Search results for 'DIFFERENTIATION' (try it on Scholar)

926 found
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  1.  13
    Michael J. O'Fallon & Kenneth D. Butterfield (2011). Moral Differentiation: Exploring Boundaries of the “Monkey See, Monkey Do” Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 102 (3):379-399.
    Research in ethical decision making has consistently demonstrated a positive relationship between others’ unethical behavior and observers’ unethical behavior, providing support for the “Monkey See, Monkey Do” perspective (e.g., Robinson and O’Leary-Kelly, Acad Manage J 41:658–672, 1998 ). However, the boundaries of this relationship have received little research attention. Guided by theory and research in interpersonal distancing, we explore these boundaries by proposing and examining “moral differentiation,” the set of individual and situational characteristics that affect the degree to which (...)
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  2.  14
    Bella L. Galperin, Rebecca J. Bennett & Karl Aquino (2011). Status Differentiation and the Protean Self: A Social-Cognitive Model of Unethical Behavior in Organizations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 98 (3):407 - 424.
    Based on social-cognitive theory, this article proposes a model that seeks to explain why high status organizational members engage in unethical behavior. We argue that status differentiation in organizations creates social isolation which initiates activation of high status group identity and a deactivation of moral identity. We further argue that high status group identity results in insensitivity to the needs of out-group members which, in turn, results in lessened motivation to selfregulate ethical decision making. As a result (...)
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  3.  6
    Argyris Arnellos & Álvaro Moreno (2012). How Functional Differentiation Originated in Prebiotic Evolution. Ludus Vitalis 20 (37):1-23.
    Even the simplest cell exhibits a high degree of functional differentiation (FD) realized through several mechanisms and devices contributing differently to its maintenance. Searching for the origin of FD, we briefly argue that the emergence of the respective organizational complexity cannot be the result of either natural selection (NS) or solely of the dynamics of simple self-maintaining (SM) systems. Accordingly, a highly gradual and cumulative process should have been necessary for the transition from either simple self-assembled or self-maintaining systems (...)
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  4.  8
    Roslyn Holly Fitch & Victor H. Denenberg (1998). A Role for Ovarian Hormones in Sexual Differentiation of the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):311-327.
    Historically, studies of the role of endogenous hormones in developmental differentiation of the sexes have suggested that mammalian sexual differentiation is mediated primarily by testicular androgens, and that exposure to androgens in early life leads to a male brain as defined by neuroanatomy and behavior. The female brain has been assumed to develop via a hormonal default mechanism, in the absence of androgen or other hormones. Ovarian hormones have significant effects on the development of a sexually dimorphic (...)
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  5.  2
    John A. Copland, Melinda Sheffield‐Moore, Nina Koldzic‐Zivanovic, Sean Gentry, George Lamprou, Fotini Tzortzatou‐Stathopoulou, Vassilis Zoumpourlis, Randall J. Urban & Spiros A. Vlahopoulos (2009). Sex Steroid Receptors in Skeletal Differentiation and Epithelial Neoplasia: Is Tissue‐Specific Intervention Possible? Bioessays 31 (6):629-641.
    Sex steroids, through their receptors, have potent effects on the signal pathways involved in osteogenic or myogenic differentiation. However, a considerable segment of those signal pathways has a prominent role in epithelial neoplastic transformation. The capability to intervene locally has focused on specific ligands for the receptors. Nevertheless, many signals are mapped to interactions of steroid receptor motifs with heterologous regulatory proteins. Some of those proteins interact with the glucocorticoid receptor and other factors essential to cell fate. Interactions of (...)
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  6.  8
    Kasturi Mitra (2013). Mitochondrial Fission‐Fusion as an Emerging Key Regulator of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation. Bioessays 35 (11):955-964.
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  7.  4
    Mildred Mason & Martha Wilson (1974). Temporal Differentiation and Recognition Memory for Visual Stimuli in Rhesus Monkeys. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (3):383.
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  8.  1
    Eli Saltz & David Asdourian (1963). Incubation of Anxiety as a Function of Cognitive Differentiation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (1):17.
