Search results for 'ACTION-POTENTIALS' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  3
    G. L. Freeman & L. H. Sharp (1941). Muscular Action Potentials and the Time-Error Function in Lifted Weight Judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (1):23.
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  2.  3
    James C. Diggory, Sherwin J. Klein & Malcolm Cohen (1964). Muscle-Action Potentials and Estimated Probability of Success. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (5):449.
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  3.  2
    Walter W. Surwillo (1956). Psychological Factors in Muscle-Action Potentials: EMG Gradients. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (4):263.
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  4.  2
    Robert L. Henderson (1952). Remote Action Potentials at the Moment of Response in a Simple Reaction-Time Situation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 44 (4):238.
  5.  2
    R. C. Davis (1938). The Relation of Muscle Action Potentials to Difficulty and Frustration. Journal of Experimental Psychology 23 (2):141.
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  6.  1
    W. A. Shaw & L. H. Kline (1947). A Study of Muscle Action Potentials During the Attempted Solution by Children of Problems of Increasing Difficulty. Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (2):146.
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  7.  1
    Mary E. Reuder (1956). The Effect of Ego Orientation and Problem Difficulty on Muscle Action Potentials. Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (2):142.
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  8.  1
    R. S. Daniel (1939). The Distribution of Muscular Action Potentials During Maze Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (6):621.
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  9. Benjamin W. Libet (1985). Unconscious Cerebral Initiative and the Role of Conscious Will in Voluntary Action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):529-66.
    Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about200 ms. Control experiments, in which a skin stimulus was timed (S), helped evaluate each subject's error in reporting the clock times for awareness of any perceived event.
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  10.  1
    S. R. Hathaway (1935). An Action Potential Study of Neuromuscular Relations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 18 (3):285.
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  11. Arnon Levy (2013). What Was Hodgkin and Huxley's Achievement? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (3):axs043.
    The Hodgkin–Huxley (HH) model of the action potential is a theoretical pillar of modern neurobiology. In a number of recent publications, Carl Craver ([2006], [2007], [2008]) has argued that the model is explanatorily deficient because it does not reveal enough about underlying molecular mechanisms. I offer an alternative picture of the HH model, according to which it deliberately abstracts from molecular specifics. By doing so, the model explains whole-cell behaviour as the product of a mass of underlying low-level events. The (...)
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  12.  45
    P. Fries (2005). A Mechanism for Cognitive Dynamics: Neuronal Communication Through Neuronal Coherence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (10):474-480.
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  13.  43
    Marcel Weber (2005). Indeterminism in Neurobiology. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):663-674.
    I examine different arguments that could be used to establish indeterminism of neurological processes. Even though scenarios where single events at the molecular level make the difference in the outcome of such processes are realistic, this falls short of establishing indeterminism, because it is not clear that these molecular events are subject to quantum mechanical uncertainty. Furthermore, attempts to argue for indeterminism autonomously (i.e., independently of quantum mechanics) fail, because both deterministic and indeterministic models can account for the empirically observed (...)
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  14.  3
    Roland C. Davis (1950). Motor Responses to Auditory Stimuli Above and Below Threshold. Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (1):107.
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  15.  3
    Henry D. Meyer (1949). Reaction Time as Related to Tensions in Muscles Not Essential in the Reaction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (1):96.
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  16.  2
    Charles R. Galbrecht, Roscoe A. Dykman, William G. Reese & Tetsuko Suzuki (1965). Intrasession Adaptation and Intersession Extinction of the Components of the Orienting Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (6):585.
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  17.  2
    Roland C. Davis (1948). Motor Effects of Strong Auditory Stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (3):257.
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  18.  2
    G. L. Freeman (1940). Cortical Autonomous Rhythms and the Excitatory Levels of Other Bodily Tissues. Journal of Experimental Psychology 27 (2):160-171.
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  19. Elijah Millgram (2009). Life and Action. Analysis 69 (3):557-564.
    In the ongoing discussion about practical rationality, one of the big questions has become: how does one go about conducting an argument about the forms that practical reasoning can take? Life and Action is thus of great interest not just because it advances substantive and novel views as to what those inference patterns are, but in that it puts on the table, by my count, five distinct methods of arriving at conclusions as to what reasoning about what to do can (...)
