Search results for 'BACTERIOPHAGE typing' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Gregory J. Morgan (2001). Bacteriophage Biology and Kenneth Schaffner's Rendition of Developmentalism. Biology and Philosophy 16 (1):85-92.score: 18.0
    In this paper I consider Kenneth Schaffner''s(1998) rendition of ''''developmentalism'''' from the point of viewof bacteriophage biology. I argue that the fact that a viablephage can be produced from purified DNA and host cellularcomponents lends some support to the anti-developmentalist, ifthey first show that one can draw a principled distinctionbetween genetic and environmental effects. The existence ofhost-controlled phage host range restriction supports thedevelopmentalist''s insistence on the parity of DNA andenvironment. However, in the case of bacteriophage, thedevelopmentalist stands on (...)
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  2. Alexander Paseau (2008). Fitch's Argument and Typing Knowledge. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 49 (2):153-176.score: 14.0
    Fitch's argument purports to show that if all truths are knowable then all truths are known. The argument exploits the fact that the knowledge predicate or operator is untyped and may thus apply to sentences containing itself. This article outlines a response to Fitch's argument based on the idea that knowledge is typed. The first part of the article outlines the philosophical motivation for the view, comparing it to the motivation behind typing truth. The second, formal part presents a (...)
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  3. Crystal K. Liu (2007). 'Saviour Siblings'? The Distinction Between PGD with HLA Tissue Typing and Preimplantation HLA Tissue Typing. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (1):65-70.score: 12.0
    One of the more controversial uses of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) involves selecting embryos with a specific tissue type so that the child to be born can act as a donor to an existing sibling who requires a haematopoietic stem cell transplant. PGD with HLA tissue typing is used to select embryos that are free of a familial genetic disease and that are also a tissue match for an existing sibling who requires a transplant. Preimplantation HLA tissue typing (...)
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  4. K. Devolder (2005). Preimplantation HLA Typing: Having Children to Save Our Loved Ones. Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (10):582-586.score: 12.0
    Next SectionPreimplantation tissue typing has been proposed as a method for creating a tissue matched child that can serve as a haematopoietic stem cell donor to save its sick sibling in need of a stem cell transplant. Despite recent promising results, many people have expressed their disapproval of this method. This paper addresses the main concerns of these critics: the risk of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for the child to be born; the intention to have a donor child; the (...)
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  5. Shalom Lappin, An Expressive First-Order Logic with Flexible Typing for Natural Language Semantics.score: 12.0
    We present Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT), an intensional first-order logic for natural language semantics. PTCT permits fine-grained specifications of meaning. It also supports polymorphic types and separation types.1 We develop an intensional number theory within PTCT in order to represent proportional generalized quantifiers like most. We use the type system and our treatment of generalized quantifiers in natural language to construct a type-theoretic approach to pronominal anaphora that avoids some of the difficulties that undermine previous type-theoretic analyses (...)
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  6. R. Harries (2005). Delivering Public Policy: The Status of the Embryo and Tissue Typing. Studies in Christian Ethics 18 (1):57-74.score: 12.0
    The author draws on his own experience of helping to make and deliver public policy to indicate the wider context in which ethical decisions have to be made: the law, contested interpretations of the law which have to be settled in the courts, and wider political and economic factors. He argues that the concept of respect for the early embryo does have substance because of the strict regulatory regime of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). He considers the arguments (...)
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  7. Neeraja Sankaran (2010). Mutant Bacteriophages, Frank Macfarlane Burnet, and the Changing Nature of "Genespeak" in the 1930s. Journal of the History of Biology 43 (3):571 - 599.score: 12.0
    In 1936, Frank Macfarlane Burnet published a paper entitled "Induced lysogenicity and the mutation of bacteriophage within lysogenic bacteria," in which he demonstrated that the introduction of a specific bacteriophage into a bacterial strain consistently and repeatedly imparted a specific property – namely the resistance to a different phage – to the bacterial strain that was originally susceptible to lysis by that second phage. Burnet's explanation for this change was that the first phage was causing a mutation in (...)
