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Feb 27th 2015 GMT
volume 30, issue 1, 2015
  1. John Fennell, Davidson: Normativist or Anti-Normativist?
    This paper contests the standard reading, due to Bilgrami and Glüer, that Davidson is an anti-normativist about word-meaning. Their case for his anti-normativism rests on his avowed anti-conventionalism about word-meaning. While not denying Davidson’s anti-conventionalism, I argue in the central part of the paper devoted to Bilgrami that the constitutive role that charity must play in interpretation for Davidson puts pressure on his anti-conventionalism, ultimately forcing a more tempered anti-conventionalism than Bilgrami allows. Simply put, my argument is that two central (...)
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  2. David H. Glass & Mark McCartney, A New Argument for the Likelihood Ratio Measure of Confirmation.
    This paper presents a new argument for the likelihood ratio measure of confirmation by showing that one of the adequacy criteria used in another argument can be replaced by a more plausible and better supported criterion which is a special case of the weak likelihood principle. This new argument is also used to show that the likelihood ratio measure is to be preferred to a measure that has recently received support in the literature.
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  3. Benjamin Jarvis, Representing as Adapting.
    In this paper, I recommend a creature-level theory of representing. On this theory, a creature represents some entity just in case the creature adapts its behavior to that entity. Adapting is analyzed in terms of establishing new patterns of behavior. The theory of representing as adapting is contrasted with traditional causal and informational theories of mental representation. Moreover, I examine the theory in light of Putnam-Burge style externalism; I show that Putnam-Burge style externalism follows from and is explained by it. (...)
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  4. Kevin McCain, A New Evil Demon? No Problem for Moderate Internalists.
    The New Evil Demon Problem is often seen as a serious objection to externalist theories of justification. In fact, some internalists think it is a decisive counterexample to externalism. Recently, Moon has argued that internalists face their own New Evil Demon Problem. According to Moon, it is possible for a demon to remove one’s unaccessed mental states while leaving the justificatory status of her accessed mental states unaffected. Since this is contrary to the claims of many forms of internalism, Moon (...)
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  5. Andrew Moon, The New Evil Demon, a Frankfurt-Style Counterfactual Intervener, and a Subject’s Perspective Objection: Reply to McCain.
    In my paper ‘Three Forms of Internalism and the New Evil Demon Problem,’ I argued that the new evil demon problem , long considered to be one of the biggest obstacles for externalism, is also a problem for virtually all internalists . In and in his recent book , Kevin McCain provides a challenging and thought provoking reasons for thinking that many internalists do not have any such problem. In this paper, I’ll provide some replies to McCain. Of note, I’ll (...)
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  6. Colin Ruloff, Swinburne on Basing and Deviant Inferential Pathways.
    In his Epistemic Justification , Swinburne offers a sophisticated and intuitively plausible causal-doxastic analysis of the basing relation that has escaped the attention of those working on this relation, where the basing relation can be understood as the relation that holds between a reason and one’s belief when the belief is held for that reason. In this paper, I aim to fill this lacuna in the literature by arguing that, despite its initial plausibility, Swinburne’s analysis of the basing relation is (...)
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  7. Caj Strandberg, Can the Embedding Problem Be Generalized?
    One of the most discussed challenges to metaethical expressivism is the embedding problem. It is widely presumed that the reason why expressivism faces this difficulty is that it claims that moral sentences express non-cognitive states, or attitudes, which constitute their meaning. In this paper, it is argued that the reason why the embedding problem constitutes a challenge to expressivism is another than what it usually is thought to be. Further, when we have seen the real reason why expressivism is vulnerable (...)
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volume 34, issue 1, 2014
  1. Facundo García Valverde, ¿Es Realmente Valiosa la Igualdad Política?
    El objetivo de este artículo es defender el valor normativo de un principio de igualdad de oportunidades para influir políticamente en contra de un principio que las distribuya de manera desigual pero beneficiando a los peor situados. Para ello, se muestra que la influencia política es un bien de un tipo especial que permite rechazar la objeción de la nivelación hacia abajo y que la igualdad política, aunque pueda ser derrotada por consideraciones epistémicas, es absolutamente necesaria para criticar aspectos inequitativos (...)
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  1. Dale Hample & Amanda L. Irions, Arguing to Display Identity.
