Search results for '杜耀明' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  22
    Peter Achinstein (1992). The Evidence Against Kronz. Philosophical Studies 67 (2):169-175.
  2.  45
    Donald C. Ainslie (2002). Bioethics and the Problem of Pluralism. Social Philosophy and Policy 19 (2):1-28.
    The state that we inhabit plays a significant role in shaping our lives. For not only do its institutions constrain the kinds of lives we can lead, (...)
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  3.  50
    Kathleen Akins (1993). A Bat Without Qualities? In Martin Davies & Glyn W. Humphreys (eds.), Consciousness: Psychological and Philosophical Essays. Blackwell 345--358.
  4. Kathleen Akins (1993). What is It Like to Be Boring and Myopic? In B. Dahlbom (ed.), Dennett and His Critics. Blackwell
  5.  29
    J. McKenzie Alexander (2006). The Stag Hunt and the Evolution of Social Structure, Brian Skyrms. Cambridge University Press, 2004, 149 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 22 (3):441-448.
  6. Sophie R. Allen (2006). A Space Oddity: Colin McGinn on Consciousness and Space. Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (4):61-82.
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  7.  8
    Barry Allen (2003). Knowledge and Civilization. Westview Press.
    Knowledge and Civilization advances detailed criticism of philosophy's usual approach to knowledge and describes a redirection, away from textbook problems of epistemology, toward an ecological philosophy (...)of technology and civilization. Rejecting theories that confine knowledge to language or discourse, Allen situates knowledge in the greater field of artifacts, technical performance, and human evolution. His wide ranging considerations draw on ideas from evolutionary biology, archaeology, anthropology, and the history of cities, art, and technology. (shrink)
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  8.  8
    J. Almog (2005). 'What Am I?' Descartes and the Mind-Body Problem - Reply. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 70 (3):717-734.
    <span class='Hi'>span>In<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>his<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Meditations<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>René<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Descartes<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>asks<span class='Hi'>span>, "<span class='Hi'>span>what<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>am<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>I<span class='Hi'>span>?" <span class='Hi'>span>His<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>initial<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>answer<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>man<span class='Hi'>span>." <span class='Hi'>span>But<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>he<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>soon<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>discards<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>it<span class='Hi'>span>: "<span class='Hi'>span>But<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>what<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>man<span class='Hi'>span>? <span class='Hi'>span>Shall<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>I<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>say<span class='Hi'>span> '<span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>rational<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>animal<span class='Hi'>span>'? <span class='Hi'>span>No<span class='Hi'>span>: <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>then<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>I<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>should<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>inquire<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>what<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>an<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>animal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>what<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>rationality<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>way<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>one<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>question<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>would<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>lead<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>down<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>slope<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>harder<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>ones<span class='Hi'>span>." <span class='Hi'>span>Instead<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>understanding<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>what<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>man<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>Descartes<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>shifts<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>two<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>new<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>questions<span class='Hi'>span>: "<span class='Hi'>span>What<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mind<span class='Hi'>span>?" <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>What<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Body<span class='Hi'>span>?" <span class='Hi'>span>These<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>questions<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>develop<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>into<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Descartes<span class='Hi'>span>'<span class='Hi'>span>s<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>main<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>philosophical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>preoccupation<span class='Hi'>span>: <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mind<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>Body<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>distinction<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>How<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>can<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mind<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Body<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>be<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>independent<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>entities<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>yet<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>joined<span class='Hi'>span>--<span class='Hi'>span>essentially<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>so<span class='Hi'>span>--<span class='Hi'>span>within<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>single<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>human<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>being<span class='Hi'>span>? <span class='Hi'>span>If<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mind<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Body<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>really<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>distinct<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>human<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>beings<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>merely<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>construction<span class='Hi'>span>"? <span class='Hi'>span>On<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>other<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>hand<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>if<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>we<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>respect<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>integrity<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>humans<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mind<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Body<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>merely<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>aspects<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>human<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>being<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>not<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>subjects<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>themselves<span class='Hi'>span>? <span class='Hi'>span>For<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>centuries<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>philosophers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>have<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>considered<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>classic<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>philosophical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>puzzle<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Now<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>compact<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>engaging<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>long<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>awaited<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>work<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>UCLA<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>philosopher<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Joseph<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Almog<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>closely<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>decodes<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>French<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>philosopher<span class='Hi'>span>'<span class='Hi'>span>s<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argument<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>distinguishing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>between<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>human<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>mind<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>body<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>while<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>maintaining<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>simultaneously<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>their<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>essential<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>integration<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>human<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>being<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>He<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argues<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Descartes<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>constructed<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>solution<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>whereby<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>trio<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Human<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mind<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>Body<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Being<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>essentially<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>interdependent<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>yet<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>remain<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>each<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>genuine<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>individual<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>subject<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Almog<span