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  8. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, An Expressive First-Order Logic with Flexible Typing for Natural Language Semantics.score: 12.0
    We present Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT), an intensional first-order logic for natural language semantics. PTCT permits fine-grained specifications of meaning. It also supports polymorphic types and separation types.1 We develop an intensional number theory within PTCT in order to represent proportional generalized quantifiers like most. We use the type system and our treatment of generalized quantifiers in natural language to construct a type-theoretic approach to pronominal anaphora that avoids some of the difficulties that undermine previous type-theoretic (...)
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  9. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, Doing Natural Language Semantics in an Expressive First-Order Logic with Flexible Typing.score: 12.0
    A BSTRACT. We present Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT), an intensional first-order logic for natural language semantics. PTCT permits fine-grained specifications of meaning. It also supports polymorphic types and separation types.1 We develop an intensional number theory within PTCT in order to represent proportional generalized quantifiers like most. We use the type system and our treatment of generalized quantifiers in natural language to construct a typetheoretic approach to pronominal anaphora that avoids some of the difficulties that undermine (...)
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  10. Martin Kurthen (1999). Semantic Typing Via Neuronal Assemblies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):296-297.score: 12.0
    One of the main aspects of a neurobiological theory of language is the problem of meaning (or semantic content) in the brain. A full explanation of meaning requires a combined approach to semantic typing and the semantic success of cerebral states or processes. Pulvermüller presents his Hebbian model of language in the brain (HML) as an account of semantic success. If his proposal turns out to be viable, however, it may also promote a theory of semantic typing.
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  11. B. O. Rump & F. Woonink (2012). Ethical Questions Concerning the Use of Molecular Typing Techniques in the Control of Infectious Diseases. Public Health Ethics 5 (3):311-313.score: 12.0
    This case for discussion highlights some of the ethical difficulties that may arise in the use of molecular typing techniques in the control of infectious diseases. Molecular typing techniques offer evidence (stronger than regular epidemiological exploration of sources and contacts) for claims about infection routes. Such evidence will mean that public health authorities need to think about how to respond ethically to causal responsibility for contagion. In this context, questions are raised about the use of molecular typing (...)
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  12. T. Bubela & S. Yanow (2012). Molecular Typing Technology: A Legal Perspective. Public Health Ethics 5 (3):317-320.score: 12.0
    This response to Rump and Woonink (2012) on ethical questions concerning the use of molecular typing techniques in the control of infectious diseases examines the use of typing in Canada and the legal framework that will govern its increasing use for source and contact tracing in provincial health systems. It examines whether current public health and privacy laws and constitutional protections provide the appropriate balance between public and individual interests in the control of infectious diseases.
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  13. Richard Feldman & Earl Conee (2002). Typing Problems. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (1):98-105.score: 9.0
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  14. Volker Halbach (2008). On a Side Effect of Solving Fitch's Paradox by Typing Knowledge. Analysis 68 (2):114 - 120.score: 9.0
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  15. D. R. Rokyta, P. Joyce, S. B. Caudle & H. A. Wichman (2005). An Empirical Test of the Mutational Landscape Model of Adaptation Using a Single-Stranded DNA Virus. Nature Genetics 37 (4):441-444.score: 9.0
    The primary impediment to formulating a general theory for adaptive evolution has been the unknown distribution of fitness effects for new beneficial mutations. By applying extreme value theory, Gillespie circumvented this issue in his mutational landscape model for the adaptation of DNA sequences, and Orr recently extended Gillespie's model, generating testable predictions regarding the course of adaptive evolution. Here we provide the first empirical examination of this model, using a single-stranded DNA bacteriophage related to phiX174, and find that our (...)
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  16. N. R. Ram (2006). Britain's New Preimplantation Tissue Typing Policy: An Ethical Defence. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (5):278-282.score: 9.0
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  17. Shalom Lappin & C. Fox, Doing Natural Language Semantics in an Expressive First-Order Logic with Flexible Typing.score: 9.0
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  18. Patrick D. Murphy (1988). Sex-Typing the Planet. Environmental Ethics 10 (2):155-168.score: 9.0
    The ecology movement has recently attempted to reinvigorate the image of Earth in terms of Lovelock and Epton’s “Gaia hypothesis.” I analyze the shortcomings of using Gaia imagery in the works of Lovelock, deep ecologists, feminists, and ecological poets, and conclude that while the hypothesis serves to alter consciousness, naming it Gaia reinforces the oppressive hierarchical patterns of patriarchal gender stereotypes that it opposes. We are moving toward a new paradigm of nonpatriarchal pluralistic co-evolution, but if deep ecology is going (...)