  9.  2
    Norman J. Slamecka (1966). Differentiation Versus Unlearning of Verbal Associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (6):822.
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  10.  26
    Mark A. Changizi & Darren He (2005). Four Correlates of Complex Behavioral Networks: Differentiation, Behavior, Connectivity, and Compartmentalization: Carving Networks at Their Joints. Complexity 10 (6):13-40.
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  11.  8
    Cathrine K. Fog, Giorgio G. Galli & Anders H. Lund (2012). PRDM Proteins: Important Players in Differentiation and Disease. Bioessays 34 (1):50-60.
  12.  1
    Eugene Winograd (1968). List Differentiation as a Function of Frequency and Retention Interval. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (2p2):1.
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  13.  1
    Eugene Winograd (1968). List Differentiation, Recall, and Category Similarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (3p1):510.
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  14.  4
    Sheldon Dealy, Stuart Kauffman & Joshua Socolar (2005). Modeling Pathways of Differentiation in Genetic Regulatory Networks with Boolean Networks. Complexity 11 (1):52-60.
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  15.  3
    Stephen Klusza & Wu‐Min Deng (2011). At the Crossroads of Differentiation and Proliferation: Precise Control of Cell‐Cycle Changes by Multiple Signaling Pathways in Drosophila Follicle Cells. Bioessays 33 (2):124-134.
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  16.  3
    Kai Chen Chang, Cheng Wang & Hongyan Wang (2012). Balancing Self‐Renewal and Differentiation by Asymmetric Division: Insights From Brain Tumor Suppressors in Drosophila Neural Stem Cells. Bioessays 34 (4):301-310.
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  17.  3
    R. A. Champion & C. D. Standish (1967). Within-Pair Differentiation in Discrimination Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (3):408.
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  18. Edward J. Rickert (1969). Role of Feedback Stimuli in Response Discrimination and Differentiation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (1p1):148.
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  19.  2
    Alfred A. Baumeister, Donald A. Gordon & Franklin M. Berry (1971). Response Availability Versus Differentiation in Paired-Associate Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (2):293.
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  20.  1
    John P. Houston (1966). List Differentiation and Distributed Practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (3):477.
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  21.  1
    Mildred Mason & Leonard Katz (1974). Clarification of the Roles of Absolute and Relative Frequency on List Differentiation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):1130.
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  22.  1
    C. T. Perin (1943). The Effect of Delayed Reinforcement Upon the Differentiation of Bar Responses in White Rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (2):95.
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  23.  1
    Eli Saltz & Zakhour I. Youssef (1964). Role of Response Differentiation in Forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (3):307.
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  24.  1
    John P. Houston & James H. Reynolds (1965). First-List Retention as a Function of List Differentiation and Second-List Massed and Distributed Practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (4):387.
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  25. Clessen J. Martin (1965). Associative and Differentiation Variables in All-or-None Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (3):308.
  26. Thomas J. McCrystal (1970). List Differentiation as a Function of Time and Test Order. Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (2p1):220.
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  27. Calvin F. Nodine & Francine G. Simmons (1974). Processing Distinctive Features in the Differentiation of Letterlike Symbols. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (1):21.
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  28. Coleman Paul & Charles Callahan (1972). Effects of Overtraining on Verbal Discrimination Shifts: A Differentiation-Suppression Hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (2):198.
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  29. Eli Saltz (1963). Compound Stimuli in Verbal Learning: Cognitive and Sensory Differentiation Versus Stimulus Selection. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (1):1.
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  30. Eli Saltz & Winifred J. Riach (1961). The Effect of Stress on Stimulus Differentiation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (6):588.
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  31.  8
    Dirk Michael Boehe & Luciano Barin Cruz (2010). Corporate Social Responsibility, Product Differentiation Strategy and Export Performance. Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):325-346.