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  20. M. F. Rushworth, M. E. Walton, S. W. Kennerley & D. M. Bannerman (2004). Action Sets and Decisions in the Medial Frontal Cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (9):410-417.
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  21.  84
    Walter Freeman (2014). Consciousness Began with a Hunter's Plan. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 10 (1):140-148.
    Animals search for food and shelter by locomotion through time and space. The elemental step is the action-perception cycle, which has three steps. In the first step a volley of action potentials initiated by an act of search triggers the formation of a macroscopic wave packet that constitutes the memory of the stimulus. The wave packet is filtered and sent to the entorhinal cortex, where it is combined with wave packets from all sensory systems. This triggers the second step forming (...)
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  22.  50
    N. Cufaro-Petroni, C. Dewdney, P. R. Holland, A. Kyprianidis & J. P. Vigier (1987). Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Constraints on Quantum Action at a Distance: The Sutherland Paradox. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 17 (8):759-773.
    Assuming that future experiments confirm Aspect's discovery of nonlocal interactions between quantum pairs of correlated particles, we analyze the constraints imposed by the EPR reasoning on the said interactions. It is then shown that the nonlocal relativistic quantum potential approach plainly satisfies the Einstein causality criteria as well as the energy-momentum conservation in individual microprocesses. Furthermore, this approach bypasses a new causal paradox for timelike separated EPR measurements deduced by Sutherland in the frame of an approach by means of space-time (...)
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  23.  27
    Alexander Schlegel, Prescott Alexander, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Adina Roskies, Peter Ulric Tse & Thalia Wheatley (2015). Hypnotizing Libet: Readiness Potentials with Non-Conscious Volition. Consciousness and Cognition 33:196-203.
    The readiness potential (RP) is one of the most controversial topics in neuroscience and philosophy due to its perceived relevance to the role of conscious willing in action. Libet and colleagues reported that RP onset precedes both volitional movement and conscious awareness of willing that movement, suggesting that the experience of conscious will may not cause volitional movement (Libet, Gleason, Wright, & Pearl, 1983). Rather, they suggested that the RP indexes unconscious processes that may actually cause both volitional movement and (...)
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  24.  40
    Daniel von Wachter, Libet's Experiment Provides No Evidence Against Strong Libertarian Free Will Because Readiness Potentials Do Not Cause Our Actions.
    This article argues against Benjamin Libet’s claim that his experiment has shown that our actions are caused by brain events which begin before we decide and before we even think about the action. It assumes, contra the com- patibilists and pro Libet, that this claim is incompatible with free will. It clarifies what exactly should be meant by saying that the readiness potential causes, initiates, or pre- pares an action. It shows why Libet’s experiment does not support his claim and (...)
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  25.  1
    Anton Leist (2011). Potentials of Cooperation. Analyse & Kritik 33 (1):7-33.
    Since Hobbes' Leviathan was published in 1651, the 'problem of order' has been known for some time. Despite this long gestation period for social theory even today we do not have a universally agreed upon answer to this 'problem'. One of the reasons behind this lacuna may be the overly dispersed work being done in the economic and sociological traditions. Whereas one tradition favours 'collective action' as a central answer, the other thinks of the problem itself being dissolved by the (...)
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  26. David M. Kaplan & William Bechtel (2011). Dynamical Models: An Alternative or Complement to Mechanistic Explanations? Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):438-444.
    Abstract While agreeing that dynamical models play a major role in cognitive science, we reject Stepp, Chemero, and Turvey's contention that they constitute an alternative to mechanistic explanations. We review several problems dynamical models face as putative explanations when they are not grounded in mechanisms. Further, we argue that the opposition of dynamical models and mechanisms is a false one and that those dynamical models that characterize the operations of mechanisms overcome these problems. By briefly considering examples involving the generation (...)
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  27. Peter F. Dominey, Tony J. Prescott, Jeannette Bohg, Andreas K. Engel, Shaun Gallagher, Tobias Heed, Matej Hoffmann, Gunther Knoblich, Wolfgang Prinz & Andrew Schwartz (2016). Implications of Action-Oriented Paradigm Shifts in Cognitive Science. In Andreas K. Engel, Karl J. Friston & Danica Kragic (eds.), The Pragmatic Turn: Toward Action-Oriented Views in Cognitive Science. MIT Press 333-356.
