1132 found
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S. Alexander [119]Larry Alexander [76]Peter Alexander [74]Jeffrey C. Alexander [47]
H. B. Alexander [33]Hartley Burr Alexander [32]Thomas M. Alexander [28]H. G. Alexander [27]

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Profile: Shamas Alexander (University of Manchester)
Profile: Samuel Alexander (Ohio State University)
Profile: Joshua Alexander (Siena College)
Profile: Jeffrey Hugh Alexander (Des Moines Area Community College)
Profile: David J. Alexander (Iowa State University)
Profile: David Alexander (Huntington University)
Profile: David Alexander
Profile: Anna Alexander (Koc University)
Profile: Plamena Alexander (Nottingham University)
Profile: Aharon Alexander (University of Houston)
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  1. Stacey Swain, Joshua Alexander & Jonathan Weinberg (2008). The Instability of Philosophical Intuitions: Running Hot and Cold on Truetemp. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 76 (1):138-155.
    A growing body of empirical literature challenges philosophers’ reliance on intuitions as evidence based on the fact that intuitions vary according to factors such as cultural and educational background, and socio-economic status. Our research extends this challenge, investigating Lehrer’s appeal to the Truetemp Case as evidence against reliabilism. We found that intuitions in response to this case vary according to whether, and which, other thought experiments are considered first. Our results show that compared to subjects who receive the Truetemp Case (...)
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  2. Jonathan M. Weinberg, Chad Gonnerman, Cameron Buckner & Joshua Alexander (2010). Are Philosophers Expert Intuiters? Philosophical Psychology 23 (3):331-355.
    Recent experimental philosophy arguments have raised trouble for philosophers' reliance on armchair intuitions. One popular line of response has been the expertise defense: philosophers are highly-trained experts, whereas the subjects in the experimental philosophy studies have generally been ordinary undergraduates, and so there's no reason to think philosophers will make the same mistakes. But this deploys a substantive empirical claim, that philosophers' training indeed inculcates sufficient protection from such mistakes. We canvass the psychological literature on expertise, which indicates that people (...)
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  3. S. Matthew Liao, Alex Wiegmann, Joshua Alexander & Gerard Vong (2012). Putting the Trolley in Order: Experimental Philosophy and the Loop Case. Philosophical Psychology 25 (5):661-671.
    In recent years, a number of philosophers have conducted empirical studies that survey people's intuitions about various subject matters in philosophy. Some have found that intuitions vary accordingly to seemingly irrelevant facts: facts about who is considering the hypothetical case, the presence or absence of certain kinds of content, or the context in which the hypothetical case is being considered. Our research applies this experimental philosophical methodology to Judith Jarvis Thomson's famous Loop Case, which she used to call into question (...)
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  4. Joshua Alexander & Jonathan M. Weinberg (2007). Analytic Epistemology and Experimental Philosophy. Philosophy Compass 2 (1):56–80.
    It has been standard philosophical practice in analytic philosophy to employ intuitions generated in response to thought-experiments as evidence in the evaluation of philosophical claims. In part as a response to this practice, an exciting new movement—experimental philosophy—has recently emerged. This movement is unified behind both a common methodology and a common aim: the application of methods of experimental psychology to the study of the nature of intuitions. In this paper, we will introduce two different views concerning the relationship that (...)
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  5.  1
    Michelle Alexander & Cornel West (2012). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. The New Press.
    This book directly challenges the notion that the election of Barack Obama signals a new era of colorblindness. Michelle Alexander argues that "we have not ended racial caste in America; we have merely redesigned it." By targeting black men through the War on Drugs and decimating communities of color, the U.S. criminal justice system functions as a contemporary system of racial control---relegating millions to a permanent second-class status---even as it formally adheres to the principle of colorblindness.
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  6.  17
    Larry Alexander (2009). Crime and Culpability: A Theory of Criminal Law. Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents a comprehensive overview of what the criminal law would look like if organized around the principle that those who deserve punishment should receive punishment commensurate with, but no greater than, that which they ...
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  7.  57
    Joshua Alexander (2012). Experimental Philosophy: An Introduction. Polity Press.