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  19. Jan Westerhoff (2003). The Underdetermination of Typings. Erkenntnis 58 (3):379 - 414.score: 8.0
    This paper argues that there is no possible structural way of drawing a distinction between objects of different types, such as individuals and properties of different adicities and orders. We show first that purely combinatorial information (information about how objects combine to form states of affairs) is not sufficient for doing this. We show that for any set of such combinatorial data there is always more than one way of typing them – that is, there are always several ways (...)
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  20. Massimiliano Carrara & Davide Fassio (2011). Why Knowledge Should Not Be Typed: An Argument Against the Type Solution to the Knowability Paradox. Theoria 77 (2):180-193.score: 8.0
    The Knowability Paradox is a logical argument to the effect that, if there are truths not actually known, then there are unknowable truths. Recently, Alexander Paseau and Bernard Linsky have independently suggested a possible way to counter this argument by typing knowledge. In this article, we argue against their proposal that if one abstracts from other possible independent considerations supporting reasons for typing knowledge and considers the motivation for a type-theoretic approach with respect to the Knowability Paradox alone, (...)
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  21. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin (forthcoming). Type-Theoretic Logic with an Operational Account of Intensionality. Synthese:1-22.score: 8.0
    We formulate a Curry-typed logic with fine-grained intensionality within Turner’s typed predicate logic. This allows for an elegant presentation of a theory that corresponds to Fox and Lappin’s property theory with curry typing, but without the need for a federation of languages. We then consider how the fine-grained intensionality of this theory can be given an operational interpretation. This interpretation suggests itself as expressions in the theory can be viewed as terms in the untyped lambda-calculus, which provides a model (...)
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  22. Simone Gozzano (2012). Type-Identity Conditions for Phenomenal Properties. In Simone Gozzano & Christopher S. Hill (eds.), New Perspective on Type Identity. The Mental and the Physical. Cambridge University Press. 111.score: 7.0
    In this essay I shall argue that the crucial assumptions of Kripke's argument, i.e. the collapse of the appearance/reality distinction in the case of phenomenal states and the idea of a qualitatively identical epistemic situation, imply an objective principle of identity for mental-state types. This principle, I shall argue, rather than being at odds with physicalism, is actually compatible with both the type-identity theory of the mind and Kripke's semantics and metaphysics. Finally, I shall sketch a version of the type-identity (...)
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  23. Miltiadis Kokkonidis (2008). First-Order Glue. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (1):43-68.score: 7.0
    Glue has evolved significantly during the past decade. Although the recent move to type-theoretic notation was a step in the right direction, basing the current Glue system on System F (second-order λ-calculus) was an unfortunate choice. An extension to two sorts and ad hoc restrictions were necessary to avoid inappropriate composition of meanings. As a result, the current system is unnecessarily complicated. A first-order Glue system is hereby proposed as its replacement. This new system is not only simpler and more (...)
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  24. Sam Coleman, Chalmers's Master Argument and Type Bb Physicalism.score: 6.0
    Chalmers has provided a dilemmatic master argument against all forms of the phenomenal concept strategy. This paper explores a position that evades Chalmers's argument, dubbed Type Bb: it is for Type B physicalists who embrace horn b of Chalmers's dilemma. The discussion concludes that Chalmers fails to show any incoherence in the position of a Type B physicalist who depends on the phenomenal concept strategy.
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  25. P. B. Andrews (2002). An Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Type Theory: To Truth Through Proof. Kluwer Academic Publishers.score: 6.0
    This introduction to mathematical logic starts with propositional calculus and first-order logic. Topics covered include syntax, semantics, soundness, completeness, independence, normal forms, vertical paths through negation normal formulas, compactness, Smullyan's Unifying Principle, natural deduction, cut-elimination, semantic tableaux, Skolemization, Herbrand's Theorem, unification, duality, interpolation, and definability. The last three chapters of the book provide an introduction to type theory (higher-order logic). It is shown how various mathematical concepts can be formalized in this very expressive formal language. This expressive notation facilitates proofs (...)
