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Apr 27th 2015 GMT
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    George Couvalis, Aristotle on Being.
    Aristotle explains existence through postulating essences that are intrinsic and percep- tion independent. I argue that his theory is more plausible than Hume’s and Russell’s theories of existence. Russell modifies Hume’s theory because he wants to allow for the existence of mathematical objects. However, Russell’s theory facilitates a problematic collapse of ontology into epistemology, which has become a feature of much analytic philosophy. This collapse obscures the nature of truth. Aristotle is to be praised for starting with a clear account (...)
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Apr 26th 2015 GMT
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  1. Adina Preda, Are There Any Conflicts of Rights?
    This paper argues that a putative conflict between negative rights and positive rights is not a genuine conflict. The thought that they might conflict presupposes, I argue, that the two rights are valid. This is the first assumption of my argument. The second is that general rights impose duties on everyone, not just the party who faces a conflict of correlative duties. These two assumptions yield the conclusion that positive rights impose enforceable duties on the holder of the negative right; (...)
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  2. Wouter Sanderse, Paul Bloomfield: The Virtues of Happiness. A Theory of the Good Life.
    “Aristotle is the father of virtue ethics, and virtue ethics is hot”, Howard Curzer states in the introduction of his Aristotle and the virtues . Aristotelian virtue ethics has attracted so much attention that it has become one of the three major approaches in normative ethics since its revival in post-war Anglo-Saxon philosophy. In his new book, Paul Bloomfield is, like these virtue ethicists, not so much interested in the modern ethical question of how to treat others, but in the (...)
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  1. William Roche, Confirmation, Increase in Probability, and Partial Discrimination: A Reply to Zalabardo.
    There is a plethora of confirmation measures in the literature. Zalabardo considers four such measures: PD , PR , LD , and LR . He argues for LR and against each of PD, PR, and LD. First, he argues that PR is the better of the two probability measures. Next, he argues that LR is the better of the two likelihood measures. Finally, he argues that LR is superior to PR. I set aside LD and focus on the trio of (...)
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  1. Philipp von Wussow, Leo Strauss and Julius Guttmann in Advance.
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volume 15, issue 1, 2014
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    Dale Jacquette, Against Logically Possible World-Relativized Existence.
    The thesis that entities exist in, at, or in relation to logically possible worlds is criticized. The suggestion that actually nonexistent fictional characters might nevertheless exist in nonactual merely logically possible worlds runs afoul of the most general transworld identity requirements. An influential philosophical argument for the concept of world-relativized existence is examined in Alvin Plantinga’s formal development and explanation of modal semantic relations. Despite proposing an attractive unified semantics of alethic modality, Plantinga’s argument is rejected on formal grounds as (...)
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volume 4, issue , 2014
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    Brad Hooker, Must Kantian Contractualism and Rule-Consequentialism Converge?
    Derek Parfit’s On What Matters endorses Kantian Contractualism, the normative theory that everyone ought to follow the rules that everyone could rationally will that everyone accept. This paper explores Parfit’s argument that Kantian Contractualism converges with Rule Consequentialism. A pivotal concept in Parfit’s argument is the concept of impartiality, which he seems to equate agent-neutrality. This paper argues that equating impartiality and agent-neutrality is insufficient, since some agent-neutral considerations are silly and some are not impartial. Perhaps more importantly, there is (...)
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  1. Michael Rescorla, The Representational Foundations of Computation.
    Turing computation over a non-linguistic domain presupposes a notation for the domain. Accordingly, computability theory studies notations for various non-linguistic domains. It illuminates how different ways of representing a domain support different finite mechanical procedures over that domain. Formal definitions and theorems yield a principled classification of notations based upon their computational properties. To understand computability theory, we must recognize that representation is a key target of mathematical inquiry. We must also recognize that computability theory is an intensional enterprise: it (...)
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  1. Jesús Ilundáin-Agurruza, Appendix—Much Ado About Nothing.
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  2. Albert Piacente, Reverse Play: Toward A Philosophy From Sport.
    In this paper, I argue that, beyond a philosophy of sport, space should be made for a ‘philosophy from sport.’ A philosophy from sport is one that can allow us to see sport as more than instantiating broader social values or possessing an isolated set of unique values . It can, as I believe a philosophy from sport, by paying special attention to the actual practice of sport, bring with it ways of developing, informing, even justifying a set of broader (...)
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  1. David Liebesman, Does Vagueness Underlie the Mass/Count Distinction?
    Does vagueness underlie the mass/count distinction? My answer is no. I motivate this answer in two ways. First, I argue against Chierchia’s recent attempt to explain the distinction in terms of vagueness. Second, I give a more general argument that no such account will succeed.