    This article argues that corporate social responsibility may contribute to product differentiation in export markets and thus improve export performance. We test this argument by observing a period of decreasing export competitiveness in a leading emerging economy. Using a large-scale survey design with 252 questionnaires completed by mediumand large-sized Brazilian exporters, we used structural equations modelling to test our hypotheses. The results suggest that CSR product differentiation predicts export performance better than (...) quality differentiation and almost as well as product innovation differentiation. Multi-group analysis further revealed that the positive and significant effect of CSR product differentiation on export performance is likely to be contingent on the number and type of countries that are targeted. Our study contributes to the literature on CSR and export performance by developing and empirically validating a model that explains under which conditions CSR-based product differentiation may lead to improved export performance. (shrink)
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  32.  8
    I. Stegeman, D. L. Willems, E. Dekker & P. M. Bossuyt (2014). Individual Responsibility, Solidarity and Differentiation in Healthcare. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):770-773.
    Objectives Access to healthcare in most western societies is based on equality. Rapidly rising costs have fuelled debates about differentiation in access to healthcare. We assessed the public's perceptions and attitudes about differentiation in healthcare according to lifestyle behaviour. Methods A vignette study was undertaken in participants in a colorectal cancer screening pilot programme in the Netherlands. Screenees with a negative test result received a questionnaire in which nine hypothetical situations were described: three different healthcare settings (screening, lung (...)
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  33.  14
    Claudia Pombo (2015). Differentiation with Stratification: A Principle of Theoretical Physics in the Tradition of the Memory Art. Foundations of Physics 45 (10):1301-1310.
    The art of memory started with Aristotle’s questions on memory. During its long evolution, it had important contributions from alchemists, was transformed by Ramon Llull and apparently ended with Giordano Bruno, who was considered the best known representative of this art. This tradition did not disappear, but lives in the formulations of our modern scientific theories. From its initial form as a method of keeping information via associations, it became a principle of classification and structuring of knowledge. This principle, which (...)
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  34.  2
    Pier Mario Biava (2016). New Views in the Integrative Treatment of Oncologic Disease: Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors and Their Role in Tumor Cell Reprogramming. World Futures 72 (1-2):43-52.
    On the basis of the evidence that tumor development is suppressed by the embryonic microenvironment, some experiments using the factors taken from Zebrafish embryo at precise stages of cell differentiation were made. These experiments demonstrated a significant growth inhibition on different tumor cell lines in vitro. The observed mechanism of tumor growth inhibition is connected with the key-role cell cycle regulation molecules, such as p53 and pRb, which are modified by transcriptional or post-translational processes. Research on apoptosis and (...) revealed that treatment with these factors induces caspase-3 with a p73 apoptotic-dependent pathway activation and a concurrent significant normalization of e-cadherin and beta-catenin ratio. Other experiments found a synergistic effect on the colon cancer proliferation curve after the concurrent treatment with these factors and 5-fluorouracil. Finally, a product prepared for human therapy demonstrated 19.8% regression and 16% stable disease in an.. (shrink)
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  35.  93
    Michael Hammond (1983). The Sociology of Emotions and the History of Social Differentiation. Sociological Theory 1:90-119.
    In Primitive Classification, Durkheim suggests using the notion of affectivity to explain the emergence of various social structures. This bold attempt to extend the role of affectivity in sociological thinking has been rejected by most social scientists. By greatly elaborating Durkheim's outline for a sociology of emotions, however, this essay suggests that there is a fruitful way to use affectivity in macrosociological theory. This model allows us to develop in a new way Durkheim's description of structural differentiation and stratification (...)
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  36.  12
    Trevor Kerry & Carolle A. Kerry (1997). Differentiation: Teachers' Views of the Usefulness of Recommended Strategies in Helping the More Able Pupils in Primary and Secondary Classrooms. Educational Studies 23 (3):439-457.
    Recent official publications have emphasised the need for differentiation to take place in classrooms in order to ensure that the needs of all pupils, including the more able, are met effectively. These publications list methods of differentiation which are ‘recommended’ for classroom use. This article researches the views of teachers about the value of these recommended methods of differentiation for able pupils in primary and secondary classrooms. It concludes that the teachers are more subtle in their use (...)
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  37.  10
    C. P. Raven (1968). A Model of Pre-Programmed Differentiation of the Larval Head Region in Limnaea Stagnalis. Acta Biotheoretica 18 (1-4):316-329.