class='Hi'>span>'<span class='Hi'>span>s<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>reading<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>not<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>only<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>steers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>away<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>from<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>most<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>popular<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>interpretations<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Descartes<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>but<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>also<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>represents<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>scholar<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>coming<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>grips<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>directly<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>with<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Descartes<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>himself<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>In<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>doing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>so<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>Almog<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>creates<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>work<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Cartesian<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>scholars<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>will<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>value<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>will<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>also<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>prove<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>indispensable<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>philosophers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>language<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>ontology<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>metaphysics<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>mind<span class='Hi'>span>. (shrink)
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  9.  52
    William P. Alston & Thomas W. Smythe (1994). Swinburne's Argument for Dualism. Faith and Philosophy 11 (1):127-33.
  10. Torin Alter (1998). A Limited Defense of the Knowledge Argument. Philosophical Studies 90 (1):35-56.
    <span class='Hi'>span>Mary<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>learns<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>all<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>facts<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>one<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>can<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>learn<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>by<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>watching<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>lectures<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>on<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>black<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>on<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>white<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>television<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>According<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Jackson<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>Mary<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>learns<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>new<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>facts<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>when<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>she<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>leaves<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>room<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>has<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>color<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>experiences<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>undermines<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Physicalists<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>have<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>responded<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>by<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>denying<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>new<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>facts<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>thesis<span class='Hi'>span>; <span class='Hi'>span>they<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argue<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>she<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>acquires<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>abilities<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>acquaintance<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>knowledge<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>or<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>new<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>guises<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>I<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argue<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>NFT<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>more<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>plausible<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>than<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>any<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>proposed<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>alternatives<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>I<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>also<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argue<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>NFT<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>does<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>not<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>undermine<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>unless<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>entails<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>all<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>facts<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>discursively<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>learnable<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>latter<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>entailment<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>questionable<span class='Hi'>span>. (shrink)
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  11. Torin Alter (2006). Does Representationalism Undermine the Knowledge Argument? In Torin Alter & Sven Walter (eds.), Phenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal Knowledge: New Essays on Consciousness and Physicalism. Oxford University Press 65--76.
    <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>knowledge<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argument<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>aims<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>refute<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>view<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>world<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>entirely<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argument<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>first<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>establishes<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>existence<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>facts<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>about<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>not<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>priori<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>deducible<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>from<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>complete<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>truth<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>then<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>infers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>falsity<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>from<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>lack<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>deducibility<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Frank<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Jackson<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>gave<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argument<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>its<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>classic<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>formulation<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>But<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>now<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>he<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>rejects<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argument<span class='Hi'>span> . <span class='Hi'>span>On<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>his<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>view<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>it<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>relies<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>on<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>false<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conception<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>sensory<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>experience<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>which<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>should<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>be<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>replaced<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>with<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>representationalism<span class='Hi'>span> , <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>view<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>states<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>just<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>representational<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>states<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>And<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>he<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argues<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>mental<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>representation<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physically<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>explicable<span class='Hi'>span>. (shrink)
     
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  12. Torin Alter, Garrett on Causal Essentialism and Zombies.