    An action-oriented perspective changes the role of an individual from a passive observer to an actively engaged agent interacting in a closed loop with the world as well as with others. Cognition exists to serve action within a landscape that contains both. This chapter surveys this landscape and addresses the status of the pragmatic turn. Its potential influence on science and the study of cognition are considered (including perception, social cognition, social interaction, sensorimotor entrainment, and language acquisition) and its impact (...)
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  28.  97
    Maria Brincker (2015). Beyond Sensorimotor Segregation: On Mirror Neurons and Social Affordance Space Tracking. Cognitive Systems Research 34:18-34.
    Mirror neuron research has come a long way since the early 1990s, and many theorists are now stressing the heterogeneity and complexity of the sensorimotor properties of fronto-parietal circuits. However, core aspects of the initial ‘ mirror mechanism ’ theory, i.e. the idea of a symmetric encapsulated mirroring function translating sensory action perceptions into motor formats, still appears to be shaping much of the debate. This article challenges the empirical plausibility of the sensorimotor segregation implicit in the original mirror metaphor. (...)
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  29. Rosa Cao (2012). A Teleosemantic Approach to Information in the Brain. Biology and Philosophy 27 (1):49-71.
    The brain is often taken to be a paradigmatic example of a signaling system with semantic and representational properties, in which neurons are senders and receivers of information carried in action potentials. A closer look at this picture shows that it is not as appealing as it might initially seem in explaining the function of the brain. Working from several sender-receiver models within the teleosemantic framework, I will first argue that two requirements must be met for a system to support (...)
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  30.  5
    Sebastian Wallot & Guy Van Orden (2012). Ultrafast Cognition. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (5-6):5-6.
    Observations of ultrafast cognition in human performance challenge intuitive information processing and computation metaphors of cognitive processing. Instances of ultrafast cognition are marked by ultrafast response times of reliable, accurate responses to a relatively complex stimulus. Ultrafast means response times that are as fast as a single feedforward burst of activity across the nervous system connecting eye to hand. Thus the information processing and computation metaphors in question are those in which some amount of time is required to decide and (...)
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  31.  67
    Kenneth F. Schaffner (2008). Theories, Models, and Equations in Biology: The Heuristic Search for Emergent Simplifications in Neurobiology. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):1008-1021.
    This article considers claims that biology should seek general theories similar to those found in physics but argues for an alternative framework for biological theories as collections of prototypical interlevel models that can be extrapolated by analogy to different organisms. This position is exemplified in the development of the Hodgkin‐Huxley giant squid model for action potentials, which uses equations in specialized ways. This model is viewed as an “emergent unifier.” Such unifiers, which require various simplifications, involve the types of heuristics (...)
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  32. Ken Aizawa, Another Look at McCulloch and Pitts's “Logical Calculus”.
    To date, almost every historical examination of Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts’s, “A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity” has focused its attention on one dimension of their paper, namely, the attempt to relate neuronal action potentials to formulae in (an extension of) Boolean logic.[1] The implicit justification for this focus begins with the observation that this constitutes the most substantial conceptual innovation of the paper. Earlier work in theoretical neurophysiology had provided mathematical descriptions of neural networks (...)
     
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  33. John Hawthorne & Jason Stanley (2008). Knowledge and Action. Journal of Philosophy 105 (10):571-590.
    Judging by our folk appraisals, then, knowledge and action are intimately related. The theories of rational action with which we are familiar leave this unexplained. Moreover, discussions of knowledge are frequently silent about this connection. This is a shame, since if there is such a connection it would seem to constitute one of the most fundamental roles for knowledge. Our purpose in this paper is to rectify this lacuna, by exploring ways in which knowing something is related to rationally acting (...)
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  34.  46
    Rosa Cao (2014). Signaling in the Brain: In Search of Functional Units. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):891-901.
