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Mar 31st 2015 GMT
volume 46, issue , 2014
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    Motsamai Molefe, Reflections on 'A Report on Ubuntu'. [REVIEW]
    Leonhard Praeg’s book 'A report on Ubuntu' treats the question of “What is Ubuntu?” in a unique and illuminating fashion. The book begins with an approach that repositions Ubuntu by drawing a crucial distinction between what we mean when we ask the question “What is Ubuntu?”, and what we are doing when we ask this question. Praeg shifts his focus to the latter question. This crucial distinction escapes the gaze of many scholars of Ubuntu, and this book makes this gaze (...)
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volume 20, issue 2, 2014
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    John Corcoran, Meanings of Hypothesis.
    The primary sense of the word ‘hypothesis’ in modern colloquial English includes “proposition not yet settled” or “open question”. Its opposite is ‘fact’ in the sense of “proposition widely known to be true”. People are amazed that Plato [1, p. 1684] and Aristotle [Post. An. I.2 72a14–24, quoted below] used the Greek form of the word for indemonstrable first principles [sc. axioms] in general or for certain kinds of axioms. These two facts create the paradoxical situation that in many cases (...)
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volume 25, issue 1, 2014
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    Albert J. J. Anglberger & Christian J. Feldbacher, Metaethische Bemerkungen zur religiösen Begründung der Moral.
    In this comment to Kehrer (2014) the relevance of atheistic argumentation in the domain of ethics as an important part of religion is sketched.
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    Tina Rulli & David Wendler, Assistant Professor.
    There is much philosophical literature on the duty to rescue. Individuals who encounter and could save, at relatively little cost to themselves, a person at risk of losing life or limb are morally obligated to do so. Yet little has been said about the other side of the issue. There are cases in which the need for rescue could have been reasonably avoided by the rescuee. We argue for a duty to take rescue precautions, providing an account of the circumstances (...)
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    Tina Rulli, Preferring a Genetically-Related Child.
    Millions of children worldwide could benefit from adoption. One could argue that prospective parents have a pro tanto duty to adopt rather than create children. For the sake of argument, I assume there is such a duty and focus on a pressing objection to it. Prospective parents may prefer that their children are genetically related to them. I examine eight reasons prospective parents have for preferring genetic children: for parent-child physical resemblance, for family resemblance, for psychological similarity, for the sake (...)
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    Paweł Gładziejewski, Action Guidance is Not Enough, Representations Need Correspondence Too: A Plea for a Two-Factor Theory of Representation.
    The aim of this article is to critically examine what I call Action-Centric Theories of Representation (ACToRs). I include in this category theories of representation that (1) reject construing representation in terms of a relation that holds between representation itself (the representational vehicle) and what is represented, and instead (2) try to bring the function that representations play for cognitive systems to the center stage. Roughly speaking, according to proponents of ACToRs, what makes a representation (that is, what is constitutive (...)
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volume 62, issue 143, 2015
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    Motsamai Molefe, A Rejection of Humanism in the African Moral Tradition.
    In this article, I motivate for the view that the best account of the foundations of morality in the African tradition should be grounded on some relevant spiritual property - a view that I call ‘ethical supernaturalism’. In contrast to this position, the literature has been dominated by humanism as the best interpretation of African ethics, which typically is accompanied by a direct rejection of ‘ethical supernaturalism’ and a veiled rejection of non-naturalism . Here, primarily, I set out to challenge (...)
     
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Mar 30th 2015 GMT
volume 16, issue 1, 2015
  1. Anna H. Chodos & Sei J. Lee, Journalists, District Attorneys and Researchers: Why IRBs Should Get in the Middle.
    Federal regulations in the United States have shaped Institutional Review Boards to focus on protecting individual human subjects. Health services research studies focusing on healthcare institutions such as hospitals or clinics do not have individual human subjects. Since U.S. federal regulations are silent on what type of review, if any, these studies require, different IRBs may approach similar studies differently, resulting in undesirable variation in the review of studies focusing on healthcare institutions. Further, although these studies do not focus on (...)
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volume 6, issue 2, 2015
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    Steven W. Patterson, The Methodological Usefulness of Deep Disagreement.
