Search results for 'POTENTIATION' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  5
    Goulter Natalie, Kimonis Eva, Fanti Kostas & Hall Jason (2015). Affective Startle Potentiation Differentiates Primary and Secondary Variants of Juvenile Psychopathy. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
    Background: Individuals with psychopathic traits demonstrate an attenuated emotional response to aversive stimuli. However, recent evidence suggests heterogeneity in emotional reactivity among individuals with psychopathic or callous-unemotional (CU) traits, the emotional detachment dimension of psychopathy. We hypothesize that primary variants of psychopathy will respond with blunted affect to negatively valenced stimuli, whereas individuals marked with histories of childhood trauma/maltreatment exposure, known as secondary variants, will display heightened emotional reactivity. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined fear-potentiated startle between psychopathy (...)
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  2.  18
    Batsell Jr & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in the (...)
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  3.  16
    W. Robert Batsell Jr & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in the (...)
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  4.  18
    W. Robert Batsell & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in the (...)
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  5.  2
    Masanobu Kano (1996). Long-Lasting Potentiation of GABAergic Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells: Its Properties and Possible Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):354-361.
    The cellular basis of motor learning in the cerebellum has been attributed mostly to long-term depression (LTD) at excitatory parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses. LTD is induced when PFs are activated in conjunction with a climbing fiber (CF), the other excitatory input to PCs. Recently, by using whole-cell patch-clamp recording from PCs in cerebellar slices, a new form of synaptic plasticity was discovered. Stimulation of excitatory CFs induced a long-lasting (usually longer than 30 min) of 30 sec) and the (...)
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  6.  54
    John Bickle (2002). Concepts Structured Through Reduction: A Structuralist Resource Illuminates the Consolidation – Long-Term Potentiation (Ltp) Link. Synthese 130 (1):123 - 133.
    The structuralist program has developed a useful metascientific resource: ontological reductive links (ORLs) between the constituents of the potential models of reduced and reducing theories. This resource was developed initially to overcome an objection to structuralist ``global'' accounts of the intertheoretic reduction relation. But it also illuminates the way that concepts at a higher level of scientific investigation (e.g., cognitive psychology) become ``structured through reduction'' to lower-level investigations (e.g., cellular/molecular neuroscience). After (briefly) explaining this structuralist background, I demonstrate how this (...)
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  7.  25
    Tracey J. Shors & Louis D. Matzel (1997). Long-Term Potentiation: What's Learning Got to Do with It? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):597-614.
    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is operationally defined as a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy following high-frequency stimulation of afferent fibers. Since the first full description of the phenomenon in 1973, exploration of the mechanisms underlying LTP induction has been one of the most active areas of research in neuroscience. Of principal interest to those who study LTP, particularly in the mammalian hippocampus, is its presumed role in the establishment of stable memories, a role consistent with descriptions of memory formation. Other (...)
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  8.  4
    Warren Heideman (1995). Long Term Potentiation and CaM-Sensitive Adenylyl Cyclase: Long-Term Prospects. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):477-478.
    The type I CaM-sensitive adenylyl cyclase is in a position to integrate signals from multiple inputs, consistent with the requirements for mediating long term potentiation (LTP). Biochemical and genetic evidence supports the idea that this enzyme plays an important role inc LTP. However, more work is needed before we will be certain of the role that CaM-sensitive adenylyl cyclases play in LTP.
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  9.  2
    Shane M. O'Mara, Sean Commins, Colin Gemmell & John Gigg (1997). Long-Term Potentiation: Does It Deserve Attention? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):625-626.
    Shors & Matzel's target article is a thought-provoking attempt to reconceptualise long-term potentiation as an attentional or arousal mechanism rather than a memory storage mechanism. This is incompatible with the facts of the neurobiology of attention and of the behavioural neurophysiological properties of hippocampal neurons.
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  10. Timothy Bliss, Graham Collingridge & Richard Morris (eds.) (2004). Long-Term Potentiation: Enhancing Neuroscience for 30 Years. Oxford University Press Uk.
    In the thirty years since its discovery by Terje Lomo and Tim Bliss, Long Term Potentiation has become one of the most extensively studied topics in contemporary neuroscience. In LTP the strength of synapses between neurons is potentiated following brief but intense activation. LTP is thought to play a central role in learning and memory, though the exact nature of its role is less clear. In spite of years of research, there are many questions about LTP regarding its functional (...)