  13. Torin Alter (2007). Imagining Subjective Absence: Marcus on Zombies. Disputatio 2 (22):91-101.
    <span class='Hi'>span>Many<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>philosophers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>accept<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conceivability<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>zombies<span class='Hi'>span>: <span class='Hi'>span>creatures<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>lack<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>but<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physically<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>functionally<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>identical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conscious<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>human<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>beings<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Many<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>also<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>believe<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conceivability<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>zombies<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>supports<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>their<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>metaphysical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>possibility<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>And<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>most<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>agree<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>if<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>zombies<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>metaphysically<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>possible<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>then<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>false<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>So<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>claim<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>zombies<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conceivable<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>may<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>have<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>considerable<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>significance<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>1<span class='Hi'>span>. (shrink)
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  14. Torin Alter (2001). Know-How, Ability, and the Ability Hypothesis. Theoria 67 (3):229-39.
    <span class='Hi'>span>David<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Lewis<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Laurence<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Nemirow<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>claim<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>knowing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>what<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>an<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>experience<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>like<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>knowing<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>how<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>not<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>knowing<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>They<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>identify<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>know<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>how<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>with<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>abilities<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>remember<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>imagine<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>recognize<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>experiences<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Lewis<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>labels<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>their<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>view<span class='Hi'>span> ‘<span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Ability<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Hypothesis<span class='Hi'>span>’. <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Ability<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Hypothesis<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>has<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>intrinsic<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>interest<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>But<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Lewis<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Nemirow<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>devised<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>it<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>specifically<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>block<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>certain<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>anti<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>physicalist<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>arguments<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>due<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Thomas<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Nagel<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Frank<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Jackson<span class='Hi'>span> . <span class='Hi'>span>Does<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>it<span class='Hi'>span>? (shrink)
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  15. Torin Alter (1995). Mary's New Perspective. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 73 (4):585-84.
    <span class='Hi'>span>I<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>wish<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consider<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>an<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>objection<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Frank<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Jackson<span class='Hi'>span>'<span class='Hi'>span>s<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>knowledge<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argument<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>recently<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>made<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>by<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Derk<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Pereboom<span class='Hi'>span>. (shrink)
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  16. Torin Alter (2002). Nagel on Imagination and Physicalism. Journal of Philosophical Research 27:143-58.
    In "What is it Like to be a Bat?" Thomas Nagel argues that we cannot imagine what it is like to be a bat or presently understand (...)
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  17. Torin Alter & Sven Walter (eds.) (2007/2009). Phenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal Knowledge: New Essays on Consciousness and Physicalism. Oxford University Press.
    <span class='Hi'>span>What<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>nature<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>? <span class='Hi'>span>How<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>related<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>brain<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>processes<span class='Hi'>span>? <span class='Hi'>span>This<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>volume<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>collects<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>thirteen<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>new<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>papers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>on<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>these<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>topics<span class='Hi'>span>: <span class='Hi'>span>twelve<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>by<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>leading<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>respected<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>philosophers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>one<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>by<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>leading<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>color<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>vision<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>scientist<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>All<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>focus<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>on<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span>" <span class='Hi'>span>sense<span class='Hi'>span>: <span class='Hi'>span>on<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>what<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>it<span class='Hi'>span>'<span class='Hi'>span>s<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>like<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>have<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>an<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>experience<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>has<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>long<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>been<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>regarded<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>as<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>biggest<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>stumbling<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>block<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>view<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>mind<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>controversy<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>has<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>gained<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>focus<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>over<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>last<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>few<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>decades<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>knowledge<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>concepts<span class='Hi'>span>--<span class='Hi'>span>knowledge<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>associated<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>concepts<span class='Hi'>span>--<span class='Hi'>span>have<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>come<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>play<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>increasingly<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>prominent<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>roles<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>debate<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Consider<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Frank<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Jackson<span class='Hi'>span>'<span class='Hi'>span>s<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>famous<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>case<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mary<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>super<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>scientist<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>who<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>learns<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>all<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>information<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>while<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>confined<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>black<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>white<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>room<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>According<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Jackson<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>if<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>true<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>then<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mary<span