    In this paper I begin by examining Fogelin’s account of deep disagreement. My contention is that this account is so deeply flawed as to cast doubt on the possibility that such deep disagreements actually happen. Nevertheless, I contend that the notion of deep disagreement itself is a useful theoretical foil for thinking about argumentation. The second part of this paper makes this case by showing how thinking about deep disagreements from the perspective of rhetoric, Walton-style argumentation theory, computation, and normative (...)
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volume 39, issue 2, 2015
  1. A. Mike Burton, Robin S. S. Kramer, Kay L. Ritchie & Rob Jenkins, Identity From Variation: Representations of Faces Derived From Multiple Instances.
    Research in face recognition has tended to focus on discriminating between individuals, or “telling people apart.” It has recently become clear that it is also necessary to understand how images of the same person can vary, or “telling people together.” Learning a new face, and tracking its representation as it changes from unfamiliar to familiar, involves an abstraction of the variability in different images of that person's face. Here, we present an application of principal components analysis computed across different photos (...)
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  2. Pavel Logačev & Shravan Vasishth, A Multiple‐Channel Model of Task‐Dependent Ambiguity Resolution in Sentence Comprehension.
    Traxler, Pickering, and Clifton found that ambiguous sentences are read faster than their unambiguous counterparts. This so-called ambiguity advantage has presented a major challenge to classical theories of human sentence comprehension because its most prominent explanation, in the form of the unrestricted race model , assumes that parsing is non-deterministic. Recently, Swets, Desmet, Clifton, and Ferreira have challenged the URM. They argue that readers strategically underspecify the representation of ambiguous sentences to save time, unless disambiguation is required by task demands. (...)
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volume 65, issue 2, 2015
  1. Harry Brighouse, Nonideal Theorizing in Education.
    In this essay, Harry Brighouse responds to the collection of articles in the current issue of Educational Theory, all concerned with nonideal theorizing in education. First, he argues that some form of ideal theory is indispensable for the nonideal theorizer. Brighouse then proceeds to defend Rawls against some critics of his kind of ideal theorizing by arguing that a central feature that is often misconstrued as unduly idealizing — the full compliance assumption — in fact constrains utopianism. Next, he discusses (...)
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  2. Ann Chinnery, On Moral Luck and Nonideal Moral Education.
    In contrast to the Kantian principle that we are morally accountable only for those actions over which we have control, Bernard Williams, Thomas Nagel, and others have argued that luck plays a significant role in the moral life. Put briefly, moral luck is at play when we are appropriately praised or blamed for our moral actions despite the fact that at least some aspects of what we are being judged for lie beyond our control. In this essay, Ann Chinnery discusses (...)
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  3. Kenneth R. Howe, The Meritocratic Conception of Educational Equality: Ideal Theory Run Amuck.
    The dominant conception of educational equality in the United States is meritocratic: an individual's chances of educational achievements should track only talent and effort, not social class or other morally irrelevant factors. The meritocratic conception must presuppose that natural talent and effort can be isolated from social class — and environmental factors in general — if it is to provide guidance in the world of educational policy and practice. In this article Kenneth R. Howe challenges that presupposition and related elements (...)
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  4. Alison M. Jaggar, Ideal and Nonideal Reasoning in Educational Theory.
    The terms “ideal theory” and “nonideal theory” are used in contemporary Anglophone political philosophy to identify alternative methodological approaches for justifying normative claims. Each term is used in multiple ways. In this article Alison M. Jaggar disentangles several versions of ideal and nonideal theory with a view to determining which elements may be helpful in designing models of real-world justice that are contextually relevant, morally plausible, and practically feasible.
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  5. Michele S. Moses, Nonideal Theory and Philosophy of Education: Considering What Is While Working Toward What Ought to Be.
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  6. Amy B. Shuffelton, Getting the Distance Right: Ideal and Nonideal Theory in Philosophy of Education.
    When the debate over the value of ideal and nonideal theory crosses from political philosophy into philosophy of education, do the implications of the debate shift, and, if so, how? In this piece, Amy Shuffelton considers the premise that no normative political theory, ideal or nonideal, is of any use to human beings unless it can be affiliated with a credible educational theory that connects human beings as they are to human beings as that theory requires them to become. In (...)
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  7. Winston C. Thompson, Rawls, Race, and Education: A Challenge to the Ideal/Nonideal Divide.