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  26. Michael Pauen (2002). Is Type Identity Incompatible with Multiple Realization? Grazer Philosophische Studien 65 (1):37-49.score: 6.0
    It is commonly believed that there is a fundamental incompatibility between multiple realization and type identity in the philosophy of mind. This claim can be challenged, however, since a single neural type may be realized by different microphysical types. In this case, the identity statement would connect the psychological and the neural type, while the neural type, in turn, could be multiply realized by different microphysical types. Such a multiple realization of higher level types occurs quite frequently even within physics (...)
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  27. Lee Walters (2013). Repeatable Artworks as Created Types. British Journal of Aesthetics 53 (4):461-477.score: 6.0
    I sketch here an intuitive picture of repeatable artworks as created types, which are individuated in part by historical paths (re)production. Although attractive, this view has been rejected by a number of authors on the basis of general claims about abstract objects. On consideration, however, these general claims are overgeneralizations, which whilst true of some abstracta, are not true of all abstract objects, and in particular, are not true of created types. The intuitive picture of repeatable artworks as created types (...)
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  28. Linda Wetzel, Types and Tokens. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 6.0
    The distinction between a type and its tokens is a useful metaphysical distinction. In §1 it is explained what it is, and what it is not. Its importance and wide applicability in linguistics, philosophy, science and everyday life are briefly surveyed in §2. Whether types are universals is discussed in §3. §4 discusses some other suggestions for what types are, both generally and specifically. Is a type the sets of its tokens? What exactly is a word, a symphony, a species? (...)
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  29. Christian Bassac, Bruno Mery & Christian Retoré (2010). Towards a Type-Theoretical Account of Lexical Semantics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 19 (2):229-245.score: 6.0
    After a quick overview of the field of study known as “Lexical Semantics”, where we advocate the need of accessing additional information besides syntax and Montague-style semantics at the lexical level in order to complete the full analysis of an utterance, we summarize the current formulations of a well-known theory of that field. We then propose and justify our own model of the Generative Lexicon Theory, based upon a variation of classical compositional semantics, and outline its formalization. Additionally, we discuss (...)
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  30. Michael Robinson (2012). Modified Frankfurt-Type Counterexamples and Flickers of Freedom. Philosophical Studies 157 (2):177-194.score: 6.0
    A great deal of attention has been paid recently to the claim that traditional Frankfurt-type counterexamples to the Principle of Alternative Possibilities (PAP), which depend for their success on the presence of a perfectly reliable indicator (or prior sign ) of what an agent will freely do if left to act on his own, are guilty of begging the question against incompatibilists, since such indicators seem to presuppose a deterministic relation between an agent’s free action and its causal antecedents. Objections (...)
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  31. Gennaro Chierchia (1982). Nominalization and Montague Grammar: A Semantics Without Types for Natural Languages. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 5 (3):303 - 354.score: 6.0
    We started from the fact that type theory, in the way it was implemented in IL, makes it costly to deal with nominalization processes. We have also argued that the type hierarchy as such doesn't play any real role in a grammar; the classification it provides for different semantic objects is already contained, in some sense, in the categorial structure of the grammar itself. So, on the basis of a theory of properties (Cocchiarella's HST*) we have tried to build a (...)
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  32. Maria van der Schaar (2011). The Cognitive Act and the First-Person Perspective: An Epistemology for Constructive Type Theory. [REVIEW] Synthese 180 (3):391-417.score: 6.0
    The notion of cognitive act is of importance for an epistemology that is apt for constructive type theory, and for epistemology in general. Instead of taking knowledge attributions as the primary use of the verb ‘to know’ that needs to be given an account of, and understanding a first-person knowledge claim as a special case of knowledge attribution, the account of knowledge that is given here understands first-person knowledge claims as the primary use of the verb ‘to know’. This means (...)
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  33. Adrian Boutel (2013). How to Be a Type-C Physicalist. Philosophical Studies 164 (2):301-320.score: 6.0
    This paper advances a version of physicalism which reconciles the “a priori entailment thesis” (APET) with the analytic independence of our phenomenal and physical vocabularies. The APET is the claim that, if physicalism is true, the complete truths of physics imply every other truth a priori. If so, “cosmic hermeneutics” is possible: a demon having only complete knowledge of physics could deduce every truth about the world. Analytic independence is a popular physicalist explanation for the apparent “epistemic gaps” between phenomenal (...)
