Search results for 'CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Rohan H. Wickramasinghe & Claude A. Villee (1976). Possible Similar Role of Cytochrome P450 in Primordial Evolution of Species and in Chemical Carcinogenesis. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 19 (4):473-475.
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  2.  22
    A. M. Soto & C. Sonnenschein (2006). Emergentism by Default: A View From the Bench. [REVIEW] Synthese 151 (3):361-376.
    For the last 50 years the dominant stance in experimental biology has been reductionism in general, and genetic reductionism in particular. Philosophers were the first to realize that the belief that the Mendelian genes were reduced to DNA molecules was questionable. Soon, experimental data confirmed these misgivings. The optimism of molecular biologists, fueled by early success in tackling relatively simple problems has now been tempered by the difficulties encountered when applying the same simple ideas to complex problems. We analyze three (...)
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  3.  3
    Volker Wunderlich (2007). „Zur Selbstreproduktion Befähigte Substanzen“ Als Zelluläre Angriffsorte Chemischer Cancerogene. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (4):271-283.
    „Substances capable of self-reproduction“ as cellular targets of chemical carcinogens.In the course of studies on chemical carcinogenesis, which included animal experiments with a carcinogenic azo dye and a mathematical analysis of the observed effects, Hermann Druckrey and Karl Küpfmüller showed in 1948 that carcinogens induce heritable changes by targeting cellular „substances capable of self-reproduction“. The authors did not discuss the chemical nature of these substances which remained unclear for a long time thereafter. It was not until (...)
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  4. Paul Hoyningen-Huene (2008). Thomas Kuhn and the Chemical Revolution. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):101-115.
    The paper discusses how well Kuhn’s general theory of scientific revolutions fits the particular case of the chemical revolution. To do so, I first present condensed sketches of both Kuhn’s theory and the chemical revolution. I then discuss the beginning of the chemical revolution and compare it to Kuhn’s specific claims about the roles of anomalies, crisis and extraordinary science in scientific development. I proceed by comparing some features of the chemical revolution as a whole to (...)
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  5.  31
    Thomas Douglas, Pieter Bonte, Farah Focquaert, Katrien Devolder & Sigrid Sterckx (2013). Coercion, Incarceration, and Chemical Castration: An Argument From Autonomy. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (3):393-405.
    In several jurisdictions, sex offenders may be offered chemical castration as an alternative to further incarceration. In some, agreement to chemical castration may be made a formal condition of parole or release. In others, refusal to undergo chemical castration can increase the likelihood of further incarceration though no formal link is made between the two. Offering chemical castration as an alternative to further incarceration is often said to be partially coercive, thus rendering the offender’s consent invalid. (...)
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  6.  45
    Joachim Schummer (1998). The Chemical Core of Chemistry I: A Conceptual Approach. Hyle 4 (2):129 - 162.
    Given the rich diversity of research fields usually ascribed to chemistry in a broad sense, the present paper tries to dig our characteristic parts of chemistry that can be conceptually distinguished from interdisciplinary, applied, and specialized subfields of chemistry, and that may be called chemistry in a very narrow sense, or 'the chemical core of chemistry'. Unlike historical, ontological, and 'anti-reductive' approaches, I use a conceptual approach together with some methodological implications that allow to develop step by step a (...)
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  7.  23
    Alan Chalmers (2012). Klein on the Origin of the Concept of Chemical Compound. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (1):37-53.
    Ursula Klein has argued that Geoffroy’s table of chemical affinities, published in 1718, marked the emergence of the concepts of chemical compound and chemical combination central to chemistry. In this paper her position is summarised and then modified to render it immune to criticism that has been levelled against it. The essentials of Geoffroy’s chemistry are clarified and adapted to Klein’s picture by way of a detailed comparison of it with Boyle’s corpuscular chemistry that proceeded Geoffroy’s by (...)
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  8.  25
    Joachim Schummer (2001). Ethics of Chemical Synthesis. Hyle 7 (2):103 - 124.
    Unlike other branches of science, the scientific products of synthetic chemistry are not only ideas but also new substances that change our material world, for the benefit or harm of living beings. This paper provides for the first time a systematical analysis of moral issues arising from chemical synthesis, based on concepts of responsibility and general morality. Topics include the questioning of moral neutrality of chemical synthesis as an end in itself, chemical weapons research, moral objections against (...)
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  9. Hinne Hettema (2008). A Note on Michael Weisberg's: Challenges to the Structural Conception of Chemical Bonding. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):135-142.