    A rarely studied motive for engaging in face-to-face arguing is to display one’s identity. One way people can manage their impressions is to give reasons for their commitments. This appears to be the first study to focus on this reason for arguing. 461 undergraduates recalled an episode in which they had argued to display own identity. They filled out trait measures as well as instruments describing the episode. Identity display arguments do not require controversy, are not very emotional episodes, can (...)
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  1. Alan C. Love, ChINs, Swarms, and Variational Modalities: Concepts in the Service of an Evolutionary Research Program.
    Günter Wagner’s Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation collects and synthesizes a vast array of empirical data, theoretical models, and conceptual analysis to set out a progressive research program with a central theoretical commitment: the genetic theory of homology. This research program diverges from standard approaches in evolutionary biology, provides sharpened contours to explanations of the origin of novelty, and expands the conceptual repertoire of evolutionary developmental biology . I concentrate on four aspects of the book in this essay review: the (...)
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  2. Michael Weisberg, Biology and Philosophy Symposium on Simulation and Similarity: Using Models to Understand the World.
    Simulation and Similarity: Using Models to Understand the World is an account of modeling in contemporary science. Modeling is a form of surrogate reasoning where target systems in the natural world are studied using models, which are similar to these targets. My book develops an account of the nature of models, the practice of modeling, and the similarity relation that holds between models and their targets. I also analyze the conceptual tools that allow theorists to identify the trustworthy aspects of (...)
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  1. Julia Driver, Private Blame.
    This paper explores a problem for Michael McKenna’s conversation model of moral responsibility that views blame as characteristically part of a conversational exchange. The problem for this model on which this paper focuses is the problem of private blame. Sometimes when we blame we do so without any intention to engage in a communicative exchange. It is argued that McKenna’s model cannot adequately account for private blame.
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volume 9, issue 1, 2015
  1. Daniel M. Farrell, Using Wrongdoers Rightly: Tadros on the Justification of General Deterrence. [REVIEW]
    Some philosophers believe that punishing convicted criminals in order to deter other, potential criminals would be morally questionable even if we had good evidence that doing so would achieve its goal, at least to a substantial degree. And they believe this because they believe that doing so would be an instance of “using” convicted criminals in a morally objectionable way. Tadros aims to show that we would indeed be “using” convicted criminals in such cases but that, while “using” others is (...)
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  2. Gerald Gaus, On Being Inside Social Morality and Seeing It.
    Eric Mack’s “Inside Public Reason” is thorough and fair-minded review of The Order of Public Reason. My deep thanks to him for his insights, as well as his judiciousness. In these remarks I cannot take up all the important matters he raises; in particular I put aside two important issues—the analysis of the political and discussion of how contingent social processes play a fundamental role in public justification . I plan to take up the latter on another occasion.
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  3. Jules Holroyd, Mark D. White : Retributivism: Essays on Theory and Policy. [REVIEW]
    It is customary to remark, in writings on retributivism, that the meaning of the term is so diffuse and variably applied that there is no one concept or justificatory principle picked out by the term. Cottingham identified 9 different ideas captured by the term retributivism, and a similar paper could today no doubt identify as many again. This edited volume of essays on retributivism does justice to that customary remark, by bringing together a range of writings on retributivism many of (...)
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  4. Ambrose Y. K. Lee, Public Wrongs and the Criminal Law.
    This paper is about how best to understand the notion of ‘public wrongs’ in the longstanding idea that crimes are public wrongs. By contrasting criminal law with the civil laws of torts and contracts, it argues that ‘public wrongs’ should not be understood merely as wrongs that properly concern the public, but more specifically as those which the state, as the public, ought to punish. It then briefly considers the implications that this has on criminalization.
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  5. Neil Levy, Zimmerman’s The Immorality of Punishment: A Critical Essay. [REVIEW]
    In “The Immorality of Punishment”, Michael Zimmerman attempts to show that punishment is morally unjustified and therefore wrong. In this response, I focus on two main questions. First, I examine whether Zimmerman’s empirical claims—concerning our inability to identify wrongdoers who satisfy conditions on blameworthiness and who might be reformed through punishment, and the comparative efficacy of punitive and non-punitive responses to crime—stand up to scrutiny. Second, I argue that his crucial argument from luck depends on claims about counterfactuals that ought (...)
