Search results for 'MICROBIOLOGY' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  15
    J. S. Youngner (2003). Promoting Research Integrity at the American Society for Microbiology. Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (2):215-220.
    The American Society for Microbiology addresses issues of research integrity in several ways. There is a Code of Ethics for Society members and an Ethics Committee, a Publications Board has editorial oversight of ethical issues involved in Society journals and other publications, and the Public and Scientific Affairs Board is involved in ethical issues and scientific policies at the national level. In addition, the Society uses meetings and publications to inform and educate members about research integrity.
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  2.  10
    Lloyd T. Ackert Jr (2007). The “Cycle of Life” in Ecology: Sergei Vinogradskii's Soil Microbiology, 1885–1940. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 40 (1):109-145.
    Historians of science have attributed the emergence of ecology as a discipline in the late nineteenth century to the synthesis of Humboldtian botanical geography and Darwinian evolution. In this essay, I begin to explore another, largely neglected but very important dimension of this history. Using Sergei Vinogradskii’s career and scientific research trajectory as a point of entry, I illustrate the manner in which microbiologists, chemists, botanists, and plant physiologists inscribed the concept of a “cycle of life” into their investigations. Their (...)
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  3.  35
    Ellen Clarke (2015). Philosophy of Microbiology. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2015.
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  4. Marc Ereshefsky (2010). Microbiology and the Species Problem. Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):553-568.
    This paper examines the species problem in microbiology and its implications for the species problem more generally. Given the different meanings of ‘species’ in microbiology, the use of ‘species’ in biology is more multifarious and problematic than commonly recognized. So much so, that recent work in microbial systematics casts doubt on the existence of a prokaryote species category in nature. It also casts doubt on the existence of a general species category for all of life (one that includes (...)
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  5. Maureen O'Malley (2014). Philosophy of Microbiology. Cambridge University Press.
    Microbes and microbiology are seldom encountered in philosophical accounts of the life sciences. Although microbiology is a well-established science and microbes the basis of life on this planet, neither the organisms nor the science have been seen as philosophically significant. This book will change that. It fills a major gap in the philosophy of biology by examining central philosophical issues in microbiology. Topics are drawn from evolutionary microbiology, microbial ecology, and microbial classification. These discussions are aimed (...)
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  6.  13
    Maureen A. O'Malley & Yan Boucher (2005). Paradigm Change in Evolutionary Microbiology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (1):183-208.
    Thomas Kuhn had little to say about scientific change in biological science, and biologists are ambivalent about how applicable his framework is for their disciplines. We apply Kuhn’s account of paradigm change to evolutionary microbiology, where key Darwinian tenets are being challenged by two decades of findings from molecular phylogenetics. The chief culprit is lateral gene transfer, which undermines the role of vertical descent and the representation of evolutionary history as a tree of life. To assess Kuhn’s relevance to (...)
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  7.  4
    Rita María Sánchez Lera & Oliva García (2015). History of the microscope and its repercussion on Microbiology. Humanidades Médicas 15 (2):355-372.
    El microscopio constituye un instrumento de vital importancia para la Microbiología y para muchas otras ramas de la Medicina. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de profundizar los conocimientos sobre el microscopio, sobre la historia de este en el período comprendido desde su creación hasta la actualidad a nivel mundial y más brevemente en Cuba. El trabajo aborda también, con una corta descripción, los diferentes tipos existentes, así como algunas de las aplicaciones más importantes en la Microbiología. This (...)
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  8.  4
    Joseph J. Fins (2015). Ideology and Microbiology: Ebola, Science, and Deliberative Democracy. American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4):1-3.
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  9.  13
    Ilana Löwy (1994). On Hybridizations, Networks and New Disciplines: The Pasteur Institute and the Development of Microbiology in France. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 25 (5):655-688.
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  10.  4
    Maria Şerban & Sara Green (2016). Why the Small Things in Life Matter: Philosophy of Biology From the Microbial PerspectiveMaureen A. O’Malley,Philosophy of Microbiology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , X+269 Pp., $30.39. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 83 (1):152-158.
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  11.  6
    Idan Ben-Barak (2015). Philosophy of Microbiology, by Maureen A. O'Malley. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (3):627-627.
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  12.  19
    James Strick (2014). The Cycle of Life Concept, Soil Microbiology and Soil Science Restored to the History of Ecology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:119-121.
  13.  11
    Maureen A. O'Malley & John Dupré (2007). Towards a Philosophy of Microbiology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (4):775-779.
