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Aug 1st 2014 GMT
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    Uwe Steinhoff, A Critique of David Miller’s Like Minded Group and Cooperative Practice Models of Collective Responsibility.
    Many authors writing about global justice seem to take national responsibility more or less for granted. Most of them, however, offer very little argument for their position. One of the few exceptions is David Miller. He offers two models of collective responsibility: the like-minded group model and the cooperative practice model. While some authors have criticized whether these two models are applicable to nations, as Miller intends, my criticism is more radical: I argue that these two models fail as accounts (...)
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    Christopher Gregory Weaver, On the Carroll-Chen Model.
    I argue that the Carroll-Chen cosmogenic model does not provide a plausible scientific explanation of our universe's initial low-entropy state.
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Jul 31st 2014 GMT
volume 191, issue 13, 2014
  1. Christopher Pincock, How to Avoid Inconsistent Idealizations.
    Idealized scientific representations result from employing claims that we take to be false. It is not surprising, then, that idealizations are a prime example of allegedly inconsistent scientific representations. I argue that the claim that an idealization requires inconsistent beliefs is often incorrect and that it turns out that a more mathematical perspective allows us to understand how the idealization can be interpreted consistently. The main example discussed is the claim that models of ocean waves typically involve the false assumption (...)
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  1. Conor McHugh, Fitting Belief.
    Beliefs can be correct or incorrect, and this standard of correctness is widely thought to be fundamental to epistemic normativity. But how should this standard be understood, and in what way is it so fundamental? I argue that we should resist understanding correctness for belief as either a prescriptive or an evaluative norm. Rather, we should understand it as an instance of the distinct normative category of fittingness for attitudes. This yields an attractive account of epistemic reasons.
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    Sergeiy Sandler, The Reinterpretation of Kant and the Neo-Kantians: On Bakhtin’s Pattern of Appropriation.
    Studies of the origins of Mikhail Bakhtin’s thought have tended to either follow a traditional intellectual history paradigm—where establishing the presence of an influence is taken to be a sign of Bakhtin’s identity as a thinker—or to view terminological and conceptual borrowings in Bakhtin’s work as mere veneer in which he dressed his own ideas to make them publishable or acceptable to his peers in a hostile political and intellectual environment. And while Bakhtin did absorb some genuine formative influences, and (...)
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    Joel Smith, Perceptual Recognition, Emotion, and Value.
    I outline an account of perceptual knowledge and assess the extent to which it can be employed in a defence of perceptual accounts of emotion and value recognition. I argue that considerations ruling out lucky knowledge give us some reason to doubt its prospects in the case of value recognition. I also discuss recent empirical work on cultural and contextual influences on emotional expression, arguing that a perceptual account value recognition is consistent with current evidence.
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    Joel Smith, Vision and the Ontology of Emotion and Expression.
    I offer an account of the ontology of emotions and their expressions, drawing some morals for the view that we can see others' emotions in virtue of seeing their expressions.
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Jul 29th 2014 GMT
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    Holly Lawford-Smith, Difference-Making and Individuals' Climate-Related Obligations.
    Climate change appears to be a classic aggregation problem, in which billions of individuals perform actions none of which seem to be morally wrong taken in isolation, and yet which combine to drive the global concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) ever higher toward environmental (and humanitarian) catastrophe. When an individual can choose between actions that will emit differing amounts of GHGs―such as to choose a vegan rather than carnivorous meal, to ride a bike to work rather than drive a car, (...)
     
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Jul 25th 2014 GMT
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    Ihor Karivets, BEING AND BECOMING IN THE KIERKEGAARD's EXISTENTIAL ANTHROPOLOGY.
    In this paper the relation between being and becoming is analyzed and the Kierkegaard’s existential method is considered. Also the three stages of existence are described as the evolution of a human being. This evolution means gradual creation of true selfhood due to decisive choices and actions. The author stresses that Kierkegaard’s existential anthropology is a version of the dialectical religious existentialism. A human being is paradoxical and her or his conflicts cannot be resolved by rational way. Existence has its (...)
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    Sb, How Humor Works - A Clear Proposal for a Classic Question.
    A short, clear and complete theory that explains the origins and properties of the human humor instinct, which has been the subject of incomplete research for thousands of years. The paper's theory uses evolutionary psychology and a basic informal equation, and unites the findings of the previous theories, including explaining the logical basis behind many types of humor as well as the common sayings associated with it.