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  6. Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen, To Serve and Protect’: The Ends of Harm by Victor Tadros. [REVIEW]
    In The Ends of Harm Victor Tadros develops an alternative to consequentialist, and non-consequentialist retributivist, accounts of the justifiability of punishment: the duty view. Crucial to this view is the claim that wrongdoers incur an enforceable duty to remedy their wrongs. They cannot undo them, but they can do something that is almost as good—namely, by submitting to appropriate punishment, which will deter potential wrongdoers in the future, reduce their victim’s risk of suffering similar wrongs again. Admittedly, this involves harming (...)
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  7. Catherine Lu, Richard Vernon: Cosmopolitan Regard: Political Membership and Global Justice. [REVIEW]
    We live in a time of “cosmopolitan regard,” when there is widespread acknowledgement that every person has moral importance. At the same time, most of us affirm and practice particular regard for our family, friends and compatriots, despite knowing that in our contemporary world, every day, many people, in many places, are treated like nothing. Are cosmopolitan and particular regard fated to be irreconcilable features of our moral lives? Are the grounds for our moral duties to our fellow citizens fundamentally (...)
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  8. Hamish Stewart, Criminal Punishment as Private Morality: Victor Tadros’s The Ends of Harm. [REVIEW]
    IntroductionAll states routinely inflict punishment, often quite harsh punishment, for criminal offences committed by persons who are subject to their laws; but it is remarkably difficult to provide a satisfactory normative justification for this practice.This paper is a review essay of Tadros . References to the book will be by way of parentheses in the text. Non-consequentialist accounts, such as retributivism, can readily explain why some kinds of wrongs are punishable, but find it difficult to accommodate the intuition that deterrence (...)
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  9. Victor Tadros, Answers.
    I am extremely grateful to Daniel Farrell, Hamish Stewart, Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen and Suzanne Uniacke for their careful, imaginative and probing responses to The Ends of Harm: The Moral Foundations of Criminal Law in this special issue of Criminal Law and Philosophy. It is especially gratifying that philosophers of this calibre, not all of whom have worked directly on the philosophy of punishment and the philosophy of criminal law, have engaged with Ends in this way.One of my ambitions in writing Ends (...)
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  10. Suzanne Uniacke, Punishment as Penalty.
    The paper’s central focus is the ‘duty’ theory of punishment developed by Victor Tadros in The Ends of Harm. In evaluating the ‘duty’ theory we might ask two broad closely related questions: whether in its own terms the ‘duty’ theory provides a justification of the imposition of hard treatment or suffering on an offender; and whether the ‘duty’ theory can provide a justification of punishment. This paper is principally concerned with the second question, which stems from a significant difference between (...)
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  11. Shlomit Wallerstein, Delegation of Powers and Authority in International Criminal Law.
    By what right, or under whose authority, do you try me? This is a common challenge raised by defendants standing trial in front of international criminal courts or tribunals. The challenge comes from the fact that traditionally criminal law is justified as a response of the state to wrongdoing that has been identified by the state as a crime. Nevertheless, since the early 1990s we have seen the development of international criminal tribunals that have the authority to judge certain crimes. (...)
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  1. Jill Graper Hernandez, Human Value, Dignity, and the Presence of Others.
    In the health care professions, the meaning of—and implications for—‘dignity’ and ‘value’ are progressively more important, as scholars and practitioners increasingly have to make value judgments when making care decisions. This paper looks at the various arguments for competing sources of human value that medical professionals can consider—human rights, autonomy, and a higher-order moral value—and settles upon a foundational model that is related to the Kantian model that is popular within the medical community: human value is foundational; human dignity, autonomy, (...)
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  1. Philippe Sormani, Fun in Go: The Timely Delivery of a Monkey Jump and its Lingering Relevance to Science Studies.
    This paper offers an ethnomethodological exploration of fun in Go , the timely delivery of a ‘Monkey Jump’ , and its lingering relevance to science studies . In Go terms, the paper makes a ‘pincer’ move: on the one hand, it explores the analytic potential of ‘fun’ for ethnographic purposes and, on the other hand, it questions its manifest abandonment in some quarters of science studies. In particular, the paper challenges their “curious seriousness” :69–78, 1990) whenever grand ontological claims are (...)
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volume 31, issue 1, 2015
  1. Guillaume Fréchette, Alessandro Salice , Intentionality. Historical and Systematic Perspectives. With a Foreword by John R. Searle.