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Apr 25th 2015 GMT
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  1. Ulrike Zeshan, Making Meaning”: Communication Between Sign Language Users Without a Shared Language.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Cognitive Linguistics Heft: Ahead of print.
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  1. Timo Miettinen, Phenomenology and Political Idealism.
    This article considers the possibility of articulating a renewed understanding of the principle of political idealism on the basis of Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology. By taking its point of departure from one of the most interesting political applications of Husserl’s phenomenological method, the ordoliberal tradition of the so-called Freiburg School of Economics, the article raises the question of the normative implications of Husserl’s eidetic method. Contrary to the “static” idealism of the ordoliberal tradition, the article proposes that the phenomenological concept of (...)
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  2. Søren Overgaard, How to Do Things with Brackets: The Epoché Explained.
    According to ‘purification interpretations’, the point of the epoché is to purify our ordinary experience of certain assumptions inherent in it. In this paper, I argue that purification interpretations are wrong. Ordinary experience is just fine as it is, and phenomenology has no intention of correcting or purifying it. To understand the epoché, we must keep the reflective nature of phenomenology firmly in mind. When we do phenomenology, we occupy two distinct roles, which come with very different responsibilities. As reflecting (...)
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volume 15, issue 1, 2015
  1. Ademola K. Fayemi, African Bioethics Vs. Healthcare Ethics in Africa: A Critique of Godfrey Tangwa.
    It is nearly two decades now since the publication of Godfrey Tangwa's article, ‘Bioethics: African Perspective’, without a critical review. His article is important because sequel to its publication in Bioethics, the idea of ‘African bioethics’ started gaining some attention in the international bioethics literature. This paper breaks this relative silence by critically examining Tangwa's claim on the existence of African bioethics. Employing conceptual and critical methods, this paper argues that Tangwa's account of African bioethics has some conceptual, methodic and (...)
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  1. Krista K. Thomason, Guilt and Child Soldiers.
    The use of child soldiers in armed conflict is an increasing global concern. Although philosophers have examined whether child soldiers can be considered combatants in war, much less attention has been paid to their moral responsibility. While it is tempting to think of them as having diminished or limited responsibility, child soldiers often report feeling guilt for the wrongs they commit. Here I argue that their feelings of guilt are both intelligible and morally appropriate. The feelings of guilt that child (...)
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  1. Peter G. Nelson, A Modern Version of Lewis’s Theory of Valency.
    A modern version of Lewis’s theory of valency is presented. This takes account of the results of quantum–mechanical calculations on molecules. Topics covered are polar covalent bonds, hypervalency, coordinate bonds, nonintegral bonds, oxo-anions, variable valency among transition elements, and nonclassical compounds. A distinction is drawn between the valence shell of an atom and the Lewis shell. The concept of a fractional bond pair is presented.
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  1. M. D. Pollock, On the Gyromagnetic and Gyrogravito-Magnetic Ratios of the Electron.
    The magnetic dipole moment of the Kerr–Newman metric, defined by mass \ , electrical charge \ and angular momentum \ , is \ , corresponding, for all values of \ , to a gyromagnetic ratio \ , which is also the value of the intrinsic gyromagnetic ratio of the electron, as first noted by Carter. Here, we argue that this result can be understood in terms of the particle-wave complementarity principle. For \ can only be defined at asymptotic spatial infinity, (...)
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  1. David B. Resnik, Retracting Inconclusive Research: Lessons From the Séralini GM Maize Feeding Study.
    In September 2012, Gilles-Eric Séralini and seven coauthors published an article in Food and Chemical Toxicology claiming that rats fed Roundup©-resistant genetically modified maize alone, genetically modified maize with Roundup©, or Roundup© for 2 years had a higher percentage of tumors and kidney and liver damage than normal controls. Shortly after this study was published, numerous scientists and several scientific organizations criticized the research as methodologically and ethically flawed. In January 2014, the journal retracted the article without the authors’ consent (...)
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  1. Alexandru Baltag & Sonja Smets, Logics of Informational Interactions.
    The pre-eminence of logical dynamics, over a static and purely propositional view of Logic, lies at the core of a new understanding of both formal epistemology and the logical foundations of quantum mechanics. Both areas appear at first sight to be based on purely static propositional formalisms, but in our view their fundamental operators are essentially dynamic in nature. Quantum logic can be best understood as the logic of physically-constrained informational interactions between subsystems of a global physical system. Similarly, epistemic (...)
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  1. D. M. Gabbay & O. Rodrigues, Equilibrium States in Numerical Argumentation Networks.
    Given an argumentation network with initial values to the arguments, we look for algorithms which can yield extensions compatible with such initial values. We find that the best way of tackling this problem is to offer an iteration formula that takes the initial values and the attack relation and iterates a sequence of intermediate values that eventually converges leading to an extension. The properties surrounding the application of the iteration formula and its connection with other numerical and non-numerical techniques proposed (...)