    Weisberg’s recent paper on the chemical bond makes the claim that the chemical notion of the covalent bond is in trouble. This note casts doubts on that claim.
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  10.  8
    Andrew McFarland (forthcoming). Causal Powers and Isomeric Chemical Kinds. Synthese:1-17.
    Some philosophers have claimed that kinds can be construed as mereologically complex structural properties. This essay examines several strategies aimed at construing a certain class of natural kinds, namely isomeric chemical kinds, in accordance with this view. In particular, the essay examines views which posit structural proper parts in addition to micro-constitutive parts to individuate isomeric chemical kinds. It then goes on to argue that the phenomenon of chirality in stereochemistry gives the proponent of kinds-as-complex-properties evidence for positing (...)
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  11.  9
    Kai Ilchmann & James Revill (2014). Chemical and Biological Weapons in the 'New Wars'. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (3):753-767.
    The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease (...)
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  12.  5
    João P. Leal (2014). The Forgotten Names of Chemical Elements. Foundations of Science 19 (2):175-183.
    Chemical elements are the bricks with which Chemistry is build. Their names had a history, but part of it is forgotten or barely known. In this article the forgotten, no more used, never used, and alternatively used names and symbols of the elements are reviewed, bringing to us some surprises and deeper knowledge about the richness of Chemistry. It should be stressed that chemical elements are important not only for chemists but for all people dealing with science. As (...)
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  13.  51
    Mi Kim (2011). From Phlogiston to Caloric: Chemical Ontologies. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (3):201-222.
    The ‘triumph of the anti-phlogistians’ is a familiar story to the historians and philosophers of science who characterize the Chemical Revolution as a broad conceptual shift. The apparent “incommensurability” of the paradigms across the revolutionary divide has caused much anxiety. Chemists could identify phlogiston and oxygen, however, only with different sets of instrumental practices, theoretical schemes, and philosophical commitments. In addition, the substantive counterpart to phlogiston in the new chemistry was not oxygen, but caloric. By focusing on the changing (...)
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  14.  6
    Amihud Gilead (forthcoming). Eka-Elements as Chemical Pure Possibilities. Foundations of Chemistry:1-12.
    From Mendeleev’s time on, the Periodic Table has been an attempt to exhaust all the chemical possibilities of the elements and their interactions, whether these elements are known as actual or are not known yet as such. These latter elements are called “eka-elements” and there are still some of them in the current state of the Table. There is no guarantee that they will be eventually discovered, synthesized, or isolated as actual. As long as the actual existence of eka-elements (...)
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  15.  84
    Eamonn Healy (2011). Heisenberg's Chemical Legacy: Resonance and the Chemical Bond. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):39-49.
    Heisenberg’s explanation of how two coupled oscillators exchange energy represented a dramatic success for his new matrix mechanics. As matrix mechanics transmuted into wave mechanics, resulting in what Heisenberg himself described as …an extraordinary broadening and enrichment of the formalism of the quantum theory , the term resonance also experienced a corresponding evolution. Heitler and London’s seminal application of wave mechanics to explain the quantum origins of the covalent bond, combined with Pauling’s characterization of the effect, introduced resonance into the (...)
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  16.  5
    Joseph E. Earley (1998). Modes of Chemical Becoming. Hyle 4 (2):105 - 115.
    In the characterization of the ArCl2 'van der Waals complex', a recognizable pattern of well-defined peaks is observed in the microwave absorption spectrum. In the control of chaos in a chemical oscillatory reaction the power spectrum progressively becomes simpler, at length yielding a single peak. Since both of these cases generate coherences that are centers of agency, they should be considered to produce new chemical entities. Applicability of this ontological approach to coherences of wider societal interest is suggested.
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  17.  27
    Mauro Causá, Andreas Savin & Bernard Silvi (2014). Atoms and Bonds in Molecules and Chemical Explanations. Foundations of Chemistry 16 (1):3-26.
    The concepts of atoms and bonds in molecules which appeared in chemistry during the nineteenth century are unavoidable to explain the structure and the reactivity of the matter at a chemical level of understanding. Although they can be criticized from a strict reductionist point of view, because neither atoms nor bonds are observable in the sense of quantum mechanics, the topological and statistical interpretative approaches of quantum chemistry (quantum theory of atoms in molecules, electron localization function and maximum probability (...)
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  18.  33
    Robin Findlay Hendry (2012). Chemical Substances and the Limits of Pluralism. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (1):55-68.
