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Aug 27th 2014 GMT
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  1. Robert W. Batterman, Lawrence Sklar Philosophy and the Foundations of Dynamics.
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  2. Matteo Colombo, For a Few Neurons More: Tractability and Neurally Informed Economic Modelling.
    There continues to be significant confusion about the goals, scope, and nature of modelling practice in neuroeconomics. This article aims to dispel some such confusion by using one of the most recent critiques of neuroeconomic modelling as a foil. The article argues for two claims. First, currently, for at least some economic model of choice behaviour, the benefits derivable from neurally informing an economic model do not involve special tractability costs. Second, modelling in neuroeconomics is best understood within Marr’s three-level (...)
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  3. Stephen John, Alex Broadbent Philosophy of Epidemiology.
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  4. Christopher Pincock, Abstract Explanations in Science.
    This article focuses on a case that expert practitioners count as an explanation: a mathematical account of Plateau’s laws for soap films. I argue that this example falls into a class of explanations that I call abstract explanations.explanations involve an appeal to a more abstract entity than the state of affairs being explained. I show that the abstract entity need not be causally relevant to the explanandum for its features to be explanatorily relevant. However, it remains unclear how to unify (...)
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  5. Matthew H. Slater, Muhammad Ali khAlidi Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences.
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  1. Megs S. Gendreau, Who? Moral Condemnation, PEDs, and Violating the Constraints of Public Narrative.
    Despite the numerous instances of PED use in professional sports, there continues to be a strong negative moral response to those athletes who dope. My goal is to offer a diagnosis of this response. I will argue that we do not experience such disdain because these athletes have broken some constitutive rule of sport, but because they have lied about who they are. In violating the constraints of their own public narratives, they make both themselves and their choices unintelligible. This (...)
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  1. Jessica L. Kimpell, Republican Civic Virtue, Enlightened Self-Interest and Tocqueville.
    Tocqueville’s claim in Democracy in America about the link between associations and a vibrant public sphere is interpreted especially by neo-republicans in political theory as aligned with their argument that civic virtue can and ought to be fostered in today’s democracies. This paper challenges such a reading of Tocqueville by considering his notion of enlightened self-interest. Tocqueville’s ideas about the nature of political activity differ markedly from the republican ideal of a citizenry marked by civic virtue, as Tocqueville appeals to (...)
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    Ian Proops, Russellian Acquaintance Revisited.
    In Bertrand Russell’s writings during the first two decades of the Twentieth Century there occur two rather different distinctions that involve his much-discussed, technical notion of acquaintance. The first is the distinction between knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description; the second, the distinction between knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge of truths. This article examines the nature and philosophical purpose of these two distinctions, while also tracing the evolution of Russell’s notion of acquaintance. It argues that, when he first expressly (...)
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    Olle Blomberg, Shared Goals and Development.
    In 'Joint Action and Development', Stephen Butterfill argues that if several agents' actions are driven by what he calls a "shared goal"—a certain pattern of goal-relations and expectations—then these actions constitute a joint action. This kind of joint action is sufficiently cognitively undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a role in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are (...)
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volume 89, issue 1, 2013
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    Rik Peels, Against Doxastic Compatibilism.
    William Alston has argued that the so-called deontological conception of epistemic justification, on which epistemic justification is to be spelled out in terms of blame, responsibility, and obligations, is untenable. The basic idea of the argument is that this conception is untenable because we lack voluntary control over our beliefs and, therefore, cannot have any obligations to hold certain beliefs. If this is convincing, however, the argument threatens the very idea of doxastic responsibility. For, how can we ever be responsible (...)
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  1. Marco Mazzone, Crossing the Associative/Inferential Divide: Ad Hoc Concepts and the Inferential Power of Schemata.
    How do we construct ad hoc concepts, especially those characterised by emergent properties? A reasonable hypothesis, suggested both in psychology and in pragmatics (Relevance Theory), is that some sort of inferential processing must be involved. I argue that this inferential processing can be accounted for in associative terms. My argument is based on the notion of inference as associative pattern completion based on schemata, with schemata being conceived in turn as patterns of concepts and their relationships. The possible role of (...)