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  11. Peter J. Mikulka, Elizabeth Pitts & Christine Philput (1982). Overshadowing Not Potentiation in Taste Aversion Conditioning. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 20 (2):101-104.
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  12.  65
    Berit Brogaard, Kristian Marlow & Kevin Rice (2015). The Long-Term Potentiation Model for Grapheme-Color Binding in Synesthesia. In David Bennett & Chris Hill (eds.), Sensory Integration and the Unity of Consciousness. MIT Press
    The phenomenon of synesthesia has undergone an invigoration of research interest and empirical progress over the past decade. Studies investigating the cognitive mechanisms underlying synesthesia have yielded insight into neural processes behind such cognitive operations as attention, memory, spatial phenomenology and inter-modal processes. However, the structural and functional mechanisms underlying synesthesia still remain contentious and hypothetical. The first section of the present paper reviews recent research on grapheme-color synesthesia, one of the most common forms of synesthesia, and addresses the ongoing (...)
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  13.  9
    Linda Palmer, Evidence That Long-Term Potentiation Occurs Within Individual Hippocampal Synapses During Learning.
    Vadim Fedulov,1 Christopher S. Rex,2 Danielle A. Simmons,3 Linda Palmer,4 Christine M. Gall,1,2 and Gary Lynch.
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  14.  1
    D. Chris Anderson, Joseph P. Sergio & Michael Ewing (1982). Food Deprivation and Startle Magnitude: Inhibition, Potentiation, or Neither? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 19 (3):165-168.
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  15. Robert A. Rosellini & Robin L. Lashley (1986). Conditioning of Odors in Compound with Taste: A Failure to Observe Potentiation. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (1):55-58.
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  16.  3
    Michael R. Best, John D. Batson & Mark T. Bowman (1990). The Role of Ingestional Delay in Taste-Mediated Environmental Potentiation. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (3):215-218.
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  17.  5
    Stephen F. Davis, Scott A. Bailey, Angela H. Becker & Cathy A. Grover (1990). Taste/Taste Potentiation as a Function of Age and Stimulus Intensity. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (3):201-203.
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  18.  2
    Alissa J. Ellis, Kathryn M. Fischer & Christopher G. Beevers (2010). Is Dysphoria About Beingredandblue? Potentiation of Anger and Reduced Distress Tolerance Among Dysphoric Individuals. Cognition and Emotion 24 (4):596-608.
  19.  2
    Christopher Wilson & Carol Gibson (1991). Potentiation of the Transport Response with Supplemental Stimulation in White Rats. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (2):147-149.
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  20.  8
    Matthew Shapiro & Eric Hargreaves (1997). Long Term Potentiation: Attending to Levels of Organization of Learning and Memory Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):631-632.
    Shors & Matzel set up a straw man, that LTP is a memory storage mechanism, and knock him down without due consideration of the important relations among different levels of organization and analysis regarding LTP, learning, and memory. Assessing these relationships requires analysis and hypotheses linking specific brain regions, neural circuits, plasticity mechanisms, and task demands. The issue addressed by the authors is important, but their analysis is off target.
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  21.  2
    David J. Ely (1975). Aversiveness Without Pain: Potentiation of Imaginai and Auditory Effects of Blackboard Screeches. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6 (3):295-296.
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  22.  4
    Nestor A. Schmajuk (1997). Stimulus Configuration, Long-Term Potentiation, and the Hippocampus. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):629-631.
    Shors & Matzel propose that hippocampal LTP increases the effective salience of discrete external stimuli and thereby facilitates the induction of memories at distant places. In line with this suggestion, a neural network model of associative learning and hippocampal function assumes that LTP increases hippocampal error signals to the cortex, thereby facilitating stimulus configuration in association cortex. Computer simulations show that under these assumptions the model correctly describes the effect of LTP induction and blockade in classical discriminations and place learning.
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  23. Mr Best & H. Patel (1987). Taste-Mediated Context Potentiation-the Importance of Cs Onset. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (5):343-343.
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  24. Mark T. Bowman, W. Robert Batsell & Michael R. Best (1992). Evidence That Stimulus Generalization Does Not Determine Taste-Mediated Odor Potentiation. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (3):241-243.