    In this essay, Winston C. Thompson questions the rigidity of the boundary between ideal and nonideal theory, suggesting a porosity that allows elements of both to be brought to bear upon educational issues in singularly incisive ways. In the service of this goal, Thompson challenges and extends John Rawls's theory of justice as fairness, bringing it to bear upon education in our imperfect world. By showing that this representative work of ideal theory can be meaningfully supplemented and applied to the (...)
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  8. Terri S. Wilson & Matthew A. Ryg, Becoming Autonomous: Nonideal Theory and Educational Autonomy.
    Autonomy operates as a key term in debates about the rights of families to choose distinct approaches to education. Yet, what autonomy means is often complicated by the actual circumstances and contexts of schools, families, and children. In this essay, Terri S. Wilson and Matthew A. Ryg focus on the challenges involved in translating an ideal of educational autonomy into the “nonideal” contexts and circumstances that surround families' choices. Drawing on the methodological insights of Elizabeth Anderson and John Dewey, they (...)
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  1. Joan A. Vaccaro, T Violation and the Unidirectionality of Time: Further Details of the Interference.
    T violation has previously been shown to induce destructive interference between different paths that the universe can take through time which leads to a new quantum equation of motion called bievolution. Here we examine further details of the interference and clarify the conditions needed for the bievolution equation.
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  1. Bjørn Hofmann, Obesity as a Socially Defined Disease: Philosophical Considerations and Implications for Policy and Care.
    Obesity has generated significant worries amongst health policy makers and has obtained increased attention in health care. Obesity is unanimously defined as a disease in the health care and health policy literature. However, there are pragmatic and not principled reasons for this. This warrants an analysis of obesity according to standard conceptions of disease in the literature of philosophy of medicine. According to theories and definitions of disease referring to internal processes, obesity is not a disease. Obesity undoubtedly can result (...)
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volume 12, issue 3, 2014
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    Sergiy Melnyk & Igor Tuluzov, Manifestation of Quantum Mechanical Properties of a Proprietor’s Consciousness in Slit Measurements of Economic Systems.
    The present paper discusses the problem of quantum-mechanical properties of a subject’s consciousness. The model of generalized economic measurements is used for the analysis. Two types of such measurements are analyzed – transactions and technologies. Algebraic ratios between the technology-type measurements allow making their analogy with slit experiments in physics. It has been shown that the description of results of such measurements is possible both in classical and in quantum formalism of calculation of probabilities. Thus, the quantum-mechanical formalism of the (...)
     
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volume 2, issue 1, 2014
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    Santiago Arango-Muñoz & Kourken Michaelian, Epistemic Feelings, Epistemic Emotions: Review and Introduction to the Focus Section.
    Philosophers of mind and epistemologists are increasingly making room in their theories for epistemic emotions (E-emotions) and, drawing on metacognition research in psychology, epistemic – or noetic or metacognitive – feelings (E-feelings). Since philoso- phers have only recently begun to draw on empirical research on E-feelings, in particular, we begin by providing a general characterization of E-feelings (section 1) and reviewing some highlights of relevant research (section 2). We then turn to philosophical work on E-feelings and E-emotions, situating the contributions (...)
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    Santiago Arango-Muñoz, Metacognitive Feelings, Self-Ascriptions and Metal Actions.
    The main aim of this paper is to clarify the relation between epistemic feel- ings, mental action, and self-ascription. Acting mentally and/or thinking about one’s mental states are two possible outcomes of epistemic or metacognitive feelings. Our men- tal actions are often guided by our E-feelings, such as when we check what we just saw based on a feeling of visual uncertainty; but thought about our own perceptual states and capacities can also be triggered by the same E-feelings. The first (...)
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  1. Jonathan Parry, Liability, Community, and Just Conduct in War.
    Those of us who are not pacifists face an obvious challenge. Common-sense morality contains a stringent constraint on intentional killing, yet war involves homicide on a grand scale. If wars are to be morally justified, it needs be shown how this conflict can be reconciled. A major fault line running throughout the contemporary just war literature divides two approaches to attempting this reconciliation. On a ‘reductivist’ view, defended most prominently by Jeff McMahan, the conflict is largely illusory, since such killing (...)
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  1. Maurizio D’Urso, The Cyber Combatant: A New Status for a New Warrior.