    This volume presents thirteen essays on intentionality, with a strong focus on historical issues—nine articles deal with the concepts of intentionality in Spinoza, Leibniz, Bolzano, Brentano, Marty, Husserl, and Pfänder—but also taking into consideration some contemporary issues about intentionality, especially from the perspective of externalism and on the question of collective intentionality. The wide variety of topics, historical periods, and perspectives presented in this volume bears witness to the fact that intentionality is widely acknowledged as a central phenomenon in philosophy (...)
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  2. Carlo Ierna, A Letter From Edmund Husserl to Franz Brentano From 29 XII 1889.
    Among the correspondence between Husserl and Brentano kept at the Houghton Library of Harvard University there is a letter from Husserl to Brentano from 29 XII 1889, whose contents were completely unknown until now. The letter is of some significance, both historically as well as systematically for Husserl’s early development, painting a vivid picture of his relation and indebtedness to his teacher Franz Brentano. As in his letter to Stumpf from February 1890, Husserl describes the issues he had encountered during (...)
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  3. Jered Janes, Cairns, Dorion: The Philosophy of Edmund Husserl.
    Dorion Cairns was one of Husserl’s closest pupils, his closest American pupil, and a leading translator, interpreter, and teacher of phenomenology in the United States. His translations of Cartesian Meditations and Formal and Transcendental Logic remain authoritative, his Guide forTranslating Husserl and Conversations with Husserl and Fink are classic texts in the history of phenomenology, and a number of his students from his years at the New School for Social Research are leading figures in contemporary phenomenology.The Philosophy of Edmund Husserl (...)
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  4. Joshua Kates, Neal DeRoo: Futurity in Phenomenology: Promise and Method in Husserl, Levinas, and Derrida.
    There is a lot to like in Neal DeRoo’s Futurityin Phenomenology. In it, he canvases his three titular authors’ treatments of time , and his scholarship on all three is impressive. He shows himself familiar with their most decisive texts on this subject, as well as with much of the relevant secondary literature. His treatment of Husserl is especially noteworthy. DeRoo’s treatment of this subject, which in part draws on his previous publications, equals, if not surpasses, especially in its scope (...)
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  5. Henning Peucker, Hat Husserl Eine Konsistente Theorie des Willens? Das Willensbewusstsein in der Statischen Und der Genetischen Phänomenologie.
    This article raises the question of whether there is one consistent theory of volitional acts in Husserl’s writings. The question arises because Husserl approaches volitional consciousness in his static and his genetic phenomenology rather differently. Static phenomenology understands acts of willing as complex, higher-order phenomena that are founded in both intellectual and emotional acts; while genetic phenomenology describes them as passively motivated phenomena that are implicitly predelineated in feelings, instincts, and drives, which always already include a characteristic element of striving. (...)
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  6. Maren Wehrle, Feelings as the Motor of Perception”? The Essential Role of Interest for Intentionality.
    Husserl seldom refers to feelings, and when he does, he mainly focuses on their axiological character, which corresponds to a specific kind of value apprehension . This paper aims to discuss the role of feelings in Husserl from a different angle. For this purpose it makes a detour through Husserl’s early account of attention. In a text from 1898 on attention the aspect of interest, which is said to have a basis in feeling, plays an essential role. Although Husserl argues (...)
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  7. Jeff Yoshimi, The Metaphysical Neutrality of Husserlian Phenomenology.
    I argue that Husserlian phenomenology is metaphysically neutral, in the sense of being compatible with multiple metaphysical frameworks . For example, though Husserl dismisses the concept of an unknowable thing in itself as “material nonsense”, I argue that the concept is coherent and that the existence of such things is compatible with Husserl’s phenomenology. I defend this metaphysical neutrality approach against a number of objections and consider some of its implications for Husserl interpretation.
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  1. Sébastien Magnier, La Logique au Service du Droit: L’Analyse de la Signification du Terme “Incertain” Dans la Définition de la Condition Suspensive du Droit Civil Français.
    La définition de la condition suspensive, telle qu’elle nous est donnée dans l’article 1181 du Code civil français, est aujourd’hui au centre de différents projets de réforme. Si aucun projet de réforme n’a réussi à emporter l’assentiment de tous les juristes, nombre d’entre eux semblent s’accorder sur la nécessité de réformer ce texte—inchangé depuis 1804. Pourquoi un tel consensus sur ce besoin de réécriture de la définition de la condition suspensive mène à une discussion doctrinale où deux positions principales s’opposent? (...)