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Jul 24th 2014 GMT
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  1. Timothy Chappell, Virtue Ethics in the Twentieth Century.
    I explore, explain, and expound the history of the debates about virtue and virtue ethics in twentieth-century anglophone philosophy.
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  2. Conor McHugh & Jonathan Way, Broome on Reasoning.
    Among the many important contributions of John Broome’s Rationality Through Reasoning is an account of what reasoning is and what makes reasoning correct. In this paper we raise some problems for both of these accounts and recommend an alternative approach.
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    Charlie Kurth, Moral Anxiety and Moral Agency.
    A familiar feature of moral life is the distinctive anxiety that we feel in the face of a moral dilemma or moral conflict. Situations like these require us to take stands on controversial issues. But because we are unsure that we will make the correct decision, anxiety ensues. Despite the pervasiveness of this phenomenon, surprisingly little work has been done either to characterize this “moral anxiety” or to explain the role that it plays in our moral lives. This paper aims (...)
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Jul 23rd 2014 GMT
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    Tyler Doggett, What Would Taurek Do?
    A very short, exegetical paper about Taurek's "Should the Numbers Count?," arguing against the view that Taurek requires giving chances.
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    Steven M. Duncan, Platonism by the Numbers.
    In this paper, I defend traditional Platonic mathematical realism from its contemporary detractors, arguing that numbers, understood as abstract, non-physical objects of rational intuition, are indispensable for the act of counting.
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Jul 22nd 2014 GMT
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  1. Christian Edward Mortensen, Aristotle and the Intuitionists.
    Intuitionist mathematics has claimed a philosophy deriving from Kant. This paper aims to draw attention to significant similarities with a much older source, Aristotle. At the same time, the connection should not be over-stretched, given two millennia between them.
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Jul 21st 2014 GMT
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    Aida Míguez Barciela, La Figura Del "Mántis" En la Sexta Olímpica de Píndaro.
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Jul 20th 2014 GMT
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  1. Adam Green, Mapping Others: Representation and Mindreading.
    Thinking about the representational qualities of maps and models allows one to offer a new perspective on the nature of mindreading. The recent critiques of our dominant paradigms for mindreading, theory theory and simulation theory by enactivists such as Daniel Hutto reveal a flaw in the standard options for thinking about how we think about others. Views that rely on theorizing or simulation to account for the way in which we understand others often appear to over-intellectualize social interaction. In contrast, (...)
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  2. Jacquelyn Ann K. Kegley, Review of "Time, Will, and Purpose: Living Ideas From the Philosophy of Josiah Royce". [REVIEW]
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  3. James McBain, Review of "Truly Human Enhancement: A Philosophical Defense of Limits". [REVIEW]
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  4. Steven Ross, Review of "What Happened in and to Moral Philosophy in the Twentieth Century? Philosophical Essays in Honor of Alistair MacIntyre". [REVIEW]
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    Tyler Doggett, Moving Cartesian Bodies.
    Argues that Descartes's commitment to mind-body causation leads to a commitment to body-body causation.
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Jul 18th 2014 GMT
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    Danny Frederick, Ethical Intuitionism: A Structural Critique.
    I present a structural critique of ethical intuitionism. Ethical intuitionists regard moral knowledge as deriving from moral intuition, moral observation, moral emotion and inference. However, moral intuitions, observations and emotions are cultural artefacts which often differ starkly between cultures. Intuitionists attribute uncongenial moral intuitions, observations or emotions to bias or to intellectual or moral failings; but that leads to sectarian mutual recrimination. Intuitionists try to avoid this by restricting epistemically genuine intuitions, observations or emotions to those which are widely agreed. (...)
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Jul 16th 2014 GMT
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    Mohan Matthen, Representationalism Defended.
    This is a comment on Frances Egan's paper, "How to Think About Mental Content." Egan distinguishes mathematical and cognitive content; she accepts the former and rejects the latter. In this comment, which was delivered at the Oberlin Colloquium in 2012, I defend cognitive content.
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Jul 15th 2014 GMT
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  1. Susan G. Sterrett, Wittgenstein Flies a Kite: A Story of Models of Wings and Models of the World.
