New manuscripts

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Feb 28th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Luc Bovens, Child Euthanasia: Should We Just Not Talk About It?
    Belgium has recently extended its euthanasia legislation to minors, making it the first legislation in the world that does not specify any age limit. I consider two strands in the opposition to this legislation. First, I identify five arguments in the public debate to the effect that euthanasia for minors is somehow worse than euthanasia for adults—viz. arguments from weightiness, capability of discernment, pressure, sensitivity and sufficient palliative care—and show that these arguments are wanting. Second, there is another position in (...)
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  2. Harvey Brown & D. E. Rowe, The Role of Rods and Clocks in General Relativity and the Meaning of the Metric Field.
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  3. Lucius Caviola, Adriano Mannino, Julian Savulescu & Nadira Faber, Cognitive Biases Can Affect Moral Intuitions About Cognitive Enhancement.
    Research into cognitive biases that impair human judgment has mostly been applied to the area of economic decision-making. Ethical decision-making has been comparatively neglected. Since ethical decisions often involve very high individual as well as collective stakes, analyzing how cognitive biases affect them can be expected to yield important results. In this theoretical article, we consider the ethical debate about cognitive enhancement and suggest a number of cognitive biases that are likely to affect moral intuitions and judgments about CE: status (...)
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  4. Monima Chadha, On Knowing Universals: The Nyaya Way.
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  5. Thomas Douglas, The Dual-Use Problem, Scientific Isolationism and the Division of Moral Labour.
    The dual-use problem is an ethical quandary sometimes faced by scientists and others in a position to influence the creation or dissemination of scientific knowledge. It arises when an agent is considering whether to pursue some project likely to result in the creation or dissemination of scientific knowledge, that knowledge could be used in both morally desirable and morally undesirable ways, and the risk of undesirable use is sufficiently high that it is not clear that the agent may permissibly pursue (...)
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  6. Brian D. Earp, Anders Sandberg, Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu, When is Diminishment a Form of Enhancement? : Rethinking the Enhancement Debate in Biomedical Ethics.
    The enhancement debate in neuroscience and biomedical ethics tends to focus on the augmentation of certain capacities or functions: memory, learning, attention, and the like. Typically, the point of contention is whether these augmentative enhancements should be considered permissible for individuals with no particular “medical” disadvantage along any of the dimensions of interest. Less frequently addressed in the literature, however, is the fact that sometimes the diminishment of a capacity or function, under the right set of circumstances, could plausibly contribute (...)
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  7. Tommaso Flaminio, Lluis Godo & Hykel Hosni, Coherence in the Aggregate: A Betting Method for Belief Functions on Many-Valued Events.
    Betting methods, of which de Finetti's Dutch Book is by far the most well-known, are uncertainty modelling devices which accomplish a twofold aim. Whilst providing an interpretation of the relevant measure of uncertainty, they also provide a formal definition of coherence. The main purpose of this paper is to put forward a betting method for belief functions on MV-algebras of many-valued events which allows us to isolate the corresponding coherence criterion, which we term coherence in the aggregate. Our framework generalises (...)
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  8. Dennis Lehmkuhl, P. Ghose & Harvey Brown, Einstein, the Reality of Space, and the Action-Reaction Principle.
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  9. Hannah Maslen, Brian Earp, Roi Cohen Kadosh & Julian Savulescu, Brain Stimulation for Treatment and Enhancement in Children : An Ethical Analysis.
    Davis called for “extreme caution” in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to treat neurological disorders in children, due to gaps in scientific knowledge. We are sympathetic to his position. However, we must also address the ethical implications of applying this technology to minors. Compensatory trade-offs associated with NIBS present a challenge to its use in children, insofar as these trade-offs have the effect of limiting the child’s future options. The distinction between treatment and enhancement has some normative force here. (...)
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  10. Ignacio Mastroleo, More Considerations on Post-Trial Obligations in the Declaration of Helsinki 2013.
    The problem of transitioning research participants to the appropriate health care when the study finishes is a global problem. The publication of a new version of the Declaration of Helsinki and its public discussion is a great opportunity to discuss it. My interpretation of the Declaration of Helsinki 2013 identifies two different types of post-trial obligations, namely, access to care and access to information after research. The intended beneficiaries of these obligations are individual participants of research studies. The Declaration identifies (...)
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  11. Hannah Maslen, Nadira Faulmüller & Julian Savulescu, Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement : How Neuroscientific Research Could Advance Ethical Debate.