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  2. Jérémy Mercier, Eros Roberto Grau: Pourquoi J’Ai Peur des Juges. L’Interprétation du Droit Et les Principes Juridiques.
    Les juges créent-ils du droit ? Eros Roberto Grau, avocat, ancien professeur à la prestigieuse Faculté de droit de l’Université de São Paulo et ancien membre de la Cour suprême brésilienne de 2004 à 2010, aurait sans aucun doute pu faire un livre inaccessible sur cette question, tant son parcours, ses forts engagements et ses réflexions prolifiques l’y autorisent.Sa biographie est en particulier disponible en brésilien sur le site de la Cour suprême brésilienne et sur son site personnel . Mais (...)
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  1. Alex Citkin, Characteristic Inference Rules.
    The goal of this paper is to generalize a notion of quasi-characteristic inference rule in the following way: with every finite partial algebra we associate a rule, and study the properties of these rules. We prove that any equivalential logic can be axiomatized by such rules. We further discuss the correlations between characteristic rules of the finite partial algebras and canonical rules. Then, with every algebra we associate a set of characteristic rules that correspond to each finite partial subalgebra of (...)
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  2. Ilya Makarov, Existence of Finite Total Equivalence Systems for Certain Closed Classes of 3-Valued Logic Functions.
    The article deals with finding finite total equivalence systems for formulas based on an arbitrary closed class of functions of several variables defined on the set {0, 1, 2} and taking values in the set {0,1} with the property that the restrictions of its functions to the set {0, 1} constitutes a closed class of Boolean functions. We consider all classes whose restriction closure is either the set of all functions of two-valued logic or the set T a of functions (...)
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volume 24, issue 1, 2015
  1. David J. Allsop, A Potted History of Addiction and its Treatment in Time and Space.
    Addiction Trajectories is a collection of anthropological essays that brings a refreshingly human perspective to the scientific pursuit of addiction. This book encourages the reader to step back from the details, giving voice to the experiences of the drug user as they grapple to come to terms with their condition and the efforts of the treatment community. At the same time, the book provides insight into the machinations of the treatment community struggling to understand the scope of their task and (...)
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  2. Robert Almeder, Pragmatism: An Overview.
    This is a fine introduction to the study of pragmatism. It is well written, thoroughly researched, and clearly focused in presenting the history and implications of the core positions of classical and contemporary pragmatists. It is targeted basically for the general college and university student in American and Western Philosophy, the History of Philosophy, and American Studies. Without too much of a stretch, it seems equally suitable for the general reader familiar with some philosophy outside the academic and scholarly community. (...)
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  3. Paul Bishop, Goethe and Morphology.
    The title of this volume—published in the series “Lisbon Philosophical Studies” devoted to “uses of language in interdisciplinary fields”—is potentially misleading, because its subject is, rather than linguistic morphology, the Morphologie associated with the German poet, playwright, and thinker, Johann Wolfgang Goethe. For Goethe, morphology is a science dedicated to the observation and description of everything that “is handled by chance and occasionally in other [sciences]”, and hence, it is intended to serve as a complement to any number of disciplines: (...)
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  4. Victor D. Boantza, Erratum To: The Uses of Style and the ‘Big Picture’ History of Science.
    Erratum to: Metascience DOI 10.1007/s11016-014-9881-zIn the version of this essay review initially published, in the final paragraph and in the reference list, the last name of the author H. Floris Cohen was incorrectly written as Cohen Floris.
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  5. Lino Camprubí, Book Notice. [REVIEW]
    This is an English translation of a very short and quite dense Spanish original in which Gustavo Bueno summarizes and updates his philosophy of science as presented in 5 volumes in the 1990s. From then onwards, Bueno and a number of authors have developed this philosophy through specific applications to fields as diverse as classic chemistry, quantum mechanics, chaos theory, cybernetics, Darwinism, ethology, geology, plate tectonics, anthropology, sociology, economics and psychology. This has resulted in a number of doctoral dissertations, books (...)
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  6. Stephen T. Casper, Emil du Bois-Reymond and the Tradition of German Physiological Science.