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volume 6, issue 3, 2014
  1. George E. Newman, Daniel M. Bartels & Rosanna K. Smith, Are Artworks More Like People Than Artifacts? Individual Concepts and Their Extensions.
    This paper examines people's reasoning about identity continuity (i.e., how people decide that a particular object is the same object over time) and its relation to previous research on how people value one-of-a-kind artifacts, such as artwork. We propose that judgments about the continuity of artworks are related to judgments about the continuity of individual persons because art objects are seen as physical extensions of their creators. We report a reanalysis of previous data and the results of two new empirical (...)
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    Speranta Dumitru, From 'Brain Drain' to 'Care Drain': Women's Labor Migration, Methodological Sexism and Care Devaluation.
    The metaphor of “care drain” has been created as a womanly parallel to the “brain drain” idea. Just as “brain drain” suggests that the skilled migrants are an economic loss for the sending country, “care drain” describes the migrant women hired as care workers as a loss of care for their children left behind. This paper criticizes the construction of migrant women as “care drain” for three reasons: 1) it is built on sexist stereotypes, 2) it misrepresents and devalues care (...)
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Aug 26th 2014 GMT
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  1. John Biro, Clocks, Evidence, and the “Truth-Maker Solution”.
    Adrian Heathcote and I agree that a stopped clock does not show—as the adage has it—the right time twice a day, but he thinks, as I do not, that it does show what time it stopped. To think that it does is to treat the position of its hands as evidence of its stopping at the time it did. Add to the justified-true-belief analysis of knowledge the requirement that the evidence on the basis of which the believer is justified be (...)
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  2. Adrian Heathcote, The Truthmaker Account Is Not a Causal Theory.
    It is argued that the part-whole account of the relation between evidence and the larger state of affairs the evidence is evidence of—an account that was elucidated in the paper ‘Truthmaking, Evidence of, and Impossibility Proofs’ (this journal)—provides a better basis for epistemology than causal relations between events. I apply this to a well-known phenomenon in physics which suggests that causal connectedness is not necessary for knowledge.
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  3. Andreas Elpidorou, Blocking the A Priori Passage.
    I defend the claim that physicalism is not committed to the view that non-phenomenal macrophysical truths are a priori entailed by the conjunction of microphysical truths (P), basic indexical facts (I), and a 'that's all' claim (T). I do so by showing that Chalmers and Jackson's most popular and influential argument in support of the claim that PIT ⊃ M is a priori, where 'M' stands for any ordinary, non-phenomenal, macroscopic truth, falls short of establishing its conclusion. My objection to (...)
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  4. Adrian Heathcote, Truthmaking, Evidence Of, and Impossibility Proofs.
    Beginning with Zagzebski (The Philosophical Quarterly 44:65–73, 1994), some philosophers have argued that there can be no solution to the Gettier counterexamples within the framework of a fallibilist theory of knowledge. If true, this would be devastating, since it is believed on good grounds that infallibilism leads to scepticism. But I argue here that these purported proofs are mistaken and that the truthmaker solution to the Gettier problems is both cogent and fallibilist in nature. To show this I develop the (...)
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  5. Frank Hofmann & Peter Schulte, The Structuring Causes of Behavior: Has Dretske Saved Mental Causation?
    Fred Dretske’s account of mental causation, developed in Explaining Behavior and defended in numerous articles, is generally regarded as one of the most interesting and most ambitious approaches in the field. According to Dretske, meaning facts, construed historically as facts about the indicator functions of internal states, are the structuring causes of behavior. In this article, we argue that Dretske’s view is untenable: On closer examination, the real structuring causes of behavior turn out to be markedly different from Dretske’s meaning (...)
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  6. Simon Langford, Is Personal Identity Analysable?
    Trenton Merricks has argued that given endurantism personal identity is unanalysable in terms of psychological continuity, while Anthony Brueckner has argued against this claim. This article shows that neither philosopher has made a compelling case and also shows what it would take to settle the issue either way. It is then argued that whether personal identity is analysable or not may not be of crucial importance to those wanting to defend a psychological continuity approach to personal identity.
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  7. Jay Newhard, Alethic Functionalism, Manifestation, and the Nature of Truth.