    In this paper I investigate the relationship between vernacular kind terms and specialist scientific vocabularies. Elsewhere I have developed a defence of realism about the chemical elements as natural kinds. This defence depends on identifying the epistemic interests and theoretical conception of the elements that have suffused chemistry since the mid-eighteenth century. Because of this dependence, it is a discipline-specific defence, and would seem to entail important concessions to pluralism about natural kinds. I argue that making this kind of (...)
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  19.  34
    Pedro J. Sánchez Gómez (2013). The Semantics of Chemical Education: Constructivism, Externalism and the Language of Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 15 (1):103-116.
    In this paper we present a semantic analysis of the application of didactic constructivism to chemical education. We show that the psychological basis of constructivism yield, when applied to chemistry, an internalist semantics for the chemical names. Since these names have been presented as typical examples of an externalism for kind terms, a fundamental incompatibility ensues. We study this situation, to conclude that it affects chemical education at every level. Finally, we present a preliminary analysis of this (...)
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  20.  32
    Geoffrey Blumenthal (2013). Kuhn and the Chemical Revolution: A Re-Assessment. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 15 (1):93-101.
    A recent paper by Hoyningen-Huene argues that the Chemical Revolution is an excellent example of the success of Kuhn’s theory. This paper gives a succinct account of some counter-arguments and briefly refers to some further existing counter-arguments. While Kuhn’s theory does have a small number of more or less successful elements, it has been widely recognised that in general Kuhn’s theory is a “preformed and relatively inflexible framework” (1962, p. 24) which does not fit particular historical examples well; this (...)
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  21.  1
    John G. McEvoy (2014). Victor D. Boantza: "Matter and Method in the Long Chemical Revolution". [REVIEW] Hyle: International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry 20 (1):193-196.
    Book Review of Victor D. Boantza: Matter and Method in the Long Chemical Revolution, Ashgate 2013.
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  22.  38
    Santiago Alvarez, Joaquim Sales & Miquel Seco (2008). On Books and Chemical Elements. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):79-100.
    The history of the classification of chemical elements is reviewed from the point of view of a bibliophile. The influence that relevant books had on the development of the periodic table and, conversely, how it was incorporated into textbooks, treatises and literary works, with an emphasis on the Spanish bibliography are analyzed in this paper. The reader will also find unexpected connections of the periodic table with the Bible or the architect Buckminster Fuller.
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  23.  14
    Farzad Mahootian (2013). Paneth's Epistemology of Chemical Elements in Light of Kant's Opus Postumum. Foundations of Chemistry 15 (2):171-184.
    Friedrich Paneth’s conception of “chemical element” has functioned as the official definition adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry since 1923. Paneth maintains a distinction between empirical and “transcendental” concepts of element; furthermore, chemical science requires fluctuation between the two. The origin of the empirical-transcendental split is found in Immanuel Kant’s classic Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787). The present paper examines Paneth’s foundational concept of element in light of Kant’s attempt, late in life, to revoke (...)
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  24.  29
    G. K. Vemulapalli (2008). Theories of the Chemical Bond and its True Nature. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (3):167-176.
    Two different models for chemical bond were developed almost simultaneously after the Schrödinger formulation of quantum theory. These are known as the valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital (MO) theories. Initially chemists preferred the VB theory and ignored the MO theory. Now the VB theory is almost dropped out of currency. The context of discovery and Linus Pauling’s overpowering influence gave the VB theory its initial advantage. The current universal acceptance of the MO theory is due to its ability (...)
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  25.  24
    Sibel Erduran (2007). Breaking the Law: Promoting Domain-Specificity in Chemical Education in the Context of Arguing About the Periodic Law. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 9 (3):247-263.
    In this paper, domain-specificity is presented as an understudied problem in chemical education. This argument is unpacked by drawing from two bodies of literature: learning of science and epistemology of science, both themes that have cognitive as well as philosophical undertones. The wider context is students’ engagement in scientific inquiry, an important goal for science education and one that has not been well executed in everyday classrooms. The focus on science learning illustrates the role of domain specificity in scientific (...)
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  26.  15
    Joseph E. Earley (2012). A Neglected Aspect of the Puzzle of Chemical Structure: How History Helps. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 14 (3):235-243.