    Experimental philosophy uses experimental research methods from psychology and cognitive science in order to investigate both philosophical and metaphilosophical questions. It explores philosophical questions about the nature of the psychological world - the very structure or meaning of our concepts of things, and about the nature of the non-psychological world - the things themselves. It also explores metaphilosophical questions about the nature of philosophical inquiry and its proper methodology. This book provides a detailed and provocative introduction to this innovative field, (...)
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  8. Joshua Alexander, Ronald Mallon & Jonathan M. Weinberg (2010). Accentuate the Negative. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2):297-314.
    Our interest in this paper is to drive a wedge of contention between two different programs that fall under the umbrella of “experimental philosophy”. In particular, we argue that experimental philosophy’s “negative program” presents almost as significant a challenge to its “positive program” as it does to more traditional analytic philosophy.
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  9.  1
    Garrett E. Alexander, Mahlon R. DeLong & Michael D. Crutcher (1992). Do Cortical and Basal Ganglionic Motor Areas Use “Motor Programs” to Control Movement? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (4):656-665.
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  10. Jason McKenzie Alexander, Johannes Himmelreich & Christopher Thompson (2015). Epistemic Landscapes, Optimal Search, and the Division of Cognitive Labor. Philosophy of Science 82 (3):424-453,.
    This article examines two questions about scientists’ search for knowledge. First, which search strategies generate discoveries effectively? Second, is it advantageous to diversify search strategies? We argue pace Weisberg and Muldoon, “Epistemic Landscapes and the Division of Cognitive Labor”, that, on the first question, a search strategy that deliberately seeks novel research approaches need not be optimal. On the second question, we argue they have not shown epistemic reasons exist for the division of cognitive labor, identifying the errors that led (...)
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  11. George Sun, John Howie, Thomas Alexander, Kenneth Stikkers & Randall Auxier (2006). Remembering Lewis E. Hahn. Philosophy East and West 56 (1):1-15.
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  12. J. McKenzie Alexander (2009). Social Deliberation: Nash, Bayes, and the Partial Vindication of Gabriele Tarde. Episteme 6 (2):164-184.
    At the very end of the 19th century, Gabriele Tarde wrote that all society was a product of imitation and innovation. This view regarding the development of society has, to a large extent, fallen out of favour, and especially so in those areas where the rational actor model looms large. I argue that this is unfortunate, as models of imitative learning, in some cases, agree better with what people actually do than more sophisticated models of learning. In this paper, I (...)
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  13. H. Deschamps & S. Alexander (1962). Toward a History of Africa. Diogenes 10 (37):105-114.
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  14. J. McKenzie Alexander (2015). Cheap Talk, Reinforcement Learning, and the Emergence of Cooperation. Philosophy of Science 82 (5):969-982.
    Cheap talk has often been thought incapable of supporting the emergence of cooperation because costless signals, easily faked, are unlikely to be reliable. I show how, in a social network model of cheap talk with reinforcement learning, cheap talk does enable the emergence of cooperation, provided that individuals also temporally discount the past. This establishes one mechanism that suffices for moving a population of initially uncooperative individuals to a state of mutually beneficial cooperation even in the absence of formal institutions.
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  15. William Alexander, Keith Anderson, Jane Harris, Julian Ingram, Tom Nelson, Katherine Woods & Judy Svensen, On Good and Bad: Whether Happiness is the Highest Good.
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  16. J. McKenzie Alexander (2007). The Structural Evolution of Morality. Cambridge University Press.
    It is certainly the case that morality governs the interactions that take place between individuals. But what if morality exists because of these interactions? This book argues for the claim that much of the behaviour we view as 'moral' exists because acting in that way benefits each of us to the greatest extent possible, given the socially structured nature of society. Drawing upon aspects of evolutionary game theory, the theory of bounded rationality, and computational models of social networks, it shows (...)
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  17. Keith Anderson, Katherine Woods, William Alexander, Julian Ingram & Mark Johnson, Characters of the Dialogue.
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RECORDER'S PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (...)
