its metaethical foundations. The essays do not aspire to offer any grand theory of agency or metaethics, but only to lay out some of the foundations for such theories. These foundations portray how agency in general is constructed in the social context of a community, how moral agency in particular is constructed in the social context of a community, and how a derivative (...)
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  5. Christopher Morgan-Knapp & Charles Goodman, Consequentialism, Climate Harm and Individual Obligations.
    Does the decision to relax by taking a drive rather than by taking a walk cause harm? In particular, do the additional carbon emissions caused by such a decision make anyone worse off? Recently several philosophers have argued that the answer is no, and on this basis have gone on to claim that act-consequentialism cannot provide a moral reason for individuals to voluntarily reduce their emissions. The reasoning typically consists of two steps. First, the effect of individual emissions on the (...)
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  6. Julia Peters, On Automaticity as a Constituent of Virtue.
    A large part of the current debate among virtue ethicists focuses on the role played by phronesis, or wise practical reasoning, in virtuous action. The paradigmatic case of an action expressing phronesis is one where an agent explicitly reflects and deliberates on all practical options in a given situation and eventually makes a wise choice. Habitual actions, by contrast, are typically performed automatically, that is, in the absence of preceding deliberation. Thus they would seem to fall outside of the primary (...)
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  7. Michael Popejoy, Self-Representation & Good Determination.
    I argue that a distinction made in recent literature in the philosophy of mind between self-organizing and self-governing systems can serve as the basis of a principled distinction between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ determination on the part of the compatibilist with respect to freedom or control. I first consider two arguments for the claim that causal determinism undermines control: the Consequence Argument as presented by Peter van Inwagen, and the Four Case Argument of Derk Pereboom. I then elucidate the difference between (...)
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