    A model is given of the development of a radialised larval head pattern inLimnaea stagnalis, as it occurs under certain experimental conditions. It is assumed that the differentiation of the pattern is entirely based on cell-internal factors, and that the internal state of each cell is dependent on that of its progenitor and on the direction of the division by which it is produced. This internal state determines the direction of the subsequent division or the nature of the cell's (...)
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  38.  3
    Brian McGarvey, Valerie Morgan, Stuart Marriott & Lesley Abbott (1996). Differentiation and its Problems: The Views of Primary Teachers and Curriculum Support Staff in Northern Ireland. Educational Studies 22 (1):69-82.
    This paper identifies a range of problems associated with putting differentiation into practice. The opinions of head teachers, subject co‐ordinators, and teachers were sought, as well as those of the curriculum support staff in the Education and Library Boards on the extent to which these problems affected primary schools in Northern Ireland, and case‐studies illuminated these views. The results showed that the curriculum support staff regarded most problems in differentiation in a more serious light than the schools themselves (...)
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  39.  14
    Thomas McPartland (2013). Philosophy of History and a Second Axial Age Bernard Lonergan and the Differentiation of Interiority. Thesis Eleven 116 (1):53-76.
    While post-modernist assaults on modernity correctly expose the pretensions of modernity – including its constructs of meaning in history, its abnegation of mystery, and its lapses into scientism, historicism, and relativism – the philosopher and theologian Bernard Lonergan discerned progress as well as decline in recent intellectual history. In part this is because under contemporary conditions we can avoid the pretensions of modernity, since – in the wake of modern science and modern historical scholarship – we witness the differentiation (...)
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  40.  7
    Laurent Buffat & Jean-Yves Mary (1992). Automatic Search for Model to Simulate the Differentiation of T Lymphocytes Within the Thymus. Acta Biotheoretica 40 (2-3):205-220.
    The differentiation of T Lymphocytes within the thymus is an important biological phenomenon during wich these cell acquire their functions to further control the immune system. Numerous experiments under various conditions have been devised to understand the different mechanisms involved in this complex process. Nevertheless, interpretation of these experiments lead to still contradictory debatable hypotheses. Modelisation of this process through classical simulation methods cannot be envisaged because they are not adapted to modifications of the model structure, which is the (...)
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  41.  18
    D. J. Hurley & M. A. Vandyck (2009). Mathfrak{D} -Differentiation in Hilbert Space and the Structure of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 39 (5):433-473.
    An appropriate kind of curved Hilbert space is developed in such a manner that it admits operators of $\mathcal{C}$ - and $\mathfrak{D}$ -differentiation, which are the analogues of the familiar covariant and D-differentiation available in a manifold. These tools are then employed to shed light on the space-time structure of Quantum Mechanics, from the points of view of the Feynman ‘path integral’ and of canonical quantisation. (The latter contains, as a special case, quantisation in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates when (...)
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  42.  2
    Mario Henrique Ogasavara, Dirk Michael Boehe & Luciano Barin Cruz (2015). CSR-Based Differentiation Strategy of Export Firms From Developing Countries: An Exploratory Study of the Strategy Tripod. [REVIEW] Business and Society 54 (6):723-762.
    This study investigates the influences of the strategy tripod, an established concept in the international business literature, on a corporate social responsibility -based differentiation strategy for export firms. This strategy is conceived as consisting of product-level and firm-level CSR. Using a sample of 195 Brazilian export firms, the authors find that innovation capabilities, international market exposure, and institutional pressures significantly influence product-level CSR; however, the latter two factors influence firm-level CSR only through their mediating effects on product-level CSR. This (...)
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  43.  16
    Stefan Dragulinescu (2013). A Challenge for Lowe and Ellis' Differentiation of Kinds as Substantive Universals. Erkenntnis 78 (1):73 - 94.
    I question here the differentiation of kinds as substantive universals in Lowe and Ellis' metaphysics, by taking up, for the argument's sake, two extreme approaches on kind differentiation and kind change, a Heraclitan and a Spinozan approach. I show that, as things currently stand, Heraclitanism or Spinozism about kinds is consistent with the broad tenets of Lowe and Ellis' metaphysics of kinds.