    The philosophy of language and experimental research in aeronautics made great leaps at about the same time in the early twentieth century. Strange as it may sound, this was no coincidence. Sterrett explains what Wittgenstein s glimpse of a solution to the problem of language in 1914 had to do with experimental models, which had been so crucial to the Wright brothers solving the problem of flight. On the eve of the First World War in Europe, Wittgenstein left aeronautical research (...)
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Jul 13th 2014 GMT
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  1. Timothy Chappell, Critical Notice. Paul Horwich, Wittgenstein's Metaphilosophy.
    In the Preface to his fine book, Paul Horwich deplores the “polar split” that he sees in academic philosophy today between most philosophers, who don’t care about Wittgenstein, and the Wittgensteinian minority, who don’t care about much else, and are “engaged in feuds with one other that no one else cares about” (p.xiii). Whether or not this picture is entirely fair either to Wittgensteinians or to non-Wittgensteinians, it is certainly true, and unfortunate, that Wittgenstein has been normalised by the academic (...)
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    Emar Maier, Parasitic Attitudes.
    Karttunen observes that a presupposition triggered in an x hopes that complement, can be filtered out by a seemingly inaccessible antecedent under the scope of a preceding x believes that ascription. I show that the problem evaporates once we enrich our semantics of attitude ascriptions with some independently argued assumptions on the structure and interpre- tation of mental states. In particular, I argue that mental states consist of acquaintance-based mental files and variously labeled attitude compartments, laid out in a DRT-like (...)
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    Emar Maier, Why My I is Your You: On the Communication of de Se Attitudes.
    The communication of de se attitudes poses a problem for “participant- neutral” analyses of communication in terms of propositions expressed or proposed updates to the common ground: when you tell me “I am an idiot”, you express a first person de se attitude, but as a result I form a different, second person attitude, viz. that you are an idiot. I argue that when we take seriously the asymmetry between speaker and hearer in semantics this problem disappears. To prove this (...)
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Jul 12th 2014 GMT
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  1. Tim Jacquemard, Alan F. Smeaton & Bert Gordijn, Lifelogs and Autonomy.
    Autonomy seems to be a core issue for lifelogging technology as it can influence our understanding as well as our personal freedom but a comprehensive discussion on the effect of it on the autonomy of the lifelogger and others affected seems still missing in the current academic debate. In this article we provide a preliminary inquiry into this topic. First, the concept of lifelogging will be briefly clarified. In a lifelog, different data sources are combined in an archive that can (...)
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  2. John Thorp, Aristotle & Cancer.
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    Michael Huemer, Is Wealth Redistribution a Rights Violation?
    I argue that taxation for redistributive purposes is a property rights violation, responding to arguments (due to Nagel, Murphy, Sunstein, and Holmes) claiming that individuals lack ownership of their pretax incomes.
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Jul 10th 2014 GMT
Manuscripts
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    William A. Edmundson, Fair Value of Political Liberties and Property in the Means of Production - Part I.
    John Rawls argued that welfare-state capitalism would be rejected by a constitutional convention seeking to implement the abstract principles of justice chosen in the original position. But neither property-owning democracy nor liberal democratic socialism could be ruled out at the constitutional stage, and the choice between them was to be made at the further, legislative stage of the four-stage sequence he outlined for the achievement of political justice. This paper defends the first of the following three claims. One. Rawls overlooked (...)
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    Danny Frederick, What Free Will Is.
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Jul 9th 2014 GMT
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  1. Anonymous, King of the Meat Eaters.
    This article is a word for word reproduction of an unexpected resignation speech. It was given as—or rather, in place of—the presidential address of a recent annual meeting of ISEA (the International Society for the Eating of Animals). Because this is a secret society, the speaker’s and the transcriber’s names have been omitted. Those of us who were there for this speech will remember the anger and outrage that it provoked. Many of us still cannot believe the ridiculous spin-off resignations (...)
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  2. Elizabeth Foreman, Good Eats.
    If one believes that vegetarianism is morally obligatory, there are numerous ways to argue for that conclusion. In this paper, classic utilitarian and rights-based attempts to ground this obligation are considered, as well as Cora Diamond’s reframing of the debate in terms of the proper way to view other animals. After discussion of these three ways to ground the obligation and their problems, an attitude-based approach inspired by Diamond’s view (though different from it in important ways) is advanced. It is (...)