    Michael Lynch has recently proposed an updated version of alethic functionalism according to which the relation between truth per se and lower-level truth properties is not the realization relation, as might be expected, and as Lynch himself formerly held, but the manifestation relation. I argue that the manifestation relation is merely a resemblance relation and is inadequate to properly relate truth per se to lower-level truth properties. I also argue that alethic functionalism does not justify the claim that truth per (...)
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    Attila Tanyi, Pure Cognitivism and Beyond.
    The article begins with Jonathan Dancy’s attempt to refute the Humean Theory of Motivation. It first spells out Dancy’s argument for his alternative position, the view he labels ‘Pure Cognitivism’, according to which what motivate are always beliefs, never desires. The article next argues that Dancy’s argument for his position is flawed. On the one hand, it is not true that desire always comes with motivation in the agent; on the other, even if this was the case, it would still (...)
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volume 55, issue 2, 2014
  1. Michael Della Rocca, Razing Structures to the Ground.
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  1. Seyed-Mohammad Bagheri, Linear Model Theory for Lipschitz Structures.
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  1. Nanon Labrie & Peter J. Schulz, Quantifying Doctors' Argumentation in General Practice Consultation Through Content Analysis: Measurement Development and Preliminary Results.
    General practice consultation has often been characterized by pragma-dialecticians as an argumentative activity type. These characterizations are typically derived from theoretical insights and qualitative analyses. Yet, descriptions that are based on quantitative data are thus far lacking. This paper provides a detailed account of the development of an instrument to guide the quantitative analysis of argumentation in doctor–patient consultation. It describes the implementation and preliminary results of a content analysis of seventy videotaped medical consultations of which the extent and type (...)
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  1. Victoria N. Alexander, Introduction: Toward a Definition of Biosemiosic Chance.
    In this special issue, our objective is to clarify what biosemioticians may mean insofar as they claim that living systems are capable of making choices or that biosemiotic interpretations are partially indeterminate. A number of different senses of the term “chance” are discussed as we move toward a consensus. We find that biosemiosic chance may arise out of conditions involving quantum indeterminacy, randomness, deterministic chaos, or unpredictability, but biosemiosic chance is mainly due to the fact that living entities (i.e., cells (...)
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  1. Gideon Elford, Pains of Perseverance: Agent-Centred Prerogatives, Burdens and the Limits of Human Motivation.
    An important question in recent work in political philosophy concerns whether facts about individuals’ motivational deficiencies are facts to which principles of justice are sensitive. In this context, David Estlund has recently argued that the difficulties individuals’ face in motivating themselves to act do not affect the content of normative principles that apply to them. Against Estlund, the paper argues that in principle the motivational difficulties individuals face can affect the content of normative principles that apply to them. This argument (...)
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  1. Vladimir Kanovei, Karin U. Katz, Mikhail G. Katz & Mary Schaps, Proofs and Retributions, Or: Why Sarah Can't Take Limits.
    The small, the tiny, and the infinitesimal (to quote Paramedic) have been the object of both fascination and vilification for millenia. One of the most vitriolic reviews in mathematics was that written by Errett Bishop about Keisler’s book Elementary Calculus: an Infinitesimal Approach. In this skit we investigate both the argument itself, and some of its roots in Bishop George Berkeley’s criticism of Leibnizian and Newtonian Calculus. We also explore some of the consequences to students for whom the infinitesimal approach (...)
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volume 55, issue 5, 2014
  1. Julie Clague, Faith, Family and Fertility.
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  1. Jens Johansson, More on the Mirror: Reply to Fischer and Brueckner.
    John Martin Fischer and Anthony L. Brueckner have argued that a person’s death is, in many cases, bad for him, whereas a person’s prenatal non-existence is not bad for him. Their suggestion relies on the idea that death deprives the person of pleasant experiences that it is rational for him to care about, whereas prenatal non-existence only deprives him of pleasant experiences that it is not rational for him to care about. In two recent articles in The Journal of Ethics, (...)
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    Travis Timmerman, The Persistent Problem of the Lottery Paradox: And Its Unwelcome Consequences for Contextualism.