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  34. F. Herbut (2010). On EPR-Type Entanglement in the Experiments of Scully Et Al. II. Insight in the Real Random Delayed-Choice Erasure Experiment. Foundations of Physics 40 (3):301-312.score: 6.0
    It was pointed out in the first part of this study (Herbut in Found. Phys. 38:1046–1064, 2008) that EPR-type entanglement is defined by the possibility of performing any of two mutually incompatible distant, i.e., direct-interaction-free, measurements. They go together under the term ‘EPR-type disentanglement’. In this second part, quantum-mechanical insight is gained in the real random delayed-choice erasure experiment of Kim et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 84:1–5, 2000) by a relative-reality-of-unitarily-evolving-state (RRUES) approach (explained in the first part). Finally, it is (...)
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  35. Peter P. Kirschenmann (2001). “Intrinsically” or Just “Instrumentally” Valuable? On Structural Types of Values of Scientific Knowledge. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 32 (2):237-256.score: 6.0
    Debates about scientific (though rarely about otherforms of) knowledge, research policies or academic trainingoften involve a controversy about whether scientificknowledge possesses just “instrumental” value or also “intrinsic” value. Questioning this common simpleopposition, I scrutinize the issues involved in terms of agreater variety of structural types of values attributableto (scientific) knowledge. (Intermittently, I address thepuzzling habit of attributing “intrinsic” value to quitedifferent things, e.g. also to nature, in environmentalethics.) After some remarks on relevant broader philosophicaldebates about scientific knowledge, I pave a (...)
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  36. Linda Wetzel (2009). Types and Tokens: On Abstract Objects. Mit Press.score: 6.0
    In this book, Linda Wetzel examines the distinction between types and tokens and argues that types exist (as abstract objects, since they lack a unique ...
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  37. Giorgio Lando (2012). Russell's Relations, Wittgenstein's Objects, and the Theory of Types. Teorema (2):21-35.score: 6.0
    We discuss a previously unnoticed resemblance between the theory of relations and predicates in The Philosophy of Logical Atomism [TPLA] by Russell and the theory of objects and names in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus [TLP] by Wittgenstein. Points of likeness are detected on three levels: ontology, syntax, and semantics. This analogy explains the prima facie similarities between the informal presentation of the theory of types in TPLA and the sections of the TLP devoted to this same topic. Eventually, we draw some (...)
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  38. Johan Georg Granström (2011). Treatise on Intuitionistic Type Theory. Springer.score: 6.0
    Prolegomena It is fitting to begin this book on intuitionistic type theory by putting the subject matter into perspective. The purpose of this chapter is to ...
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  39. Irving M. Copi (1971). The Theory of Logical Types. London,Routledge and K. Paul.score: 6.0
    This reissue, first published in 1971, provides a brief historical account of the Theory of Logical Types; and describes the problems that gave rise to it, its ...
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  40. Jiahong Guo (2009). The Incorporation of Moorean Type Information by Introspective Agents. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (3):470-482.score: 6.0
    The main task is to discuss the issue in belief dynamics in which philosophical beliefs and rational introspective agents incorporate Moorean type new information. First, a brief survey is conducted on Moore’s Paradox, and one of its solutions is introduced with the help of Update Semantics. Then, we present a Dynamic Doxastic Logic (DDL) which revises the belief of introspective agents put forward by Lindström & Rabinowicz. Next, we attempt to incorporate Moorean type new information within the DEL (DDL) framework, (...)
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  41. Simone Gozzano & Christopher S. Hill (eds.) (2012). New Perspectives on Type Identity: The Mental and the Physical. Cambridge University Press.score: 6.0
    Th e type identity theory, according to which types of mental state are identical to types of physical state, fell out of favour for some years but is now being considered with renewed interest. Many philosophers are critically re-examining the arguments which were marshalled against it, fi nding in the type identity theory both resources to strengthen a comprehensive, physicalistic metaphysics, and a useful tool in understanding the relationship between developments in psychology and new results in neuroscience. Th is volume (...)
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  42. Maria Schaar (2011). Assertion and Grounding: A Theory of Assertion for Constructive Type Theory. Synthese 183 (2):187-210.score: 6.0
    Taking Per Martin-Löf’s constructive type theory as a starting-point a theory of assertion is developed, which is able to account for the epistemic aspects of the speech act of assertion, and in which it is shown that assertion is not a wide genus. From a constructivist point of view, one is entitled to assert, for example, that a proposition A is true, only if one has constructed a proof object a for A in an act of demonstration. One thereby has (...)