    Intra-molecular connectivity (that is, chemical structure) does not emerge from computations based on fundamental quantum-mechanical principles. In order to compute molecular electronic energies (of C 3 H 4 hydrocarbons, for instance) quantum chemists must insert intra-molecular connectivity “by hand.” Some take this as an indication that chemistry cannot be reduced to physics: others consider it as evidence that quantum chemistry needs new logical foundations. Such discussions are generally synchronic rather than diachronic —that is, they neglect ‘historical’ aspects. However, systems (...)
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  27.  9
    Li Sun & Marty Stuebs (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Productivity: Evidence From the Chemical Industry in the United States. Journal of Business Ethics 118 (2):251-263.
    Prior research suggests that participating in corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities can lead to higher future productivity. However, the empirical evidence is still scarce. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between CSR and future firm productivity in the U.S. chemical industry. Specifically, this study examines the relationship between CSR in year t and firm productivity in year (t + 1), (t + 2), and (t + 3). We use Data Envelopment Analysis, a non-parametric method, to (...)
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  28.  5
    Jaap van Brakel (2000). Modeling in Chemical Engineering. Hyle 6 (2):101 - 116.
    Models underlying the use of similarity considerations, dimensionless numbers, and dimensional analysis in chemical engineering are discussed. Special attention is given to the many levels at which models and ceteris paribus conditions play a role and to the modeling of initial and boundary conditions. It is shown that both the laws or dimensionless number correlations and the systems to which they apply are models. More generally, no matter which model or description one picks out, what is being modeled is (...)
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  29.  2
    Antonio Joaquín Franco-Mariscal (2014). How Can We Teach the Chemical Elements to Make the Memorization Task More Enjoyable? Foundations of Science 19 (2):185-188.
    In this commentary to Leal (2013), we argue that the memorization of the names and symbols of the chemical elements is necessary in the study of that topic because this task is the key for the later understanding of the Periodic Table. We can make the memorization task in an enjoyable, but effective way, using some educational games in chemistry class. Some recent puzzles, card games, mnemonics rules or games based on drawings to learn the chemical elements are (...)
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  30.  1
    Giuliano Moretti (2015). The “Extent of Reaction”: A Powerful Concept to Study Chemical Transformations at the First-Year General Chemistry Courses. Foundations of Chemistry 17 (2):107-115.
    The concept of extent of reaction was discussed many times in physical chemistry journals and books. This contribution strongly suggests the use of the extent of reaction as standard basic tool in teaching stoichiometry. The same idea was suggested several times in the past without success because the concept of extent of reaction is still not presented in the first-year general chemistry textbooks. It is also remarked that the concept of extent of reaction represents a simple example of the way (...)
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  31.  2
    David Knight (2003). 'Exalting Understanding Without Depressing Imagination': Depicting Chemical Process. Hyle 9 (2):171 - 189.
    Alchemists' illustrations indicated through symbols the processes being attempted; but with Lavoisier's Elements (1789), the place of imagination and symbolic language in chemistry was much reduced. He sought to make chemistry akin to algebra and its illustrations merely careful depictions of apparatus. Although younger contemporaries sought, and found in electrochemistry, a dynamical approach based upon forces rather than weights, they found this very difficult to picture. Nevertheless, by looking at chemical illustrations in the eighty years after Lavoisier's revolutionary book, (...)
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  32.  46
    Eric Scerri (2010). Explaining the Periodic Table, and the Role of Chemical Triads. Foundations of Chemistry 12 (1):69-83.
    Some recent work in mathematical chemistry is discussed. It is claimed that quantum mechanics does not provide a conclusive means of classifying certain elements like hydrogen and helium into their appropriate groups. An alternative approach using atomic number triads is proposed and the validity of this approach is defended in the light of some predictions made via an information theoretic approach that suggests a connection between nuclear structure and electronic structure of atoms.
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  33.  27
    Geoff Rayner-Canham & Megan Oldford (2007). The Chemical 'Knight's Move' Relationship: What is its Significance? [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 9 (2):119-125.
    Similarities in properties among pairs of metallic elements and their compounds in the lower-right quadrant of the Periodic Table have been named the ‘Knight’s Move’ relationship. Here, we have undertaken a systematic study of the only two ‘double-pairs’ of ‘Knight’s Move’ elements within this region: copper-indium/indium-bismuth and zinc-tin/tin-polonium, focussing on: metal melting points; formulas and properties of compounds; and melting points of halides and chalcogenides. On the basis of these comparisons, we conclude that the systematic evidence for ‘Knight’s Move’ relationships (...)