    There are numerous ways people can improve their cognitive capacities: good nutrition and regular exercise can produce long-term improvements across many cognitive domains, whilst commonplace stimulants such as coffee temporarily boost levels of alertness and concentration. Effects like these have been well-documented in the medical literature and they raise few ethical issues. More recently, however, clinical research has shown that the off-label use of some pharmaceuticals can, under certain conditions, have modest cognition-improving effects. Substances such as methylphenidate and modafinil can (...)
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  12. Hannah Maslen, Thomas Douglas, Roi Cohen Kadosh, Neil Levy & Julian Savulescu, The Regulation of Cognitive Enhancement Devices : Extending the Medical Model.
    This article presents a model for regulating cognitive enhancement devices . Recently, it has become very easy for individuals to purchase devices which directly modulate brain function. For example, transcranial direct current stimulators are increasingly being produced and marketed online as devices for cognitive enhancement. Despite posing risks in a similar way to medical devices, devices that do not make any therapeutic claims do not have to meet anything more than basic product safety standards. We present the case for extending (...)
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  13. James F. McGrath, Religion’s Future and the Future’s Religions Through the Lens of Science Fiction.
    While most scholarship in religious studies focuses on the past and present, the study of what the future may hold in store for religion deserves attention. Studying the treatment of religious themes and characters in science fiction provides one way of accomplishing this objective. From the possibility of time travel to key events in the history of religion, to the possibility of acquiring godlike attributes by technological or other futuristic means, science fiction regularly touches on topics such as the nature (...)
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  14. Andreas Lech Mogensen, Krister Bykvist & John Hawthorne, Evolutionary Debunking Arguments in Ethics.
    I consider whether evolutionary explanations can debunk our moral beliefs. Most contemporary discussion in this area is centred on the question of whether debunking implications follow from our ability to explain elements of human morality in terms of natural selection, given that there has been no selection for true moral beliefs. By considering the most prominent arguments in the literature today, I offer reasons to think that debunking arguments of this kind fail. However, I argue that a successful evolutionary debunking (...)
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  15. Rebecca Roache, Can Brain Scans Prove Criminals Unaccountable?
    Leonard Berlin reports that neuroscientific data have been presented in court by lawyers wishing to argue that their clients have reduced or absent moral responsibility for their behaviour because their brain function is impaired. Berlin cites evidence showing that such neuroscientific data can influence judges to pass more lenient sentences, and he anticipates that advances in “the neurology of criminal behavior” may lead courts to view certain criminals as having reduced accountability for their actions. Similarly, an advisor to President Obama (...)
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  16. Dominic Wilkinson & Julian Savulescu, Disability, Discrimination and Death : Is It Justified to Ration Life Saving Treatment for Disabled Newborn Infants?
    Disability might be relevant to decisions about life support in intensive care in several ways. It might affect the chance of treatment being successful, or a patient’s life expectancy with treatment. It may affect whether treatment is in a patient’s best interests. However, even if treatment would be of overall benefit it may be unaffordable and consequently unable to be provided. In this paper we will draw on the example of neonatal intensive care, and ask whether or when it is (...)
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Feb 27th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Kristoffer Ahlstrom-Vij, Tba.
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  2. Kristoffer Ahlstrom-Vij, When Should I Defer?
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  3. Ian Hunter, Heideggerian Mathematics: Badiou's Being and Event.
    The combination of Heideggerian metaphysics and advanced mathematics in Alain Badiou’s Being and Event presents a unique challenge to modern commentary. Badiou’s metaphysical axe-grinding makes his work uninteresting to mathematical logicians, while the humanities scholars who wield his axes often have little grasp of the mathematics on which they are supposed to have been honed. This lacuna helps to explain why Being and Event has been dismissed by some as ‘fashionable nonsense’ and praised by others as “one of the most (...)
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  4. Jon Williamson, Deliberation, Judgement and the Nature of Evidence.
    A normative Bayesian theory of deliberation and judgement requires a procedure for merging the evidence of a collection of agents. In order to provide such a procedure, one needs to ask what the evidence is that grounds Bayesian probabilities. After finding fault with several views on the nature of evidence , it is argued that evidence is whatever is rationally taken for granted. This view is shown to have consequences for an account of merging evidence, and it is argued that (...)
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Feb 26th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Andrew Fagan, Adorno.