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  44.  13
    Aldo Mascareño (2012). Self-chaotization in World Society: An Outline for a Theory of Contextual Differentiation. Cinta de Moebio 44 (44):61-105.
    A high level of complexity and a continuous and always changing relationship among its elements characterizes modern world society. As a result, a constant differentiation and specialization of diverging social fields aiming to reduce the uncertainty emerging from that complexity takes place. Paradoxically, as differentiation and specialization increase, they become a new source of uncertainty. In order to confront this self-producing ambiguity, some social operations develop structural interdependencies with a sufficient level of operational stability that distinguish them from (...)
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  45.  18
    Hisao Honda, Masaharu Tanemura & Akihiro Yoshida (2000). Differentiation of Wing Epidermal Scale Cells in a Butterfly Under the Lateral Inhibition Model - Appearance of Large Cells in a Polygonal Pattern. Acta Biotheoretica 48 (2):121-136.
    Cellular pattern formations of some epithelia are believed to be governed by the direct lateral inhibition rule of cell differentiation. That is, initially equivalent cells are all competent to differentiate, but once a cell has differentiated, the cell inhibits its immediate neighbors from following this pathway. Such a differentiation repeats until all non-inhibited cells have differentiated. The cellular polygonal patterns can be characterized by the numbers of undifferentiated cells and differentiated ones. When the differentiated cells become large in (...)
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  46.  2
    Cathelijn J. F. Waaijer (2015). The Coming of Age of the Academic Career: Differentiation and Professionalization of German Academic Positions From the 19th Century to the Present. Minerva 53 (1):43-67.
    In modern academic career systems there are a large number of entry positions, much smaller numbers of intermediate positions, and still fewer full professorships. We examine how this system has developed in Germany, the country where the modern academic system was introduced, tracing the historical development of academic positions since the early 19th century. We show both a differentiation and professionalization. At first, professorships and private lecturer positions were the only formal positions, but later, lower formal academic positions emerged. (...)
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  47.  10
    Chris G. De Koster & Aristid Lindenmayer (1987). Discrete and Continuous Models for Heterocyst Differentiation in Growing Filaments of Blue-Green Bacteria. Acta Biotheoretica 36 (4):249-273.
    Heterocyst spacing in blue -green bacteria is widely assumed to be due to a diffusible inhibitor. The inhibitor, a nitrogen-rich compound, probably glutamine, is produced via the N2-fixing enzymes of the heterocyst and in turn serves to suppress the induction of these enzymes and of the differentiation of vegetative cells to heterocysts. This simple morphogenetic mechanism operating in growing cellular filaments ofAnabaena species is investigated on the basis of a continuous and a discrete cellular model, as well as by (...)
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  48.  13
    Nejat Düzgüneş (1975). On the Theories of Gene Regulation and Differentiation in Eukaryotes. Acta Biotheoretica 24 (3-4):120-126.
    The interrelationships among recent theories on the regulation of gene activity and differentiation in higher organisms are reviewed. Interpretations within these theories of the various components of chromosomes are re-evaluated and a unified conceptual framework of hierarchical genetic control mechanisms in eukaryotes is presented.
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  49.  10
    Hans-Rolf Gregorius (1996). Differentiation Between Populations and its Measurement. Acta Biotheoretica 44 (1):23-36.
    When applied to a family of sets, the term differentiation designates a measure of the totality of those members which appear in only one of the sets. This basic set theoretic concept involves the formation of intersections, unions, and complements of sets. However, populations as special kinds of sets may share types, but they do not share the carriers of these types; intersections of different populations are thus always empty. The resulting conceptual dilemma is resolved by considering the joint (...)
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  50.  3
    Lesley J. Rogers (1998). Indirect Influences of Gonadal Hormones on Sexual Differentiation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):337-338.
    Indirect routes by which gonadal hormones influence sexual differentiation are considered. In rats, differentiation may depend on the way in which the mother responds to the hormonal condition of her pups, and this has implications for the interpretation of the data for humans. Interaction between gonadal hormones and light experience in chicks is compared with the mammalian systems covered in Fitch & Denenberg's review.
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