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  14.  4
    Alison K. McConwell (forthcoming). MAUREEN A. O’MALLEY Philosophy of Microbiology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv033.
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  15.  2
    Bernard D. Davis (1988). Molecular Genetics, Microbiology, and Prehistory. Bioessays 9 (4):129-130.
  16.  17
    Maureen A. O’Malley & John Dupré (2007). Introduction: Towards a Philosophy of Microbiology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C.
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  17.  1
    Maureen A. O’Malley & Yan Boucher (2005). Paradigm Change in Evolutionary Microbiology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):183-208.
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  18.  1
    Maureen A. O’Malley & John Dupré (2007). Towards a Philosophy of Microbiology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (4):775-779.
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  19.  3
    S. W. Glover (1986). Third World Microbiology – Educational Needs. Bioessays 4 (2):51-52.
  20.  2
    Rita María Sánchez Lera (2013). Approach to leading personalities of Cuban Microbiology. Humanidades Médicas 13 (3):865-886.
    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de conocer acerca de personalidades científicas cubanas y sus obras en el ámbito de la microbiología, para ampliar y profundizar los conocimientos de médicos generales y microbiólogos. En síntesis, se describe la vida de quienes efectuaron contribuciones trascendentales a la medicina cubana y universal. A literature review was made aiming at learning about Cuban scientific personalities and their works in the field of Microbiologyin order to broaden and deepen the knowledge of general (...)
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  21.  2
    Ulrike Dohrmann (1992). Losing Trk of Progress in Neurotrophic Biology. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 165: Neuronal Growth Factors (1991). Edited by M. Bothwell Springer‐Verlag, Heidelberg. [REVIEW] Bioessays 14 (9):649-650.
  22.  1
    S. W. Glover (1985). This is ICSU: Microbe ′86: XIV International Congress of Microbiology 7–13 September 1986 ‐ Manchester, UK. Bioessays 2 (5):230-231.
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  23. William Burrows (1960). Microbiology Yesterday and Today Edited by Vernon Bryson. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 3 (3):437-439.
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  24. Js Cory & Dhl Bishop (1995). NERC Institute of Virology and Environmental Microbiology, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OXl 3SR, UK. In T. B. Mepham, G. A. Tucker & J. Wiseman (eds.), Issues in Agricultural Bioethics. Nottingham University Press 135.
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  25. S. W. Glover (1984). This is ICSU: A Plain Man's Guide to International Microbiology. Bioessays 1 (3):137-138.
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  26. Marie I. Kaiser (2016). Philosophy of Microbiology. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 29 (2):224-228.
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  27. Norman Maclean (1986). DNA Methylation. Methylation of DNA. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 108. Edited by T. A. Trautner. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984. Pp. 173. £36.50. [REVIEW] Bioessays 4 (3):139-139.
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  28. Maureen O’Malley (2010). What Microbes Can Do: A Sensory Guide to Microbiology. Biological Theory 5 (2):182-186.
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  29. Dana J. Philpott & Michelle Rathman (1999). Cellular Microbiology of Infectious Diseases. Bioessays 21 (3):258-260.
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  30. J. Porter (1963). Milestones in Microbiology by Thomas Dale Brock. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 54:147-147.
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  31. J. G. Songer (2000). Book Review: Cellular Microbiology: Bacteria‐Host Interventions in Health and Disease. [REVIEW] Bioessays 22 (5):497-497.
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  32. D. K. Summers (1989). Transposable Elements and Their Behaviour Transposition. Symposium 43: Society for General Microbiology, 1988. Ed. By A. J. Kingsman, K. F. Chater and S. M. Kingsman. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 390. £37.50, $75.00. [REVIEW] Bioessays 11 (4):114-115.
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  33. Miguel Vicente (2009). Encyclopedic Microbiology: Animalcules. Bioessays 31 (9):1002-1003.
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  34.  40
    Maureen A. O’Malley & John Dupré (2007). Size Doesn't Matter: Towards a More Inclusive Philosophy of Biology. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):155-191.
    Philosophers of biology, along with everyone else, generally perceive life to fall into two broad categories, the microbes and macrobes, and then pay most of their attention to the latter. ‘Macrobe’ is the word we propose for larger life forms, and we use it as part of an argument for microbial equality. We suggest that taking more notice of microbes – the dominant life form on the planet, both now and throughout evolutionary history – will transform some of the philosophy (...)
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  35.  9
    Lloyd T. Ackert Jr (2006). The Role of Microbes in Agriculture: Sergei Vinogradskii's Discovery and Investigation of Chemosynthesis, 1880–1910. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (2):373-406.