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  18. Joshua Alexander (2014). Experimental Philosophy: An Introduction. Polity.
    Experimental philosophy uses experimental research methods from psychology and cognitive science in order to investigate both philosophical and metaphilosophical questions. It explores philosophical questions about the nature of the psychological world - the very structure or meaning of our concepts of things, and about the nature of the non-psychological world - the things themselves. It also explores metaphilosophical questions about the nature of philosophical inquiry and its proper methodology. This book provides a detailed and provocative introduction to this innovative field, (...)
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  19. Rocky Roden, Mike Forrest, Roger Holeywell, Matthew Carr & P. A. Alexander (2014). The Role of AVO in Prospect Risk Assessment. Interpretation 2 (2):SC61-SC76.
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  20. Jeffrey C. Alexander (2010). Marxism and the Spirit of Socialism: Cultural Origins of Anti-Capitalism (1982). Thesis Eleven 100 (1):84-105.
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  21.  37
    William H. Alexander & Joshua W. Brown (2010). Computational Models of Performance Monitoring and Cognitive Control. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):658-677.
    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been the subject of intense interest as a locus of cognitive control. Several computational models have been proposed to account for a range of effects, including error detection, conflict monitoring, error likelihood prediction, and numerous other effects observed with single-unit neurophysiology, fMRI, and lesion studies. Here, we review the state of computational models of cognitive control and offer a new theoretical synthesis of the mPFC as signaling response–outcome predictions. This new synthesis has two interacting (...)
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  22. Hartley Alexander (1920). A Lover of the Chair. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 17 (25):685-688.
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  23. David J. Alexander (2013). The Problem of Respecting Higher-Order Doubt. Philosophers' Imprint 13 (18).
    This paper argues that higher-order doubt generates an epistemic dilemma. One has a higher-order doubt with regards to P insofar as one justifiably withholds belief as to what attitude towards P is justified. That is, one justifiably withholds belief as to whether one is justified in believing, disbelieving, or withholding belief in P. Using the resources provided by Richard Feldman’s recent discussion of how to respect one’s evidence, I argue that if one has a higher-order doubt with regards to P, (...)
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  24. Jeffrey C. Alexander (2010). The 'Marxism Project' in The History of Its Times. Thesis Eleven 100 (1):81-83.
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  25.  15
    M. Jacqui Alexander & Chandra Talpade Mohanty (eds.) (1996). Feminist Genealogies, Colonial Legacies, Democratic Futures. Routledge.
    Feminist Geneaologies, Colonial Legacies, Democratic Futures provides a feminist anaylsis of the questions of sexual and gender politics, economic and cultural marginality, and anti-racist and anti-colonial practices both in the "West" and in the "Third World." This collection, edited by Jacqui Alexander and Chandra Talpade Mohanty, charts the underlying theoretical perspectives and organization practices of the different varieties of feminism that take on questions of colonialism, imperialism, and the repressive rule of colonial, post-colonial and advanced capitalist nation-states. It provides a (...)
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  26. J. McKenzie Alexander (2012). Why the Angels Cannot Choose. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (4):619 - 640.
    Decision theory faces a number of problematic gambles which challenge it to say what value an ideal rational agent should assign to the gamble, and why. Yet little attention has been devoted to the question of what an ideal rational agent is, and in what sense decision theory may be said to apply to one. I show that, given one arguably natural set of constraints on the preferences of an idealized rational agent, such an agent is forced to be indifferent (...)
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  27. Hanan A. Alexander (2006). A View From Somewhere: Explaining the Paradigms of Educational Research. Journal of Philosophy of Education 40 (2):205–221.
    In this paper I ask how educational researchers can believe the subjective perceptions of qualitative participant-observers given the concern for objectivity and generalisability of experimental research in the behavioural and social sciences. I critique the most common answer to this question within the educational research community, which posits the existence of two (or more) equally legitimate epistemological paradigms—positivism and constructivism—and offer an alternative that places a priority in educational research on understanding the purposes and meanings humans attribute to educational practices. (...)
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  28. Henry Alexander (2009). Reflections on Benjamin Button. Philosophy and Literature 33 (1):pp. 1-17.