    What are the functional units of the brain? If the function of the brain is to process information-carrying signals, then the functional units will be the senders and receivers of those signals. Neurons have been the default candidate, with action potentials as the signals. But there are alternatives: synapses fit the action potential picture more cleanly, and glial activities (e.g., in astrocytes) might also be characterized as signaling. Are synapses or nonneuronal cells better candidates to play the role of functional (...)
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  35.  39
    D. L. Wilson (1999). Mind-Brain Interactionism and the Violation of Physical Laws. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (8-9):8-9.
    If mind is not a part of the physical universe but is able to influence brain events, then violations of physical laws should occur at points of such mental influence. Using current knowledge of how the nervous system functions, the minimal necessary magnitude of such violations is examined. A variety of influences that could produce action potentials is considered, including the direct opening of sodium channels in membranes, the triggering of release of neurotransmitter at synapses, the opening of postsynaptic, ligand-gated (...)
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  36.  37
    B. I. B. Lindahl & P. Århem (1994). Mind as a Force Field: Comments on a New Interactionistic Hypothesis. Journal of Theoretical Biology 171:111-22.
    The survival and development of consciousness in biological evolution call for an explanation. An interactionistic mind-brain theory seems to have the greatest explanatory value in this context. An interpretation of an interactionistic hypothesis, recently proposed by Karl Popper, is discussed both theoretically and based on recent experimental data. In the interpretation, the distinction between the conscious mind and the brain is seen as a division into what is subjective and what is objective, and not as an ontological distinction between something (...)
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  37.  28
    Walter J. Freeman (2001). Noise-Driven Attractor Landscapes for Perception by Mesoscopic Brain Dynamics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):816-817.
    Tsuda offers advanced concepts to model brain functions, includ-ing “chaotic itinerancy,” “attractor ruins,” “singular-continuous nowhere-differentiable attractors,” “Cantor coding,” “multi-Milnor attractor systems,” and “dynamically generated noise.” References to physiological descriptions of attractor landscapes governing activity over cortical fields maintained by millions of action potentials may facilitate their application in future experimental designs and data analyses.
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  38. Alexandre Kuhn, Neuronal Integration of Synaptic Input in the Fluctuation- Driven Regime.
    During sensory stimulation, visual cortical neurons undergo massive synaptic bombardment. This increases their input conductance, and action potentials mainly result from membrane potential fluctuations. To understand the response properties of neurons operating in this regime, we studied a model neuron with synaptic inputs represented by transient membrane conductance changes. We show that with a simultaneous increase of excitation and inhibition, the firing rate first increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases at higher input rates. Comodulation of excitation and inhibition, therefore, (...)
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  39. Dimitris Platchias (2010). Phenomenal Consciousness: Understanding the Relation Between Experience and Neural Processes in the Brain. Routledge.
    How can the fine-grained phenomenology of conscious experience arise from neural processes in the brain? How does a set of action potentials become like the feeling of pain in one's experience? Contemporary neuroscience is teaching us that our mental states correlate with neural processes in the brain. However, although we know that experience arises from a physical basis, we don't have a good explanation of why and how it so arises. The problem of how physical processes give rise to experience (...)
     
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  40. Dimitris Platchias (2014). Phenomenal Consciousness: Understanding the Relation Between Experience and Neural Processes in the Brain. Routledge.
    How can the fine-grained phenomenology of conscious experience arise from neural processes in the brain? How does a set of action potentials become like the feeling of pain in one's experience? Contemporary neuroscience is teaching us that our mental states correlate with neural processes in the brain. However, although we know that experience arises from a physical basis, we don't have a good explanation of why and how it so arises. The problem of how physical processes give rise to experience (...)
     
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  41. David L. Wilson (2015). Nonphysical Souls Would Violate Physical Laws. In Keith Augustine & Michael Martin (eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death. Rowman & Littlefield 349-367.
    This paper argues that nonphysical souls would violate fundamental physical laws if they were able to influence brain events. Though we have no idea how nonphysical souls might operate, we know quite a bit about how brains work, so we can consider each of the ways that an external force could interrupt brain processes enough to control one’s body. It concludes that there is no way that a nonphysical soul could interact with the brain—neither by introducing new energy into the (...)