class='Hi'>span>'<span class='Hi'>span>s<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>knowledge<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>should<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>allow<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>her<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>deduce<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>what<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>it<span class='Hi'>span>'<span class='Hi'>span>s<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>like<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>see<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>color<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Yet<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>it<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>seems<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>intuitively<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>clear<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>she<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>learns<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>something<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>when<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>she<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>leaves<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>room<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>But<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>then<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>how<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>can<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>be<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span>? <span class='Hi'>span>Arguably<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>whether<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>sort<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>reasoning<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>sound<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>depends<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>on<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>how<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>concepts<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>knowledge<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>construed<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>For<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>example<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>some<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argue<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mary<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>case<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>reveals<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>something<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>about<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>concepts<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>but<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>has<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>no<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>implications<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>nature<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>itself<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>responses<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>along<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>these<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>lines<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>adequate<span class='Hi'>span>? <span class='Hi'>span>Or<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>does<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>problem<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>arise<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>again<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>at<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>level<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>concepts<span class='Hi'>span>? <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>papers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>volume<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>engage<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>with<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>latest<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>developments<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>debate<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>authors<span class='Hi'>span>' <span class='Hi'>span>perspectives<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>range<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>widely<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>For<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>example<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>Daniel<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Dennett<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argues<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>anti<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>physicalist<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>arguments<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>such<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>as<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>knowledge<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argument<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>simply<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>confused<span class='Hi'>span>; <span class='Hi'>span>David<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Papineau<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>grants<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>such<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>arguments<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>at<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>least<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>reveal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>important<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>features<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>concepts<span class='Hi'>span>; <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>David<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Chalmers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>defends<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>anti<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>physicalist<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>arguments<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>arguing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>concept<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>strategy<span class='Hi'>span>" <span class='Hi'>span>cannot<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>succeed<span class='Hi'>span>. (shrink)
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  18. Torin Alter (forthcoming). The Hard Problem of Consciousness. In T. Bayne, A. Cleeremans & P. Wilken (eds.), Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Oxford University Press
    As I type these words, cognitive systems in my brain engage in visual and auditory information processing. This processing is accompanied by subjective states of consciousness, such (...)
     
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  19. Torin Alter, The Knowledge Argument. A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind.
    <span class='Hi'>span>Frank<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Jackson<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>first<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>presented<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Knowledge<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Argument<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>Epiphenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Qualia<span class='Hi'>span>" <span class='Hi'>span>1982<span class='Hi'>span>). <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>KA<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>an<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argument<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>against<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>doctrine<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>everything<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>general<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>thrust<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>KA<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>errs<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>by<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>misconstruing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>or<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>denying<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>existence<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>subjective<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>features<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>experience<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Physicalists<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>have<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>given<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>numerous<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>responses<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>debate<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>continues<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>about<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>whether<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>KA<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>ultimately<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>succeeds<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>refuting<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>any<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>or<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>all<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>forms<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Jackson<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>himself<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>has<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>recently<span class='Hi'>span>. (shrink)
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  20. Torin Alter (2007). The Knowledge Argument. In Max Velmans & Susan Schneider (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell
    <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>knowledge<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argument<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>aims<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>refute<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>doctrine<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>world<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>entirely<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Physicalism<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>widely<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>accepted<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>contemporary<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>philosophy<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>But<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>some<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>doubt<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>. (shrink)
     
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  21. James T. Anderson, A Simple Refutation of the Knowledge Argument Against Physicalism.
    One of the most persuasive objections to the identity thesis.
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  22. David Leech Anderson (2007). Consciousness and Realism. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (1):1-17.