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  29.  43
    Jonathan M. Weinberg, Joshua Alexander, Chad Gonnerman & Shane Reuter (2013). Restrictionism and Reflection. The Monist 95 (2):200-222.
    It has become increasingly popular to respond to experimental philosophy by suggesting that experimental philosophers haven’t been studying the right kind of thing. One version of this kind of response, which we call the reflection defense, involves suggesting both that philosophers are interested only in intuitions that are the product of careful reflection on the details of hypothetical cases and the key concepts involved in those cases, and that these kinds of philosophical intuitions haven’t yet been adequately studied by experimental (...)
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  30. Peter Vanderschraaf & J. McKenzie Alexander (2005). Follow the Leader: Local Interactions with Influence Neighborhoods. Philosophy of Science 72 (1):86-113.
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  31. Joshua Alexander (2012). Experimental Philosophy: An Introduction. Polity.
    Experimental philosophy uses experimental research methods from psychology and cognitive science in order to investigate both philosophical and metaphilosophical questions. It explores philosophical questions about the nature of the psychological world - the very structure or meaning of our concepts of things, and about the nature of the non-psychological world - the things themselves. It also explores metaphilosophical questions about the nature of philosophical inquiry and its proper methodology. This book provides a detailed and provocative introduction to this innovative field, (...)
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  32. J. McKenzie Alexander (2010). Robustness, Optimality, and the Handicap Principle. Biology and Philosophy 25 (5).
  33.  14
    Richard D. Alexander (1985). A Biological Interpretation of Moral Systems. Zygon 20 (1):3-20.
    . Moral systems are described as systems of indirect reciprocity, existing because of histories of conflicts of interest and arising as outcomes of the complexity of social interactions in groups of long‐lived individuals with varying conflicts and confluences of interest and indefinitely iterated social interactions. Although morality is commonly defined as involving justice for all people, or consistency in the social treatment of all humans, it may have arisen for immoral reasons, as a force leading to cohesiveness within human groups (...)
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  34.  12
    Prescott Alexander, Alexander Schlegel, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Adina L. Roskies, Thalia Wheatley & Peter Ulric Tse (2016). Readiness Potentials Driven by Non-Motoric Processes. Consciousness and Cognition 39:38-47.
  35.  64
    Larry Alexander & Kimberly Kessler Ferzan (2012). “Moore or Less” Causation and Responsibility. Criminal Law and Philosophy 6 (1):81-92.
  36. J. McKenzie Alexander (2001). Group Dynamics in the State of Nature. Erkenntnis 55 (2):169-182.
    One common interpretation of the Hobbesian state of nature views itas a social dilemma, a natural extension of the well-knownprisoner''s dilemma to a group context. Kavka (1986)challenges this interpretation, suggesting that the appropriate wayto view the state of nature is as a quasi social dilemma. Iargue that Hobbes''s remarks on the rationality of keeping covenantsin the state of nature indicate that the quasi social dilemma doesnot accurately represent the state of nature. One possiblesolution, I suggest, views the state of nature (...)
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  37.  16
    Rachel M. Werner, G. Caleb Alexander, Angela Fagerlin & Peter A. Ubel (2004). Lying to Insurance Companies: The Desire to Deceive Among Physicians and the Public. American Journal of Bioethics 4 (4):53-59.
    This study examines the public's and physicians' willingness to support deception of insurance companies in order to obtain necessary healthcare services and how this support varies based on perceptions of physicians' time pressures. Based on surveys of 700 prospective jurors and 1617 physicians, the public was more than twice as likely as physicians to sanction deception (26% versus 11%) and half as likely to believe that physicians have adequate time to appeal coverage decisions (22% versus 59%). The odds of public (...)
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  38.  96
    Darrell P. Rowbottom & R. McNeill Alexander (2012). The Role of Hypotheses in Biomechanical Research. Science in Context 25 (2):247-262.