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  34.  13
    R. Garth Kidd (2011). Elements of the Third Kind and the Spin-Dependent Chemical Force. Foundations of Chemistry 13 (2):109-119.
  35.  37
    Witzany Guenther (2016). Crucial Steps to Life: From Chemical Reactions to Code Using Agents. Biosystems 140:49-57.
    The concepts of the origin of the genetic code and the definitions of life changed dramatically after the RNA world hypothesis. Main narratives in molecular biology and genetics such as the “central dogma,” “one gene one protein” and “non-coding DNA is junk” were falsified meanwhile. RNA moved from the transition intermediate molecule into centre stage. Additionally the abundance of empirical data concerning nonrandom genetic change operators such as the variety of mobile genetic elements, persistent viruses and defectives do not fit (...)
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  36. Micah Newman (2013). Emergence, Supervenience, and Introductory Chemical Education. Science & Education 22 (7):1655-1667.
    In learning chemistry at the entry level, many learners labor under misconceptions about the subject matter that are so fundamental that they are typically never addressed. A fundamental misconception in chemistry appears to arise from an adding of existing phenomenal concepts to newly-acquired chemical concepts, so that beginning learners think of chemical entities as themselves having the very same ‘macro’ properties that we observe through the senses. Those who teach or practice chemistry never acquire these misconceptions because they (...)
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  37.  4
    Angélique Stéphanou & Nicolas Glade (2015). SMT or TOFT? How the Two Main Theories of Carcinogenesis Are Made Incompatible. Acta Biotheoretica 63 (3):257-267.
    The building of a global model of carcinogenesis is one of modern biology’s greatest challenges. The traditional somatic mutation theory is now supplemented by a new approach, called the Tissue Organization Field Theory. According to TOFT, the original source of cancer is loss of tissue organization rather than genetic mutations. In this paper, we study the argumentative strategy used by the advocates of TOFT to impose their view. In particular, we criticize their claim of incompatibility used to justify the (...)
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  38.  59
    Robin Findlay Hendry (2006). Elements, Compounds, and Other Chemical Kinds. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):864-875.
    In this article I assess the problems and prospects of a microstructural approach to chemical substances. Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam famously claimed that to be gold is to have atomic number 79 and to be water is to be H2O. I relate the first claim to the concept of element in the history of chemistry, arguing that the reference of element names is determined by atomic number. Compounds are more difficult: water is so complex and heterogeneous at the (...)
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  39.  48
    Michael Weisberg (2004). Qualitative Theory and Chemical Explanation. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1071-1081.
    Roald Hoffmann and other theorists claim that we ought to use highly idealized chemical models (“qualitative models”) in order to increase our understanding of chemical phenomena, even though other models are available which make more highly accurate predictions. I assess this norm by examining one of the tradeoffs faced by model builders and model users—the tradeoff between precision and generality. After arguing that this tradeoff obtains in many cases, I discuss how the existence of this tradeoff can help (...)
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  40.  73
    Robin Findlay Hendry (2008). Two Conceptions of the Chemical Bond. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):909-920.
    In this article I sketch G. N. Lewis’s views on chemical bonding and Linus Pauling’s attempt to preserve Lewis’s insights within a quantum‐mechanical theory of the bond. I then set out two broad conceptions of the chemical bond, the structural and the energetic views, which differ on the extent in which they preserve anything like the classical chemical bond in the modern quantum‐mechanical understanding of molecular structure. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of Philosophy, Durham (...)
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  41. F. A. Paneth (1962). The Epistemological Status of the Chemical Concept of Element (II). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 13 (50):144-160.
    This article is a translation into english of a lecture given by paneth in 1931. The content of the work is described by the section titles: (1) the need for epistemological clarification of the fundamental concepts of chemistry, (2) the concept of substance in chemistry, (3) the epistemological standpoint of the ancient atomists, (4) the epistemological position of the concept of element introduced by lavoisier, (5) the double meaning of the chemical concept of element: 'basic substance' and 'simple substance', (...)
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  42. Jacob Stegenga (2011). The Chemical Characterization of the Gene: Vicissitudes of Evidential Assessment. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (1):105-127.
    The chemical characterization of the substance responsible for the phenomenon of “transformation” of pneumococci was presented in the now famous 1944 paper by Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty. Reception of this work was mixed. Although interpreting their results as evidence that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the molecule responsible for genetic changes was, at the time, controversial, this paper has been retrospectively celebrated as providing such evidence. The mixed and changing assessment of the evidence presented in the paper was due to (...)