    <span class='Hi'>span>There<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>long<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>storied<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>history<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>debates<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>over<span class='Hi'>span> '<span class='Hi'>span>realism<span class='Hi'>span>' <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>has<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>touched<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>literally<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>every<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>academic<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>discipline<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Yet<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>realism<span class='Hi'>span>- <span class='Hi'>span>antirealism<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>debates<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>play<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>relatively<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>minor<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>role<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>contemporary<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>study<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>In<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>paper<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>four<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>basic<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>varieties<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>realism<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>antirealism<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>explored<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>their<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>potential<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>impact<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>on<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>study<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>considered<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Reasons<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>offered<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>explain<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>why<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>there<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>not<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>more<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>debate<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>over<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>these<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>issues<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>including<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>discussion<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>powerful<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>influence<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>externalist<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>versions<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalist<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>realism<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Examples<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>given<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>approaches<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>studies<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>challenge<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>contemporary<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>versions<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalist<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>realism<span class='Hi'>span>. (shrink)
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  23.  21
    Frederick Anderson (1942). The Relational Theory of Mind. Journal of Philosophy 39 (May):253-260.
  24. Michael V. Antony (2008). Are Our Concepts Conscious State and Conscious Creature Vague? Erkenntnis 68 (2):239-263.
    <span class='Hi'>span>Intuitively<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>it<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>has<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>seemed<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>many<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>our<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>concepts<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>conscious<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>state<span class='Hi'>span>" <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>conscious<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>creature<span class='Hi'>span>" <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>sharp<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>rather<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>than<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>vague<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>they<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>can<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>have<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>no<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>borderline<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>cases<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>On<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>other<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>hand<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>many<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>who<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>take<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conscious<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>states<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>be<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>identical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>or<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>realized<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>by<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>complex<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>states<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>committed<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>vagueness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>those<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>concepts<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>In<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>paper<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>I<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argue<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>conscious<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>state<span class='Hi'>span>" <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>conscious<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>creature<span class='Hi'>span>" <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>sharp<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>by<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>presenting<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>four<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>necessary<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conditions<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conceiving<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>borderline<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>cases<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>general<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>showing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>some<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>those<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conditions<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>cannot<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>be<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>met<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>with<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>conscious<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>state<span class='Hi'>span>." <span class='Hi'>span>I<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conclude<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>conscious<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>state<span class='Hi'>span>" <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>sharp<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conclusion<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>then<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>extended<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> "<span class='Hi'>span>conscious<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>creature<span class='Hi'>span>." <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>paper<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>ends<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>with<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>brief<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>discussion<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>some<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>implications<span class='Hi'>span>. 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  25. Michael V. Antony (2006). Vagueness and the Metaphysics of Consciousness. Philosophical Studies 128 (3):515-538.
    An argument is offered for this conditional: If our current concept conscious state is sharp rather than vague, and also correct , then common versions of familiar metaphysical (...) theories of consciousness are false--?namely versions of the identity theory, functionalism, and dualism that appeal to complex physical or functional properties in identification, realization, or correlation. Reasons are also given for taking seriously the claim that our current concept conscious state is sharp. The paper ends by surveying the theoretical options left open by the concept's sharpness and the truth of the conditional argued for in the paper. (shrink)
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  26. Michael V. Antony (2002). Concepts of Consciousness, Kinds of Consciousness, Meanings of 'Consciousness'. Philosophical Studies 109 (1):1-16.
    <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>use<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>expressions<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>like<span class='Hi'>span> ‘<span class='Hi'>span>concepts<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>’, ‘<span class='Hi'>span>kinds<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>’, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> ‘<span class='Hi'>span>meanings<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> ‘<span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>’’ <span class='Hi'>span>interchangeably<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>ubiquitous<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>within<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>literature<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>It<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argued<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>practice<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>can<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>be<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>made<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>sense<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>only<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>two<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>ways<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>first<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>involves<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>interpreting<span class='Hi'>span> ‘<span class='Hi'>span>concepts<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>’ <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> ‘<span class='Hi'>span>kinds<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>’ <span class='Hi'>span>metalinguistically<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>mean<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>concepts<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>expressed<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>by<span class='Hi'>span> ‘<span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>’ <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>kinds<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>expressed<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>by<span class='Hi'>span> ‘<span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>’; <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>second<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>involves<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>certain<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>literal<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>though<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>semantically<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>deviant<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>interpretations<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>those<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>expressions<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>trouble<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>researchers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>typically<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>use<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>above<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>expressions<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>interchangeably<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>without<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>satisfying<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>either<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>way<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>doing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>so<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>coherently<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>result<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>much<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>error<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>confusion<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>which<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>demonstrated<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>works<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>philosophers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>currently<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>writing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>on<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>. 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  27. Michael V. Antony (2001). Conceiving Simple Experiences. Journal of Mind and Behavior 22 (3):263-86.