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  2. D. M. Gabbay & O. Rodrigues, Probabilistic Argumentation: An Equational Approach.
    There is a generic way to add any new feature to a system. It involves identifying the basic units which build up the system and introducing the new feature to each of these basic units. In the case where the system is argumentation and the feature is probabilistic we have the following. The basic units are: the nature of the arguments involved; the membership relation in the set S of arguments; the attack relation; and the choice of extensions. Generically to (...)
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  1. Hadas Kotek, Yasutada Sudo & Martin Hackl, Experimental Investigations of Ambiguity: The Case of Most.
    In the study of natural language quantification, much recent attention has been devoted to the investigation of verification procedures associated with the proportional quantifier most. The aim of these studies is to go beyond the traditional characterization of the semantics of most, which is confined to explicating its truth-functional and presuppositional content as well as its combinatorial properties, as these aspects underdetermine the correct analysis of most. The present paper contributes to this effort by presenting new experimental evidence in support (...)
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  1. Molly Gardner, Beneficence and Procreation.
    Consider a duty of beneficence towards a particular individual, S, and call a reason that is grounded in that duty a “beneficence reason towards S.” Call a person who will be brought into existence by an act of procreation the “resultant person.” Is there ever a beneficence reason towards the resultant person for an agent to procreate? In this paper, I argue for such a reason by appealing to two main premises. First, we owe a pro tanto duty of beneficence (...)
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  2. Jada Twedt Strabbing, Attributability, Weakness of Will, and the Importance of Just Having the Capacity.
    A common objection to particular views of attributability is that they fail to account for weakness of will. In this paper, I show that the problem of weakness of will is much deeper than has been recognized, extending to all views of attributability on offer because of the general form that these views take. The fundamental problem is this: current views claim that being attributionally responsible is a matter of exercising whatever capacity that they take to be relevant to attributability; (...)
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  3. Manuel R. Vargas, Desert, Responsibility, and Justification: A Reply to Doris, McGeer, and Robinson.
    Building Better Beings: A Theory of Moral Responsibility argues that the normative basis of moral responsibility is anchored in the effects of responsibility practices. Further, the capacities required for moral responsibility are socially scaffolded. This article considers criticisms of this account that have been recently raised by John Doris, Victoria McGeer, and Michael Robinson. Robinson argues against Building Better Beings’s rejection of libertarianism about free will, and the account of desert at stake in the theory. considers methodological questions that arise (...)
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  1. Luca Gasparri, Mental Files and the Lexicon.
    This paper presents the hypothesis that the representational repertoire underpinning our ability to process the lexical items of a natural language can be modeled as a system of mental files. To start, I clarify the basic phenomena that an account of lexical knowledge should be able to elucidate. Then, I propose to evaluate whether the mental files theory can be brought to bear on an account of the representational format of lexical knowledge by modeling mental words as recognitional files.
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  1. Riku Välitalo, Hannu Juuso & Ari Sutinen, Philosophy for Children as an Educational Practice.
    During the past 40 years, the Philosophy for Children movement has developed a dialogical framework for education that has inspired people both inside and outside academia. This article concentrates on analysing the historical development in general and then taking a more rigorous look at the recent discourse of the movement. The analysis proceeds by examining the changes between the so-called first and second generation, which suggests that Philosophy for Children is adapting to a postmodern world by challenging the humanistic ideas (...)
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volume 4, issue 1, 2015
  1. Shieva Kleinschmidt, Fundamentality and Time‐Travel.
    The relation of being more fundamental than, as well as the Finean notion of partial grounding, are widely taken to be irreflexive, transitive, and asymmetric. However, certain time-travel cases that have been used to raise worries about the irreflexivity, transitivity, and asymmetry of proper part of can also be used to argue that more fundamental than and partially grounds do not have these formal properties. I present this worry and discuss several responses to it, with the aim of showing that (...)
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  2. Stephan Krämer & Stefan Roski, A Note on the Logic of Worldly Ground.
    In his 2010 paper ‘Grounding and Truth-Functions’, Fabrice Correia has developed the first and so far only proposal for a logic of ground based on a worldly conception of facts. In this paper, we show that the logic allows the derivation of implausible grounding claims. We then generalize these results and draw some conclusions concerning the structural features of ground and its associated notion of relevance, which has so far not received the attention it deserves.
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  3. Seth Lazar, Authority, Oaths, Contracts, and Uncertainty in War.
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Apr 24th 2015 GMT
volume 92, issue 1, 2015
  1. Sandra Carroll, Educating Hearts: Seven Characteristics of a Good School [Book Review].
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  2. Barry M. Craig, Reflections on the Readings of Sundays and Feasts - March - May.