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  43. Gregory J. Morgan & W. Brad Pitts (2008). Evolution Without Species: The Case of Mosaic Bacteriophages. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (4):745-765.score: 6.0
    College of Medicine, University of South Alabama Mobile, AL 36688-0002, USA wbp501{at}jaguar1.usouthal.edu ' + u + '@' + d + ' '//--> Abstract Recent work in viral genomics has shown that bacteriophages exhibit a high degree of mosaicism, which is most likely due to a long history of prolific horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Given these findings, we argue that each of the most plausible attempts to properly classify bacteriophages into distinct species fail. Mayr's biological species concept fails because there is (...)
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  44. Ran Zhang, Zabihollah Rezaee & Jigao Zhu (2010). Corporate Philanthropic Disaster Response and Ownership Type: Evidence From Chinese Firms' Response to the Sichuan Earthquake. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (1):51 - 63.score: 6.0
    This article examines whether the charitable giving amount and likelihood of firm response to catastrophic events relate to firms' ownership type using a unique dataset of listed firms in China, where state ownership is still prevalent. Based on the data of Chinese firms' response to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, we find that the extent of corporate contributions for state-owned firms following this disaster is less than that for private firms. State-owned firms are also less likely to respond in this disaster (...)
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  45. Alessandro Giordani & Luca Mari (2012). Property Evaluation Types. Measurement 45 (3):437-452.score: 6.0
    An appropriate characterization of property types is an important topic for measurement science. On the basis of a set-theoretic model of evaluation and measurement processes, the paper introduces the operative concept of property evaluation type, and discusses how property types are related to, and in fact can be derived from, property evaluation types, by finally analyzing the consequences of these distinctions for the concepts of ‘property’ used in the International Vocabulary of Metrology – Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (...)
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  46. Asaf Kedar (2007). Ideal Types as Hermeneutic Concepts. Journal of the Philosophy of History 1 (3):318-345.score: 6.0
    My paper sets out to demonstrate that Weber's ideal-typical theory of concept formation, subject to certain modifications, is compatible with the principles of philosophical hermeneutics and is therefore a valuable strategy of concept formation for interpretive historical inquiry. The essay begins with a brief recapitulation of the philosophical-hermeneutic approach to the human sciences. I then chart out the affinities as well as the discrepancies between philosophical hermeneutics and Weber's theory of the ideal type. Against this backdrop, I proceed to offer (...)
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  47. Fenrong Liu & Yanjing Wang (2013). Reasoning About Agent Types and the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever. Minds and Machines 23 (1):123-161.score: 6.0
    In this paper, we first propose a simple formal language to specify types of agents in terms of necessary conditions for their announcements. Based on this language, types of agents are treated as ‘first-class citizens’ and studied extensively in various dynamic epistemic frameworks which are suitable for reasoning about knowledge and agent types via announcements and questions. To demonstrate our approach, we discuss various versions of Smullyan’s Knights and Knaves puzzles, including the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever (HLPE) proposed by Boolos (...)
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  48. Stephen H. Voss & Charles Sayward (1980). The Structure of Type Theory. Journal of Philosophy 77 (5):241-259.score: 6.0
    Formal principals are isolated to reveal a structure embedded in a wide range of studies, each of which partitions a domain of individuals into types and categories. It is thought that any reasonable theory of types should include these principles.
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  49. Barbara Gabriella Renzi (2009). A Type Hierarchy of Selection Processes for the Evaluation of Evolutionary Analogies. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 40 (2):311 - 336.score: 6.0
    In this paper I propose a type-hierarchy approach to provide an intersubjective framework for the evaluation of evolutionary analogies. This approach develops David Hull’s and others’ attempts to provide full generalisation for selection processes, in order to show that sociocultural development and, particularly, scientific change can be considered as an instance of Darwinian selection. I argue that the recent work by Eileen Cornell Way on type hierarchies can offer the kind of generalisation needed to solve the main problems that still (...)
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  50. Earl Conee (2002). Typing Problems. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (1):98 - 105.score: 6.0
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