    This paper investigates whether there is a discrepancy between the stated and actual aims in biomechanical research, particularly with respect to hypothesis testing. We present an analysis of one hundred papers recently published in The Journal of Experimental Biology and Journal of Biomechanics, and examine the prevalence of papers which (a) have hypothesis testing as a stated aim, (b) contain hypothesis testing claims that appear to be purely presentational (i.e. which seem not to have influenced the actual study), and (c) (...)
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  39. Jeffrey C. Alexander (2009). Social Subjectivity: Psychotherapy as Central Institution. Thesis Eleven 96 (1):128-134.
  40.  5
    Larry Alexander, Heidi Hurd & Peter Westen (forthcoming). Consent Does Not Require Communication: A Reply to Dougherty. Law and Philosophy:1-6.
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  41.  38
    Darrell P. Rowbottom & R. McNeill Alexander (2012). The Role of Hypotheses in Biomechanical Research. Science in Context 25 (2):247-262.
    This paper investigates whether there is a discrepancy between stated and actual aims in biomechanical research, particularly with respect to hypothesis testing. We present an analysis of one hundred papers recently published in The Journal of Experimental Biology and Journal of Biomechanics, and examine the prevalence of papers which have hypothesis testing as a stated aim, contain hypothesis testing claims that appear to be purely presentational, and have exploration as a stated aim. We found that whereas no papers had exploration (...)
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  42. Jason Alexander & Brian Skyrms (1999). Bargaining with Neighbors: Is Justice Contagious? Journal of Philosophy 96 (11):588-598.
  43. Jeffrey C. Alexander (2011). Fact-Signs and Cultural Sociology: How Meaning-Making Liberates the Social Imagination. Thesis Eleven 104 (1):87-93.
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  44.  71
    C. Tardits & S. Alexander (1962). Religion, Epic, History: Notes on the Underlying Functions of Cults in Benin Civilizations. Diogenes 10 (37):16-27.
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  45. Jeffrey C. Alexander (1999). Why We Might All Be Able to Live Together: An Immanent Critique of Alain Touraine's Pourrons-Nous Vivre Ensemble? Thesis Eleven 58 (1):99-105.
  46. Malcolm Alexander (1986). Reviews : Immanuel Wallerstein, Historical Capitalism, Verso, London, 1983. Thesis Eleven 13 (1):138-139.
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  47.  98
    S. Morawski & S. Alexander (1961). Vicissitudes in the Theory of Socialist Realism: A Little Lesson in History Not to Be Ignored. Diogenes 9 (36):110-136.
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    J. McKenzie Alexander (2013). Preferential Attachment and the Search for Successful Theories. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):769-782.
    Multiarm bandit problems have been used to model the selection of competing scientific theories by boundedly rational agents. In this paper, I define a variable-arm bandit problem, which allows the set of scientific theories to vary over time. I show that Roth-Erev reinforcement learning, which solves multiarm bandit problems in the limit, cannot solve this problem in a reasonable time. However, social learning via preferential attachment combined with individual reinforcement learning which discounts the past, does.
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  49. Samuel Alexander (2013). An Axiomatic Version of Fitch's Paradox. Synthese 190 (12):2015-2020.
    A variation of Fitch’s paradox is given, where no special rules of inference are assumed, only axioms. These axioms follow from the familiar assumptions which involve rules of inference. We show (by constructing a model) that by allowing that possibly the knower doesn’t know his own soundness (while still requiring he be sound), Fitch’s paradox is avoided. Provided one is willing to admit that sound knowers may be ignorant of their own soundness, this might offer a way out of the (...)
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  50. Joshua Alexander, Chad Gonnerman & John Waterman (forthcoming). Salience and Epistemic Egocentrism: An Empirical Study. In James Beebe (ed.), Advances in Experimental Epistemology. Continuum
    Jennifer Nagel (2010) has recently proposed a fascinating account of the decreased tendency to attribute knowledge in conversational contexts in which unrealized possibilities of error have been mentioned. Her account appeals to epistemic egocentrism, or what is sometimes called the curse of knowledge, an egocentric bias to attribute our own mental states to other people (and sometimes our own future and past selves). Our aim in this paper is to investigate the empirical merits of Nagel’s hypothesis about the psychology involved (...)
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