    Cyber warfare differs from traditional forms of conflicts, both in the instruments used—computers—and in the environment in which it is conducted—the virtual world of the internet and other data communication networks.The purpose of the commentary is to discuss whether, even in cyber warfare, the concept of ‘direct participation in hostilities’ is still operative, with special reference to the laws related to it, and to assess its consequences with regard to the law of armed conflict. In particular, I will consider whether (...)
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    Cailin O'Connor, Book Review Peter Godfrey-Smith, Philosophy of Biology. [REVIEW]
    Review of Peter Godfrey-Smith's Philosophy of Biology.
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  1. Chris Mills, The Heteronomy of Choice Architecture.
    Choice architecture is heralded as a policy approach that does not coercively reduce freedom of choice. Still we might worry that this approach fails to respect individual choice because it subversively manipulates individuals, thus contravening their personal autonomy. In this article I address two arguments to this effect. First, I deny that choice architecture is necessarily heteronomous. I explain the reasons we have for avoiding heteronomous policy-making and offer a set of four conditions for non-heteronomy. I then provide examples of (...)
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  1. Federica Menin, Katrina Burch & Valentina Desideri, Thinking Together Time Capsule.
    Girls Laughters Solar Eclipse Output Solar Eclipse The programmatic ontology of our contemporary technical-information age is marked by a complicity with algorithmic architectures : new models of information processing evolving with the entropically-hiden complexities and open-ended contingencies of material evolution. Algorithms are abstractly-coordinated entities of “soft thought” sui generis. In fusing generative concreteness with abstract modelling – i. e. matter with information – - Galerie sonore – Nouvel article.
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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
volume 2015, issue , 2015
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    Tony Manela, Manela.
    Gratitude is the proper or called-for response in a beneficiary to benefits or beneficence from a benefactor. It is a topic of interest in normative ethics, moral psychology, and political philosophy, and may have implications for metaethics as well. Despite its commonness in everyday life, there is substantive disagreement among philosophers over the nature of gratitude and its connection to other philosophical concepts. The sections of this article address five areas of debate about what gratitude is, when it is called (...)
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volume 3, issue 4, 2015
  1. Ralph DiFranco, Do Racists Speak Truly? On the Truth‐Conditional Content of Slurs.
    Slurs denigrate individuals qua members of certain groups, such as race or sexual orientation. Most theorists hold that each slur has a neutral counterpart, i.e., a term that references the slur's target group without denigrating them. According to a widely accepted view, which I call ‘Neutral Counterpart Theory’, the truth-conditional content of a slur is identical to the truth-conditional content of its neutral counterpart . My aim is to challenge this view. I argue that the view fails with respect to (...)
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volume 7, issue 1, 2015
  1. Bradley C. Love, The Algorithmic Level Is the Bridge Between Computation and Brain.
    Every scientist chooses a preferred level of analysis and this choice shapes the research program, even determining what counts as evidence. This contribution revisits Marr's three levels of analysis and evaluates the prospect of making progress at each individual level. After reviewing limitations of theorizing within a level, two strategies for integration across levels are considered. One is top–down in that it attempts to build a bridge from the computational to algorithmic level. Limitations of this approach include insufficient theoretical constraint (...)
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Mar 29th 2015 GMT
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  1. Susanna Lindroos-Hovinheimo, Excavating Foundations of Legal Personhood: Fichte on Autonomy and Self-Consciousness.
    Law functions on the basis of some presuppositions of what a person is. The purposes and tasks that are projected on a legal system depend on an understanding of personhood. Also, courts continuously find themselves in situations where they have to define the person or the legal subject, at times with surprising consequences. However, legal theory lacks clear criteria for personhood. We do not know who or what a legal person is, nor do we know what kind of being we (...)
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  1. Ewa McGrail & J. Patrick McGrail, Exploring Web-Based University Policy Statements on Plagiarism by Research-Intensive Higher Education Institutions.
    Plagiarism may distress universities in the US, but there is little agreement as to exactly what constitutes plagiarism. While there is ample research on plagiarism, there is scant literature on the content of university policies regarding it. Using a systematic sample, we qualitatively analyzed 20 Carnegie-classified universities that are “Very High in Research.” This included 15 public state universities and five high-profile private universities. We uncovered highly varied and even contradictory policies at these institutions. Notable policy variations existed for verbatim (...)