    <span class='Hi'>span>That<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>composed<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>simple<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>or<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>basic<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>elements<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>combine<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>form<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>complex<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>experiences<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>an<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>idea<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>with<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>long<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>history<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>This<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>idea<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>approached<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>through<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>an<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>examination<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>our<span class='Hi'>span> “<span class='Hi'>span>picture<span class='Hi'>span>” <span class='Hi'>span>or<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conception<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> . <span class='Hi'>span>It<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argued<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>CC<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>commits<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>us<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>certain<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>abstract<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>notion<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>simple<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>experiential<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>events<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>or<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>simples<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>traditional<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>critiques<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>simple<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>elements<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>experience<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>do<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>not<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>threaten<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>simples<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>To<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>extent<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>CC<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>taken<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conform<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>how<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>really<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>therefore<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>concept<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>simples<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>must<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>be<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>treated<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>kind<span class='Hi'>span>. (shrink)
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  28. Michael V. Antony (2001). Is 'Consciousness' Ambiguous? Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (2):19-44.
    <span class='Hi'>span>It<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>widely<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>assumed<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> ‘ <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> ’ <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>multiply<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>ambiguous<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>within<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>literature<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Some<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>alleged<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>senses<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>term<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>access<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>state<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>creature<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>introspective<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>self<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>name<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>few<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>In<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>paper<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>I<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argue<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>two<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>points<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>First<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>there<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>few<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>if<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>any<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>good<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>reasons<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>thinking<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>such<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>alleged<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>senses<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>genuine<span class='Hi'>span>: ‘ <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> ’ <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>best<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>viewed<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>as<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>univocal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>within<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>literature<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>second<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>point<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>researchers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>would<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>do<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>best<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>avoid<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>semantics<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> ‘ <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> ’, <span class='Hi'>span>since<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>resorting<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> “<span class='Hi'>span>semantic<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>ascent<span class='Hi'>span>” <span class='Hi'>span>typically<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>serves<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>no<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>clear<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>purpose<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>case<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>confuses<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>matters<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>more<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>than<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>anything<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>else<span class='Hi'>span>. 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  29.  73
    Michael V. Antony (1999). Outline of a General Methodology for Consciousness Research. Anthropology and Philosophy 3 (2):43-56.
    <span class='Hi'>span>In<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>spite<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>enormous<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>interdisciplinary<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>interest<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>these<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>days<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>sorely<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>lacking<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>general<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>methodologies<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>terms<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>which<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>individual<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>research<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>efforts<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>across<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>disciplines<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>can<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>be<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>seen<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>as<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>contributing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>common<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>end<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>In<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>paper<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>I<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>outline<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>such<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>methodology<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>central<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>idea<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>empirically<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>studying<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>our<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conception<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>—<span class='Hi'>span>what<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>we<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>have<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>mind<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>when<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>we<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>think<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>about<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span>—<span class='Hi'>span>can<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>lead<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>progress<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>on<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>consciousness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>itself<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>paper<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>clarifies<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>motivates<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>idea<span class='Hi'>span>. (shrink)
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  30.  74
    Michael V. Antony (2006). Vagueness and the Metaphysics of Consciousness. Philosophical Studies 128 (3):515-538.
    An argument is offered for this conditional: If our current concept conscious state is sharp rather than vague, and also correct , then common versions of familiar metaphysical (...) theories of consciousness are false. (shrink)
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  31. István Aranyosi (2005). Chalmers' Zombie Argument. In Type-a Dualism: A Novel Theory of the Mental-Physical Nexus. Dissertation, Central European University
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  32. István Aranyosi (2010). Powers and the MindBody Problem. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 18 (1):57 – 72.