    In 1872, Emil du Bois-Reymond delivered an astonishing lecture entitled “The Limits of Science” at a Congress of German Scientists and Physicians in Leipzig. No stranger to polemic and bellicose oratory, and possessing among his generation of physiologists unmatched rhetorical abilities, du Bois-Reymond had already attracted much public recognition and acclaim for his denigration of French culture at a time when belligerence and competition between Prussia and France had peaked. Yet, the topic of his 1872 lecture had a signal significance (...)
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  7. Michael Eckert, The Multiple Faces of X-Ray Crystallography.
    Since its discovery in 1912, X-ray crystallography has become a most useful tool in physics, chemistry, material science, mineralogy, metallurgy, and even in the biological sciences. In 1914, Max von Laue was awarded the Nobel Prize “for the discovery of X-ray diffraction by crystals,” followed by the 1915 Nobel Prize to William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg “for their services in analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays.” And these early Nobel prizes marked only the beginning of X-ray (...)
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  8. Andrew Ede, The Scientists Who Came in From the Cold.
    From the Ninth Circle of hell in Dante’s Inferno to the idea of human cryogenic storage, cold has been an important part of human life and imagination. In History of Artificial Cold, Scientific, Technological and Cultural Issues, editor Kostas Gavroglu has brought together a well-balanced and very readable collection of essays on the history of the investigation and use of “cold.” There is something here for a broad range of readers, with articles ranging from fundamental physics to industrial refrigeration and (...)
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  9. Jeremy Gray, Brouwer’s Certainties: Mysticism, Mathematics, and the Ego.
    The lives of few mathematicians offer the drama that is presented by the life of L. E. J. Brouwer, correctly identified on the cover of this book as a topologist, intuitionist, and philosopher, and before we go any further, it will be worth indicating why.It is not just that Brouwer would rank high among mathematicians for his work in topology alone: he set standards for rigour and created a theory of dimension for topological spaces, and his fixed-point theorem is of (...)
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  10. Theophanes Grammenos, Geometry, Relativity, and Philosophy.
    David Malament, now emeritus at the University of California, Irvine, where since 1999 he served as a Distinguished Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science after having spent twenty-three years as a faculty member at the University of Chicago , is well known as the author of numerous articles on the mathematical and philosophical foundations of modern physics with an emphasis on problems of space-time structure and the foundations of relativity theory. Malament’s Topics in the foundations of general relativity and (...)
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  11. Jonathan Kaplan, Overcoming the Conceptual Barriers to Understanding Evolution.
    In Understanding Evolution, Kostas Kampourakis has two related goals. The first is to demonstrate that there are conceptual hurdles to properly understanding evolutionary theory. Kampourakis argues that educators, and other promoters of evolutionary theory, have underestimated how difficult it is to understand evolutionary theory and have tended to treat some gaps in understanding that are in fact the result of conceptual difficulties as if they were instead the result of, e.g., religious intolerance to the theory. This, he thinks, is a (...)
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  12. David Knight, Peripheral and Central.
    Oersted has been a puzzle for historians of science. Unflatteringly regarded by contemporaries in Britain and France as a metaphysician, he astonished and galvanised the learned world in 1820 with his discovery of electromagnetism. Suddenly famous, he was belatedly honoured; but, like Röntgen with X-rays, did no more serious work on the discovery that brought him renown, leaving that to Ampère and Faraday while he concentrated on an aesthetics that would bridge arts and sciences, and on building up scientific institutions (...)
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  13. Mark P. Newman, Eliminating Inconsistency in Science.
    In this book, Peter Vickers argues that inconsistency in science has been massively exaggerated by philosophers. In his view, inconsistent science is neither as rampant nor as damaging as many have supposed. To argue his point, he develops a specific method he calls theory eliminativism and applies it to four case studies from the history of physics and mathematics .The method is original and convincing, and the case studies well researched and compelling. Vickers’ monograph provides a challenge to any philosopher (...)
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  14. Naomi Pasachoff, Shakespeare the Copernican?
    Dan Falk, the author of this engaging if informal book, is a science journalist, broadcaster, and freelance writer, whose achievements merited him a Knight Science Journalism Fellowship at MIT in 2011–2012. Full disclosure imperatives require me to acknowledge having met him on an eclipse expedition to Easter Island in 2010, where I recall learning about his interests in astrophotography. I am sure, however, that should we meet again, we are unlikely to recognize one another. Thus, as an unbiased reader , (...)
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