    In 1890, Sergei Nikolaevich Vinogradskii (Winogradsky) proposed a novel life process called chemosynthesis. His discovery that some microbes could live solely on inorganic matter emerged during his physiological research in 1880s in Strassburg and Zurich on sulfur, iron, and nitrogen bacteria. In his nitrification research, Vinogradskii first embraced the idea that microbiology could have great bearing on agricultural problems. His critique of agricultural chemists and Kochian-style bacteriologists brought this message to the broader agricultural community, resulting in an heightened interest (...)
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  36. Jonathan Birch (2014). Gene Mobility and the Concept of Relatedness. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):445-476.
    Cooperation is rife in the microbial world, yet our best current theories of the evolution of cooperation were developed with multicellular animals in mind. Hamilton’s theory of inclusive fitness is an important case in point: applying the theory in a microbial setting is far from straightforward, as social evolution in microbes has a number of distinctive features that the theory was never intended to capture. In this article, I focus on the conceptual challenges posed by the project of extending Hamilton’s (...)
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  37.  14
    Ellen Clarke (2016). Levels of Selection in Biofilms: Multispecies Biofilms Are Not Evolutionary Individuals. Biology and Philosophy 31 (2):191-212.
    Microbes are generally thought of as unicellular organisms, but we know that many microbes live as parts of biofilms—complex, surface-attached microbial communities numbering millions of cells. Some authors have recently argued in favour of reconceiving biofilms as biological entities in their own right. In particular, some have claimed that multispecies biofilms are evolutionary individuals : 10126–10132 2015). Against this view, I defend the conservative consensus that selection acts primarily upon microbial cells.
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  38.  9
    W. Ford Doolittle (2013). Microbial Neopleomorphism. Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):351-378.
    Our understanding of what microbes are and how they evolve has undergone many radical shifts since the late nineteenth century, when many still believed that bacteria could be spontaneously generated and most thought microbial “species” (if any) to be unstable and interchangeable in form and function (pleomorphic). By the late twentieth century, an ontology based on single cells and definable species with predictable properties, evolving like species of animals or plants, was widely accepted. Now, however, genomic and metagenomic data show (...)
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  39.  13
    Stuart K. Archer, Charles Claudianos & Hugh D. Campbell (2005). Evolution of the Gelsolin Family of Actin-Binding Proteins as Novel Transcriptional Coactivators. Bioessays 27 (4):388-396.
    The gelsolin gene family encodes a number of higher eukaryotic actin-binding proteins that are thought to function in the cytoplasm by severing, capping, nucleating or bundling actin filaments. Recent evidence, however, suggests that several members of the gelsolin family may have adopted unexpected nuclear functions including a role in regulating transcription. In particular, flightless I, supervillin and gelsolin itself have roles as coactivators for nuclear receptors, despite the fact that their divergence appears to predate the evolutionary appearance of nuclear receptors. (...)
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  40.  21
    Jacques G. Richardson (2004). The Bane of “Inhumane” Weapons and Overkill: An Overview of Increasingly Lethal Arms and the Inadequacy of Regulatory Controls. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (4):667-692.
    Weapons of both defense and offense have grown steadily in their effectiveness—especially since the industrial revolution. The mass destruction of humanity, by parts or in whole, became reality with the advent of toxic agents founded on chemistry and biology or nuclear weapons derived from physics. The military’s new non-combat roles, combined with a quest for non-lethal weapons, may change the picture in regard to conventional defense establishments but are unlikely to deter bellicose tyrants or the new terrorists from using the (...)
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  41.  7
    U. Deichmann (2008). Different Methods and Metaphysics in Early Molecular Genetics - A Case of Disparity of Research? History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (1):53-78.
    The encounter between two fundamentally different approaches in seminal research in molecular biology-the problems, aims, methods and metaphysics - is delineated and analyzed. They are exemplified by the microbiologist Oswald T. Avery who, in line with the reductionist mechanistic metaphysics of Jacques Loeb, attempted to explain basic life phenomena through chemistry; and the theoretical physicist Max Delbrück who, influenced by Bohr’s antimechanistic views, preferred to explain these phenomena without chemistry. Avery’s and Delbrück’s most important studies took place concurrently. Thus analysis (...)
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  42.  4
    Bernard D. Davis (1985). Molecular Genetics and the Foundations of Evolution. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 28 (2):251-268.
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  43.  47
    John Dupr (2012). Processes of Life: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology. OUP Oxford.