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  1. Federica Menin, Katrina Bruch & Valentina Desideri, Thinking Together Time Capsule.
    Girls Laughters Solar Eclipse Output Solar Eclipse The programmatic ontology of our contemporary technical-information age is marked by a complicity with algorithmic architectures : new models of information processing evolving with the entropically-hiden complexities and open-ended contingencies of material evolution. Algorithms are abstractly-coordinated entities of “soft thought” sui generis. In fusing generative concreteness with abstract modelling – i. e. matter with information – - Galerie sonore – Nouvel article.
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  1. Rosa Lynn Pinkus, Claire Gloeckner & Angela Fortunato, The Role of Professional Knowledge in Case-Based Reasoning in Practical Ethics.
    The use of case-based reasoning in teaching professional ethics has come of age. The fields of medicine, engineering, and business all have incorporated ethics case studies into leading textbooks and journal articles, as well as undergraduate and graduate professional ethics courses. The most recent guidelines from the National Institutes of Health recognize case studies and face-to-face discussion as best practices to be included in training programs for the Responsible Conduct of Research. While there is a general consensus that case studies (...)
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    Pedro Karczmarczyk & Agustín Palmieri, Ideología, ciencia y sujeto en Althusser, Pecheux y Lacan.
    A comienzos de los años 60 el marxismo althusseriano y el psicoanálisis lacaniano coincidían en un punto: su voluntad de intervenir críticamente en una coyuntura teórica caracterizada por el avance de las ciencias humanas. Ambas corrientes señalaban, con grandes convergencias, que las “ciencias humanas” (de manera evidente en sus versiones “tecnocráticas”: ego psychology, pisicología social, sociología en sus distintos avatares, etc.) cumplían funciones de adaptación de los individuos al sistema social, considerado como un invariante. Dichas ciencias humanas se presentaban como (...)
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Mar 28th 2015 GMT
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    Alexander A. Fingelkurts & ANdrew A. Fingelkurts, Altered Structure of Dynamic Electroencephalogram Oscillatory Pattern in Major Depression.
    Research on electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) has accumulated diverse neurophysiologic findings related to the content, topography, neurochemistry, and functions of EEG oscillations. Significant progress has been made since the first landmark EEG study on affective disorders by Davidson 35 years ago. A systematic account of these data is important and necessary for building a consistent neuropsychophysiologic model of MDD and other affective disorders. Given the extensive data on frequency-dependent functional significance of EEG oscillations, a frequency (...)
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  1. Donald Favareau, Symbols Are Grounded Not in Things, but in Scaffolded Relations and Their Semiotic Constraints.
    As the accompanying articles in the Special Issue on Semiotic Scaffolding will attest, my colleagues in biosemiotics have done an exemplary job in showing us how to think about the critically generative role that semiotic scaffolding plays “vertically” – i.e., in evolutionary and developmental terms – by “allowing access to the upper floors” of biological complexity, cognition and evolution.In addition to such diachronic considerations of semiotic scaffolding, I wish to offer here a consideration of semiotic scaffolding’s synchronic power, as well (...)
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  1. Philip I. Chow & Howard Berenbaum, The Relation Between Depression and Appreciation: The Role of Perceptions of Emotional Utility in an Experimental Test of Causality.
  2. Jessica L. Clifton, Sophie Hedley, Emily Mountier, Boglarka Tiszai & Gina M. Grimshaw, Practice Makes Perfect: Training the Interpretation of Emotional Ambiguity.
  3. Noam Markovitch, Liat Netzer & Maya Tamir, Will You Touch a Dirty Diaper? Attitudes Towards Disgust and Behaviour.
  4. Naomi B. Rothman & Joe C. Magee, Affective Expressions in Groups and Inferences About Members' Relational Well-Being: The Effects of Socially Engaging and Disengaging Emotions.
  5. Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks, Caroline A. Bartel, Laura Rees & Quy Huy, Assessing Collective Affect Recognition Via the Emotional Aperture Measure.
  6. Pascal Wabnitz, Ulla Martens & Frank Neuner, Written Threat: Electrophysiological Evidence for an Attention Bias to Affective Words in Social Anxiety Disorder.
  7. Pingyan Zhou, Guochun Yang, Weizhi Nan & Xun Liu, The Time Course of Attentional Modulation on Emotional Conflict Processing.
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