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    Terence Rajivan Edward, The Asymmetry Objection to Political Liberalism: Evaluation of a Defence.
    This paper evaluates Jonathan Quong’s attempt to defend a version of political liberalism from the asymmetry objection. I object that Quong’s defence relies on a premise that has not been adequately supported and does not look as if it can be given adequate support.
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Jul 6th 2014 GMT
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  1. Kristoffer Ahlstrom-Vij, Procedural Justice and the Problem of Intellectual Deference.
    It is a well-established fact that we tend to underestimate our susceptibility to cognitive bias on account of overconfidence, and thereby often fail to listen to intellectual advice aimed at reducing such bias. This is the problem of intellectual deference. The present paper considers this problem in contexts where educators attempt to teach students how to avoid bias for purposes of instilling epistemic virtues. It is argued that recent research in social psychology suggests that we can come to terms with (...)
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  2. Kristoffer Ahlstrom-Vij, The Applied Epistemology of Information Markets.
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  3. Kristoffer Ahlstrom-Vij, The Epistemic Benefits of Democracy: A Critical Perspective.
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    Assaf Weksler, Visual Perspective: A Philosophical Challenge to Vision Science.
    According to an influential philosophical view I call “the relational properties view” (RPV), “2D” properties, such as the elliptical appearance of a tilted coin, are relational properties of external objects. Vision scientists typically hold that 2D properties are properties of patterns of light striking the retina (or of regions in the retina). Call this view RET. RET conflicts with RPV. The present paper has two objectives. The first is to argue that there is no genuine conflict between vision science and (...)
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Jul 5th 2014 GMT
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  1. James South, Veronica Mars: She's a Marshmallow.
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Jul 4th 2014 GMT
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  1. J. McKenzie Alexander, Cheap Talk, Reinforcement Learning and the Emergence of Cooperation.
    Cheap talk has often been thought incapable of supporting the emergence of cooperation because costless signals, easily faked, are unlikely to be reliable (Zahavi and Zahavi, 1997). I show how, in a social network model of cheap talk with reinforcement learning, cheap talk does enable the emergence of cooperation, provided that individuals also temporally discount the past. This establishes one mechanism that suffices for moving a population of initially uncooperative individuals to a state of mutually beneficial cooperation even in the (...)
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  2. Stuart Glennan, Carl F. Craver and Lindley Darden: In Search of Mechanisms: Discoveries Across the Life Sciences.
    Carl Craver and Lindley Darden are two of the foremost proponents of a recent approach to the philosophy of biology that is often called the New Mechanism. In this book they seek to make available to a broader readership insights gained from more than two decades of work on the nature of mechanisms and how they are described and discovered. The book is not primarily aimed at specialists working on the New Mechanism, but rather targets scientists, students and teachers who (...)
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    Lucas P. Halpin, Pragmatism and the Point of Inquiry.
    This essay is expository, but not exegetical. I’ll present a version of truth-rejecting pragmatism. My goal is to keep it simple, keep it clear, and portray it as a reasonable and attractive scientific view of language. We’ll work our way towards the view via series of violations of the commonsense web of belief about language, motivated by naturalism. Once truth has been rejected, it’s only natural to wonder what the point of inquiry, or science, is. Supposing there are no objective (...)
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Jul 3rd 2014 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. William L. Vanderburgh, Putting a New Spin on Galaxies: Horace W. Babcock, the Andromeda Nebula, and the Dark Matter Revolution.
    When a scientist is the first to perform a difficult type of observation and correctly interprets the result as a significant challenge to then-widely accepted core theories, and the result is later recognized as seminal work in a field of major importance, it is a surprise to find that that work was essentially ignored by the scientific community for thirty years. Such was the fate of the doctoral research on the rotations of the Andromeda Nebula (M31) conducted by Horace Welcome (...)
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    Kevin Connolly, Aaron Henry, Zoe Jenkin & Andrew MacGregor, Multisensory Integration Workshop Full Report.
    This report highlights and explores five questions that arose from the multisensory integration workshop at the University of Toronto on May 9th and 10th, 2014: 1. What Is Multisensory Integration? 2. Do Multisensory Percepts Involve Emergent Features? 3. What Can Multisensory Processing Tell Us about Multisensory Awareness? 4. Is Language Processing a Special Kind of Multisensory Integration? 5. What Is the Purpose of Multisensory Integration?
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