    John Dupr explores recent revolutionary developments in biology and considers their relevance for our understanding of human nature and society. He reveals how the advance of genetic science is changing our view of the constituents of life, and shows how an understanding of microbiology will overturn standard assumptions about the living world.
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  44.  41
    Eric Bapteste & John Dupré (2013). Towards a Processual Microbial Ontology. Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):379-404.
    Standard microbial evolutionary ontology is organized according to a nested hierarchy of entities at various levels of biological organization. It typically detects and defines these entities in relation to the most stable aspects of evolutionary processes, by identifying lineages evolving by a process of vertical inheritance from an ancestral entity. However, recent advances in microbiology indicate that such an ontology has important limitations. The various dynamics detected within microbiological systems reveal that a focus on the most stable entities (or (...)
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  45.  4
    Michael Kalichman, Monica Sweet & Dena Plemmons (2014). Standards of Scientific Conduct: Are There Any? Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (4):885-896.
    The practice of research is full of ethical challenges, many of which might be addressed through the teaching of responsible conduct of research . Although such training is increasingly required, there is no clear consensus about either the goals or content of an RCR curriculum. The present study was designed to assess community standards in three domains of research practice: authorship, collaboration, and data management. A survey, developed through advice from content matter experts, focus groups, and interviews, was distributed in (...)
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  46.  9
    Staffan Müller-Wille (2007). Hybrids, Pure Cultures, and Pure Lines: From Nineteenth-Century Biology to Twentieth-Century Genetics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (4):796-806.
    Prompted by recent recognitions of the omnipresence of horizontal gene transfer among microbial species and the associated emphasis on exchange, rather than isolation, as the driving force of evolution, this essay will reflect on hybridization as one of the central concerns of nineteenth-century biology. I will argue that an emphasis on horizontal exchange was already endorsed by ‘biology’ when it came into being around 1800 and was brought to full fruition with the emergence of genetics in 1900. The true revolution (...)
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  47.  55
    Angela N. H. Creager (1996). Wendell Stanley's Dream of a Free-Standing Biochemistry Department at the University of California, Berkeley. Journal of the History of Biology 29 (3):331 - 360.
    Scientists and historians have often presumed that the divide between biochemistry and molecular biology is fundamentally epistemological.100 The historiography of molecular biology as promulgated by Max Delbrück's phage disciples similarly emphasizes inherent differences between the archaic tradition of biochemistry and the approach of phage geneticists, the ur molecular biologists. A historical analysis of the development of both disciplines at Berkeley mitigates against accepting predestined differences, and underscores the similarities between the postwar development of biochemistry and the emergence of molecular biology (...)
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  48.  4
    Christoph Gradmann (2001). Isolation, Contamination, and Pure Culture: Monomorphism and Polymorphism of Pathogenic Micro-Organisms as Research Problem 1860-1880. Perspectives on Science 9 (2):147-172.
    : This article analyzes German debates on the microbiology of infectious diseases from 1865 to 1875 and asks how and when organic pollution in tissues became noteworthy for aetiology and pathogenesis. It was with Ernst Hallier's pleomorphistic microbiology that the organic character of alien material in tissues came to be regarded as important for pathology. The process that followed saw both vigorous biological critique and a number of medical applications of Hallier's work. Around 1874 contemporaries reached the conclusion (...)
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  49.  1
    Staffan Müller-Wille (2007). Hybrids, Pure Cultures, and Pure Lines: From Nineteenth-Century Biology to Twentieth-Century Genetics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (4):796-806.
    Prompted by recent recognitions of the omnipresence of horizontal gene transfer among microbial species and the associated emphasis on exchange, rather than isolation, as the driving force of evolution, this essay will reflect on hybridization as one of the central concerns of nineteenth-century biology. I will argue that an emphasis on horizontal exchange was already endorsed by ‘biology’ when it came into being around 1800 and was brought to full fruition with the emergence of genetics in 1900. The true revolution (...)
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  50.  5
    U. Deichmann (2004). Early Responses to Avery Et Al.'S Paper on DNA as Hereditary Material. Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 34 (2):207-232.
    Avery’s et al. ’s 1944 paper provides the first direct evidence of DNA having gene-like properties and marks the beginning of a new phase in early molecular genetics (with a strong focus on chemistry and DNA). The study of its reception shows that on the whole, Avery’s results were immediately appreciated and motivated new research on transformation, the chemical nature of DNA’s biological specificity and bacteria genetics. It shows, too, that initial problems of transferring transformation to other systems and prominent (...)
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