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Feb 25th 2015 GMT
Feb 24th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. DIRECT SUBMISSION
    Steven Sverdlik, Giving Wrongdoers What They Deserve.
    Certain moral claims are said to support two types of ‘positive’ retributivist theory of state punishment. A positive retributivist theory states that desert is a reason to impose state punishment. The moral claims assert that we have a moral reason in general to give guilty wrongdoers what they deserve. I consider one well-known strategy for establishing the existence of such a moral reason: thought experiments like Kant’s ‘desert island’. These experiments have not been properly designed, since they give us no (...)
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Feb 23rd 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Larry Laudan, How the Social Contract Is Ignored and Undermined by the Rules of Trial, and How We Might Fix That Problem - Sessió 4.
    Quarta sessió del Seminari de Larry Lawdan.
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Feb 22nd 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Hans Johann Glock, Unintelligibility Made Intelligible.
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  2. Hans Johann Glock, Reasons for Action: Wittgensteinian and Davidsonian Perspectives in Historical and Meta-Philosophical Context.
    My paper reflects on the debate about reasons for action and action explanations between Wittgensteinian teleological approaches and causalist theories inspired by Davidson. After a brief discussion of similarities and differences in the philosophy of language, I sketch the prehistory and history of the controversy. I show that the conflict between Wittgenstein and Davidson revolves neither around revisionism nor around naturalism. Even in the philosophy of mind and action, Davidson is not as remote from Wittgenstein and his followers as is (...)
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Feb 20th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. DIRECT SUBMISSION
    Roger Wertheimer, Talking With Objects.
    Talking about objects requires talking with objects, presenting objects in speech to identify a term's referent. I say This figure is a circle while handing you a ring. The ring is a prop, a perceptual object referenced by an extra-sentential event to identify the extension of a term, its director ('This figure'). Props operate in speech acts and their products, not in sentences. Intra-sentential objects we talk with are displays. Displayed objects needn't be words but must be like words, perceptually, (...)
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Feb 17th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Paul Bishop, Goethe, Nietzsche Und Die Philosophische Praxis.
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    Steven M. Duncan, A Defense of the Crucial Premise of the Third Way.
    Aquinas' Third Way is often dismissed as a howler, because he infers from the fact that, since the universe is metaphysically contingent that there was some time in the past when it didn't exist. I offer an argument to justify this inference.
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Feb 16th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. DIRECT SUBMISSION
    Robert A. Wilson & Joshua St Pierre, Eugenics and Disability.
    In the intersection between eugenics past and present, disability has never been far beneath the surface. Perceived and ascribed disabilities of body and mind were one of the core sets of eugenics traits that provided the basis for institutionalized and sterilization on eugenic grounds for the first 75 years of the 20th-century. Since that time, the eugenic preoccupation with the character of future generations has seeped into what have become everyday practices in the realm of reproductive choice. As Marsha Saxton (...)
     
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Feb 15th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Hans Johann Glock, Propositional Attitudes, Intentional Contents and Other Representationalist Myths.
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    Rowan Grigg, It's Just About Time.
    Presented is a hypothetical model of reality that is consistent with the observational data incompletely addressed by existing models such as general relativity and quantum theory, including non-locality and the accelerating expansion of the universe. The model further suggests a theory of consciousness in which a physical mechanism accounts for interactions with remote agents that were previously categorized as 'spiritual'. I explore the wider implications of this model.
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Feb 14th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Michael G. Kelly, The Poet as Engineer of Truth: Pierre Jean Jouve.
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Feb 11th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Larry Laudan, How the Social Contract Is Ignored and Undermined by the Rules of Trial, and How We Might Fix That Problem - Sessió 3 -.
    Tercera sessió del Seminari de Larry Lawdan.
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  2. Conor McHugh, VIII-Fitting Belief.
    Beliefs can be correct or incorrect, and this standard of correctness is widely thought to be fundamental to epistemic normativity. But how should this standard be understood, and in what way is it so fundamental? I argue that we should resist understanding correctness for belief as either a prescriptive or an evaluative norm. Rather, we should understand it as an instance of the distinct normative category of fittingness for attitudes. This yields an attractive account of epistemic reasons.
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    Francesca Brencio & Anastasios Dimopoulos, Event and Subjectivity. Heidegger’s Phenomenology of Ereignis and its Relationship with Psychopathological Phenomena.