     
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  42. Arto Laitinen & Constantine Sandis (2010). Introduction : Hegel and Contemporary Philosophy of Action. In Arto Laitinen & Constantine Sandis (eds.), Hegel on Action. Palgrave Macmillan
    The aim of this book is to provide an in-depth account of Hegel’s writings on human action as they relate to contemporary concerns in the hope that it will encourage fruitful dialogue between Hegel scholars and those working in the philosophy of action. During the past two decades, preliminary steps towards such a dialogue were taken, but many paths remain uncharted. The book thus serves as both a summative document of past interaction and a promissory note of things to come. (...)
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  43.  39
    Bernhard Hommel, Jochen Müsseler, Gisa Aschersleben & Wolfgang Prinz (2001). The Theory of Event Coding (TEC): A Framework for Perception and Action Planning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):849-878.
    Traditional approaches to human information processing tend to deal with perception and action planning in isolation, so that an adequate account of the perception-action interface is still missing. On the perceptual side, the dominant cognitive view largely underestimates, and thus fails to account for, the impact of action-related processes on both the processing of perceptual information and on perceptual learning. On the action side, most approaches conceive of action planning as a mere continuation of stimulus processing, thus failing to account (...)
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  44. Carl Ginet (1990). On Action. Cambridge University Press.
    This book deals with foundational issues in the history of the nature of action, the intentionality of action, the compatibility of freedom of action with determinism, and the explanation of action. Ginet's is a volitional view: that every action has as its core a "simple" mental action. He develops a sophisticated account of the individuation of actions and also propounds a challenging version of the view that freedom of action is incompatible with determinism.
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  45. John R. Searle (2003). Rationality in Action. MIT Press.
    The study of rationality and practical reason, or rationality in action, has been central to Western intellectual culture. In this invigorating book, John Searle lays out six claims of what he calls the Classical Model of rationality and shows why they are false. He then presents an alternative theory of the role of rationality in thought and action. -/- A central point of Searle's theory is that only irrational actions are directly caused by beliefs and desires—for example, the actions of (...)
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  46. David-Hillel Ruben (2008). Disjunctive Theories of Perception and Action. In Adrian Haddock & Fiona Macpherson (eds.), Disjunctivism: Perception, Action, Knowledge. Oxford University Press 227--243.
    A comparison of disjunctive theories of action and perception. The development of a theory of action that warrants the name, a disjunctive theory. On this theory, there is an exclusive disjunction: either an action or an event (in one sense). It follows that in that sense basic actions do not have events intrinsic to them.
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  47. Joshua Knobe (2003). Intentional Action in Folk Psychology: An Experimental Investigation. Philosophical Psychology 16 (2):309-325.
    Four experiments examined people’s folk-psychological concept of intentional action. The chief question was whether or not _evaluative _considerations — considerations of good and bad, right and wrong, praise and blame — played any role in that concept. The results indicated that the moral qualities of a behavior strongly influence people’s judgements as to whether or not that behavior should be considered ‘intentional.’ After eliminating a number of alternative explanations, the author concludes that this effect is best explained by the hypothesis (...)
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  48. Stephen Andrew Butterfill & Corrado Sinigaglia (2014). Intention and Motor Representation in Purposive Action. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 88 (1):119-145.
    Are there distinct roles for intention and motor representation in explaining the purposiveness of action? Standard accounts of action assign a role to intention but are silent on motor representation. The temptation is to suppose that nothing need be said here because motor representation is either only an enabling condition for purposive action or else merely a variety of intention. This paper provides reasons for resisting that temptation. Some motor representations, like intentions, coordinate actions in virtue of representing outcomes; but, (...)
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  49.  19
    Jürgen Habermas (1984). The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 1, 'Reason and the Rationalization of Society'. Polity..
  50. David-Hillel Ruben (2010). The Causal and Deliberative Strength of Reasons for Action. In J. Aguilar & A. Buckareff (eds.), Causing Human Action: New Perspectives on the Causal Theory of Action. Bradford
    Is the thought that having a reason for action can also be the cause of the action for which it is the reason coherent? This is an attempt to say exactly what is involved in such a thought, with special reference to the case of con-reasons, reasons that count against the action the agent eventually choses.
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