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  3. Barry M. Craig, Vatican Council II: Reforming Liturgy [Book Review].
    Craig, Barry M Review of: Vatican council II: Reforming liturgy, by Carmel Pilcher, David Orr and Elizabeth Harrington, eds. , pp. xxviii + 307, $49.95.
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  4. Michael E. Daniel, From Brotherhood to Priesthood: The Memoirs of Monsignor William A. Mullins [Book Review].
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  5. Marie T. Farrell, Jesus and the Dreaming: Discovering an Australian Spirituality Through Aboriginal-Christian Dialogue [Book Review].
    Farrell, Marie T Review of: Jesus and the dreaming: Discovering an Australian spirituality through Aboriginal-Christian dialogue, by Frank Fletcher, MSC, ed. Fabian Byers , pp. 344, paperback $24.95.
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  6. Robert Gascoigne, Between the 'Mysticism of Politics' and the 'Politics of Mysticism': Interpreting New Pathways of Holiness in the Roman Catholic Tradition [Book Review].
    Gascoigne, Robert Review of: Between the 'mysticism of politics' and the 'politics of mysticism': Interpreting new pathways of holiness in the roman catholic tradition, by David Ranson , pp. 303, paperback $39.95, hardback $75.00.
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  7. Robert Gascoigne, The Presence of Catholics in Australian Politics: An Ecclesial Perspective.
    Gascoigne, Robert A quick rollcall of Australian political life demonstrates a remarkable presence of Catholics in leadership positions, including the Governor-General, Sir Peter Cosgrove; the Prime Minister, Tony Abbott; the Leader of the Federal Opposition, Bill Shorten; the two immediate past premiers of New South Wales, Barry O'Farrell and Kristina Keneally; the previous Governor of New South Wales, Dame Marie Bashir; and the Lord Mayor of the City of Sydney, Clover Moore; among others. Indeed, in the immediate past Federal Labor (...)
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  8. Anthony Gittins, For the Wind Was Against Them'.
    Gittins, Anthony Sailing ships and boats, and the sailors who navigate them, depend mightily upon the wind; without it they remain in the doldrums, floating aimlessly. Without wind, all the sailors' experience and ingenuity is of absolutely no help. But if the wind should get up and blow against them-directly head-on or broadside-it can destroy and sink even the biggest boats and surest sailors. So navigators must learn to read the wind carefully and with respect, and to interpret and respond (...)
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  9. John Hill, Priesthood as Style.
    Hill, John This is not an essay in deportment, but an effort, at a deeper level, to relate the Catholic priesthood to a changing society, in which its standing has suffered much because of the unacceptable conduct of some priests in recent years. There is a way of understanding style that has been developed by theologians since Vatican II; we shall examine their ideas shortly. While they do not mention him, their ideas are close to the famous declaration of the (...)
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  10. Mark Kenney, Keys to Galatians: Collected Essays [Book Review].
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  11. Brian Lucas, Not-for-Profit Law: Theoretical and Comparative Perspectives [Book Review].
    Lucas, Brian Review of: Not-for-profit law: Theoretical and comparative perspectives, by ed. Matthew Harding, Ann O'Connell and Miranda Stewart , pp. 396, ebook $125.40, hardback $175.00.
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  12. Dominique Mamberti, The Diplomatic Activity of the Holy See.
    Mamberti, Dominique I thank Archbishop Denis Hart for the kind invitation he issued to me on behalf of the Australian Catholic Bishops Conference to visit Australia for the centenary of the Apostolic Delegation and to address you on the occasion of your plenary meeting. It is a great joy to meet you all here in Sydney, having had the opportunity on other occasions to meet many of you either as a group or individually in the Vatican. I also bring you (...)
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  13. W. T. Southerwood, A Neglected Giant Among the Men of '38, Fr Thomas Butler.
    Southerwood, WT One of the greatest of the great 'Men of '38' has been neglected by mainstream Catholic historians. Unlike the others, Thomas Butler spent his forty-two years of priestly ministry on the island of Tasmania, which is sometimes left off maps of Australia-including the ecclesiastical map. For example, there are only four passing references to him in John O'Brien's famous work.
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  14. Daniel J. Stollenwerk, A New Synthesis of Faith and Reason: Ecumenism in Light of Lumen Fidei.
    Stollenwerk, Daniel J In our contemporary age that has lost confidence in both faith and reason, Pope Benedict XVI insisted throughout his pontificate upon the need for a new synthesis of both. In this article I consider Benedict's study of faith in relation to the ecumenical dialogue and point out that the schism between the Reformed Churches and the Roman Catholic Church occurred at the same time as the breakdown in the Western synthesis of faith and reason. I argue that (...)
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