    <span class='Hi'>span>This<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>paper<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>proposes<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>new<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>line<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>attack<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>on<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conceivability<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argument<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>mind<span class='Hi'>span>-<span class='Hi'>span>body<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>property<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>dualism<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>based<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>on<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>causal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>account<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>properties<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>according<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>which<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>properties<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>have<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>their<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conditional<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>powers<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>essentially<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>It<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argued<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>epistemic<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>possibility<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>but<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>not<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>phenomenal<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>duplicates<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>actuality<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>identical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>metaphysical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>possibility<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>but<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>irrelevant<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>establishing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>falsity<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physicalism<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>proposed<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>attack<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>many<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>ways<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>inspired<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>by<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>standard<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>broadly<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Kripkean<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>approach<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>epistemic<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>metaphysical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>modality<span class='Hi'>span>. (shrink)
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  33. István Aranyosi (2008). Review of Roy Sorensen's Seeing Dark Things. The Philosophy of Shadows. [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 86 (3):513-515.
  34. Istvan A. Aranyosi (2005). Type-a Dualism: A Novel Theory of the Mental-Physical Nexus. Dissertation, Central European University
     
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  35.  37
    David M. Armstrong & Norman Malcolm (1984). Consciousness and Causality: A Debate on the Nature of Mind. Blackwell.
  36. David M. Armstrong (1983). Recent Work on the Relation of Mind and Brain. In Contemporary Philosophy: A New Survey. The Hague: Nijhoff
     
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  37. David M. Armstrong (1979). Three Types of Consciousness. In Brain and Mind. (Ciba Foundation Symposium 69) 235.
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  38. David M. Armstrong (1981). What is Consciousness? In John Heil (ed.), The Nature of Mind. Cornell University Press
     
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  39. Marcus Arvan (1998). Out with Qualia and in with Consciousness: Why the Hard Problem is a Myth. Dissertation, Tufts Honours Thesis
    <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>subjective<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>features<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conscious<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>mental<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>processes<span class='Hi'>span>--<span class='Hi'>span>as<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>opposed<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>their<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>causes<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>effects<span class='Hi'>span>--<span class='Hi'>span>cannot<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>be<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>captured<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>by<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>purified<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>form<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>thought<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>suitable<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>dealing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>with<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>physical<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>world<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>underlies<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>appearances<span class='Hi'>span>.". (shrink)
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  40. Murat Aydede & Guven Guzeldere (2001). Consciousness, Conceivability Arguments, and Perspectivalism: The Dialectics of the Debate. Communication and Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Journal 34 (1-2):99-122.
  41. Jay E. Bachrach (1990). Qualia and Theory Reduction: A Criticism of Paul Churchland. Iyyun 281.
  42.  7
    Lee Badger (1980). Beth's Property Fails in $L^{. Journal of Symbolic Logic 45 (2):284-290.
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  43. Joan Bagaria & W. Hugh Woodin (1997). $\Underset{\Tilde}{\Delta}^1_n$ Sets of Reals. Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (4):1379-1428.
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  44.  95
    Alexander Bain (1894). Definition and Problems of Consciousness. Mind 3 (11):348-361.
  45. Alexander Bain (1883). Mind and Body. Mind 8 (31):402-412.
  46. Andrew R. Bailey, Physicalism and the Preposterousness of Zombies.
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  47. Andrew R. Bailey, The Unsoundness of Arguments From Conceivability.
    <span class='Hi'>span>It<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>widely<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>suspected<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>that<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>arguments<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>from<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conceivability<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>at<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>least<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>some<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>their<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>more<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>notorious<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>instances<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>unsound<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>However<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>reasons<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>failure<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conceivability<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>arguments<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>are<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>less<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>well<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>agreed<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>upon<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>it<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>remains<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>unclear<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>how<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>distinguish<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>between<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>sound<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>unsound<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>instances<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>form<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>In<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>paper<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>I<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>provide<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>an<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>analysis<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>form<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>arguments<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>from<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>conceivability<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>use<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>this<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>analysis<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>diagnose<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>a<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>systematic<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>weakness<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>argument<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>form<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>which<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>reveals<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>all<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>its<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>instances<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>to<