    This paper attempts to show that contextualism cannot adequately handle all versions of ‘The Lottery Paradox.” Although the application of contextualist rules is meant to vindicate the intuitive distinction between cases of knowledge and non-knowledge, it fails to do so when applied to certain versions of “The Lottery Paradox.” In making my argument, I first briefly explain why this issue should be of central importance for contextualism. I then review Lewis’ contextualism before offering my argument that the lottery paradox persists (...)
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  1. James Cussens, Probability, Uncertainty and Artificial Intelligence.
    The central thesis of this book is that the argument that probability is insufficient to handle uncertainty in artificial intelligence (AI) is metaphysical in nature. Piscopo calls this argument against probability the non-adequacy claim and provides this summary of it [which first appeared in (Piscopo and Birattari 2008)]:Probability theory is not suitable to handle uncertainty in AI because it has been developed to deal with intrinsically stochastic phenomena, while in AI, uncertainty has an epistemic nature. (Piscopo (3))Piscopo uses the term (...)
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  2. Sara L. Uckelman, Aristotle's Syllogistics.
    In this masterful book, Marko Malink sets out to do what no one has succeeded in doing before: To provide a consistent and coherent model adequate for the entirety of Aristotle’s claims about valid and invalid syllogisms, both apodeictic and modal (p. 2). The fact that Malink attains his goal is impressive enough to almost—but not quite—overshadow the drawbacks of the model (which, to be fair, he points out himself in various places).After an introduction, where notation for categorical claims is (...)
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    Jennifer Wang, The Modal Limits of Dispositionalism.
    Dispositionality is a modal notion of a certain sort. When an object is said to have a disposition, we typically understand this to mean that under certain circumstances, the object would behave in a certain way. For instance, a fragile object is disposed to break when dropped onto a concrete surface. It need not actually break - its being fragile has implications that, so to speak, point beyond the actual world. According to dispositionalism, all modal features of the world may (...)
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volume 48, issue 3, 2014
  1. Neil Levy, Neither Fish nor Fowl: Implicit Attitudes as Patchy Endorsements.
    Implicit attitudes are mental states that appear sometimes to cause agents to act in ways that conflict with their considered beliefs. Implicit attitudes are usually held to be mere associations between representations. Recently, however, some philosophers have suggested that they are, or are very like, ordinary beliefs: they are apt to feature in properly inferential processing. This claim is important, in part because there is good reason to think that the vocabulary in which we make moral assessments of ourselves and (...)
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volume 42, issue 2, 2014
  1. David Estlund, Utopophobia.
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  2. Alexander A. Guerrero, Against Elections: The Lottocratic Alternative.
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  3. Michael Kates & Ryan Pevnick, Immigration, Jurisdiction, and History.
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  1. Jānis Cīrulis, On Some Classes of Commutative Weak BCK-Algebras.
    Formally, a description of weak BCK-algebras can be obtained by replacing (in the standard axiom set by K. Iseki and S. Tanaka) the first BCK axiom \({(x - y) - (x - z) \le z - y}\) by its weakening \({z \le y \Rightarrow x - y \le x - z}\) . It is known that every weak BCK-algebra is completely determined by the structure of its initial segments (sections). We consider weak BCK-algebras with De Morgan complemented, orthocomplemented and orthomodular (...)
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volume 25, issue 30, 2014
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    Adam Morton, Lockhart's Problem.
    If we had more powerful minds would we be puzzled by less - because we could make better theories - or by more - because we could ask more difficult questions? This paper focuses on clarifying the question, with an emphasis on comparisons between actual and possible species of thinker.
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volume 6, issue 3, 2014
  1. Michael Murez & Joulia Smortchkova, Singular Thought: Object‐Files, Person‐Files, and the Sortal PERSON.
    In philosophy, “singular thought” refers to our capacity to represent entities as individuals, rather than as possessors of properties. Philosophers who defend singularism argue that perception allows us to mentally latch onto objects and persons directly, without conceptualizing them as being of a certain sort. Singularists assume that singular thought forms a unified psychological kind, regardless of the nature of the individuals represented. Empirical findings on the special psychological role of persons as opposed to inanimates threaten singularism. They raise the (...)
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