Feb 10th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Eric Alliez & Brian Massumi, Performing the Ethico-Aesthetic Paradigm.
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  2. Etienne Balibar, Europe - Nations: The Missing People and the Crisis of Legitimacy.
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  3. Etienne Balibar, Nancy's Inoperative Community.
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Feb 9th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. James Arthur, Kristján Kristjánsson, Hywel Thomas, Michael Holdsworth, Luca Badini Confalonieri & Tian Qiu, Virtuous Character for the Practice of Law : Research Report.
    The Jubilee Centre’s new report, Virtuous Character for the Practice of Law, sets about trying to examine the place of character and values in the legal profession in Britain. The report draws its findings from a UK focused survey of 966 lawyers and aspiring lawyers at varying stages of their careers. It is one of the largest pieces of research carried out in Britain focusing on issues of character and virtue within a specific industry sector.
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  2. James Arthur, Kristján Kristjánsson, Hywel Thomas, Ben Kotzee, Agnieszka Ignatowicz & Tian Qiu, Virtuous Medical Practice : Research Report.
    The Jubilee Centre’s new report, Virtuous Medical Practice, examines the place of character and values in the medical profession in Britain today. Its findings are drawn from a UK-focused multi-methods study of 549 doctors and aspiring doctors at three career stages, first and final year students and experienced doctors.
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  3. Fred D'Agostino, Hermeneutics, Epistemology, and Science.
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  4. Michèle N. Schubiger, Florian L. Wüstholz, André Wunder & Judith M. Burkart, High Emotional Reactivity Toward an Experimenter Affects Participation, but Not Performance, in Cognitive Tests with Common Marmosets.
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    Guy Axtell, Philosophical Implications of Dual Process Theory.
    A further exploration of philosophical implications of ecological rationality and dual-process theories. Topics include the reasons-responsiveness of automaticity and heuristic/T1 processing; DPT as a response to epistemic situationism; implications for character epistemology of substantial individual differences shown in T2 critical reasoning dispositions; and connections to work on more effective pedagogy for developing critical reasoning skills and dispositions.
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Feb 8th 2015 GMT
New books
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    T. Parent, Self-Reflection for the Opaque Mind.
    [Excerpts from the book I’m writing. Includes the first section of the preamble, and most of chapter 1.] *Self-Reflection for the Opaque Mind* attempts to solve a grave problem about critical reflection on one's own beliefs. The worry is that we critical thinkers are all in “epistemic bad faith” in light of what semantics and psychology tell us. For instance, psychological data shows we are ignorant of even our own ordinary beliefs--including reasons for our moral judgments (Haidt 2001), and also (...)
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Manuscripts
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    Susanna Rinard, Assistant Professor.
    Many have thought that it is impossible to rationally persuade an external world skeptic that we have knowledge of the external world. This paper aims to show how this could be done. I argue, while appealing only to premises that a skeptic could accept, that it is not rational to believe external world skepticism, because doing so commits one to more extreme forms of skepticism in a way that is self-undermining. In particular, the external world skeptic is ultimately committed to (...)
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    Susanna Rinard, Reasoning One's Way Out of Skepticism.
    Many have thought that it is impossible to rationally persuade an external world skeptic that we have knowledge of the external world. This paper aims to show how this could be done. I argue, while appealing only to premises that a skeptic could accept, that it is not rational to believe external world skepticism, because doing so commits one to more extreme forms of skepticism in a way that is self-undermining. In particular, the external world skeptic is ultimately committed to (...)
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Feb 7th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
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    John Corcoran, A BIBLIOGRAPHY: JOHN CORCORAN's PUBLICATIONS ON ARISTOTLE 1972–2015.
    This presentation includes a complete bibliography of John Corcoran’s publications devoted at least in part to Aristotle’s logic. Sections I–IV list 20 articles, 43 abstracts, 3 books, and 10 reviews. It starts with two watershed articles published in 1972: the Philosophy & Phenomenological Research article that antedates Corcoran’s Aristotle’s studies and the Journal of Symbolic Logic article first reporting his original results; it ends with works published in 2015. A few of the items are annotated with endnotes connecting them with (...)
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Feb 5th 2015 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Larry Laudan, How the Social Contract Is Ignored and Undermined by the Rules of Trial, and How We Might Fix That Problem -Sessió 2-.
    Segona sessió del Seminari de Larry Lawdan.
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Feb 4th 2015 GMT
New books
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    Erik C. Banks, A.
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