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  43. F. A. Paneth (2003). The Epistemological Status of the Chemical Concept of Element. Foundations of Chemistry 5 (2):113-145.
    This article is a translation into english of a lecture given by paneth in 1931. The content of the work is described by the section titles: (1) the need for epistemological clarification of the fundamental concepts of chemistry, (2) the concept of substance in chemistry, (3) the epistemological standpoint of the ancient atomists, (4) the epistemological position of the concept of element introduced by lavoisier, (5) the double meaning of the chemical concept of element: 'basic substance' and 'simple substance', (...)
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  44.  15
    Paul Needham (2008). Is Water a Mixure Bridging the Distinction Between Physical and Chemical Properties. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (1):66-77.
    Two inter-linked theses are defended in this paper. One is the Duhemian theme that a rigid distinction between physical and chemical properties cannot be upheld. Duhem maintained this view not because the latter are reducible to the former, but because if physics is to remain consistent with chemistry it must prove possible to expand it to accommodate new features, and a rigid distinction would be a barrier to this process. The second theme is that naturally occurring isotopic variants of (...)
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  45.  47
    Olimpia Lombardi & Martín Labarca (2005). The Ontological Autonomy of the Chemical World. Foundations of Chemistry 7 (2):125-148.
    In the problem of the relationship between chemistry and physics, many authors take for granted the ontological reduction of the chemical world to the world of physics. The autonomy of chemistry is usually defended on the basis of the failure of epistemological reduction: not all chemical concepts and laws can be derived from the theoretical framework of physics. The main aim of this paper is to argue that this line of argumentation is not strong enough for eliminate the (...)
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  46.  23
    Julia R. Bursten (2014). Microstructure Without Essentialism: A New Perspective on Chemical Classification. Philosophy of Science 81 (4):633-653,.
    Recently, macroscopic accounts of chemical kind individuation have been proposed as alternatives to the microstructural essentialist account advocated by Kripke, Putnam, and others. These accounts argue that individuation of chemical kinds is based on macroscopic criteria such as reactivity or thermodynamics, and they challenge the essentialism that grounds the Kripke-Putnam view. Using a variety of chemical examples, I argue that microstructure grounds these macroscopic accounts, but that this grounding need not imply essentialism. Instead, kinds are individuated on (...)
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  47.  36
    Paul Needham (2008). Resisting Chemical Atomism: Duhem's Argument. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):921-931.
    Late nineteenth‐century opponents of atomism questioned whether the evidence required any notion of an atom. In this spirit, Duhem developed an account of the import of chemical formulas that is clearly neutral on the atomic question rather than antiatomistic. The argument is supplemented with specific inadequacies of atomic theories of chemical combination and considerably strengthened by the theory of chemical combination provided by thermodynamics. Despite possible counterevidence available at the time, which should have tempered some of Duhem's (...)
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  48.  68
    Michael Weisberg (2008). Challenges to the Structural Conception of Chemical Bonding. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):932-946.
    The covalent bond, a difficult concept to define precisely, plays a central role in chemical predictions, interventions, and explanations. I investigate the structural conception of the covalent bond, which says that bonding is a directional, submolecular region of electron density, located between individual atomic centers and responsible for holding the atoms together. Several approaches to constructing molecular models are considered in order to determine which features of the structural conception of bonding, if any, are robust across these models. Key (...)
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    Joshua D. K. Brown (2015). Chemical Atomism: A Case Study in Confirmation and Ontology. Synthese 192 (2):453-485.
    Quine, taking the molecular constitution of matter as a paradigmatic example, offers an account of the relation between theory confirmation and ontology. Elsewhere, he deploys a similar ontological methodology to argue for the existence of mathematical objects. Penelope Maddy considers the atomic/molecular theory in more historical detail. She argues that the actual ontological practices of science display a positivistic demand for “direct observation,” and that fulfillment of this demand allows us to distinguish molecules and other physical objects from mathematical abstracta. (...)
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  50. Mark Sharlow, Chemical Possibility and Modal Semantics.
    This paper is a study of a distinctively chemical notion of possibility. This is the notion of possibility that occurs in chemical discourses when chemists speak of the possibility or impossibility of achieving a given result through chemical means. This notion pertains to the possibility of processes, not of compounds, so it differs from the kind of chemical possibility mentioned in Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations or the kinds discussed in the literature on Putnam's Twin Earth argument. I (...)
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