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  25. Michael J. Forster, Z. Michael Nagy & James M. Murphy (1981). Potentiation of Amphetamine-Induced Hyperactivity in the Adult Mouse Following Neonatal Thyroxine Administration. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 18 (6):337-339.
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  26. Robin L. Lashley & Robert A. Rosellini (1986). Conditioning of Odors in Compound with Taste is a Function of Factors Other Than Potentiation. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (2):159-162.
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  27. M. A. Lynch (1989). Mechanisms Underlying Induction and Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus. Bioessays 10 (2-3):85-90.
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  28.  22
    Kenneth Sufka (2000). Chronic Pain Explained. Brain and Mind 1 (2):155-179.
    Pains that persist long after damaged tissue hasrecovered remain a perplexing phenomenon. Theseso-called chronic pains serve no useful function foran organism and, given its disabling effects, mighteven be considered maladaptive. However, a remarkablesimilarity exists between the neural bases thatunderlie the hallmark symptoms of chronic pain andthose that subserve learning and memory. Bothphenomena, wind-up in the pain literature andlong-term potentiation (LTP) in the learning andmemory literature, are forms of neuroplasticity inwhich increased neural activity leads to a longlasting increase in the (...)
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  29.  6
    Zhengui Xia, Eui-Ju Choi, Daniel R. Storm & Christine Blazynski (1995). Do the Calmodulin-Stimulated Adenylyl Cyclases Play a Role in Neuroplasticity? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):429-440.
    Evidence from invertebrate systems including Aplysia and Drosophila, as well as studies carried out with mammalian brain, suggests that Ca2+-sensitive adenylyl cyclases may be important for long-term synaptic changes and learning and memory. Furthermore, some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus elevate cyclic AMP (cAMP) signals, and activation of adenylyl cyclases and cAMP-dependent protein kinase may be required for late stages of LTP. We propose that long-term changes in neurons and at synapses may require synergism between the (...)
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  30. John Bickle (2006). Reducing Mind to Molecular Pathways: Explicating the Reductionism Implicit in Current Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience. [REVIEW] Synthese 151 (3):411-434.
    As opposed to the dismissive attitude toward reductionism that is popular in current philosophy of mind, a “ruthless reductionism” is alive and thriving in “molecular and cellular cognition”—a field of research within cellular and molecular neuroscience, the current mainstream of the discipline. Basic experimental practices and emerging results from this field imply that two common assertions by philosophers and cognitive scientists are false: (1) that we do not know much about how the brain works, and (2) that lower-level neuroscience cannot (...)
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  31.  8
    C. R. Gallistel (1981). Précis of Gallistel's The Organization of Action: A New Synthesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (4):609.
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  32.  74
    Kenneth J. Sufka & Donald D. Price (2002). Gate Control Theory Reconsidered. Brain and Mind 3 (2):277-290.
    It has been 35 years since the publicationMelzack and Wall's Gate Control Theory whichhypothesized that nociceptive information wassubject to dynamic regulation by mechanismslocated in the spinal cord dorsal horn thatcould ultimately lead to hyperalgesic orhypoalgesic states. This paper examines GateControl Theory in light of our currentunderstanding of the neuroanatomical,neurophysiological and neurochemical substratesof nociception and antinociception. Despiteits initial controversies, no one has proposeda more comprehensive overall theory of painmodulation or has successfully refuted most ofthe basic tenets of this theory.
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  33.  33
    Huib L. de Jong (2006). Explicating Pluralism: Where the Mind to Molecule Pathway Gets Off the Track - Reply to Bickle. Synthese 151 (3):435-443.
    It is argued that John Bickle’s Ruthless Reductionism is flawed as an account of the practice of neuroscience. Examples from genetics and linguistics suggest, first, that not every mind-brain link or gene-phenotype link qualifies as a reduction or as a complete explanation, and, second, that the higher (psychological) level of analysis is not likely to disappear as neuroscience progresses. The most plausible picture of the evolving sciences of the mind-brain seems a patchwork of multiple connections and partial explanations, linking anatomy, (...)
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  34. Carl F. Craver (2005). Beyond Reduction: Mechanisms, Multifield Integration and the Unity of Neuroscience. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (2):373-395.
    Philosophers of neuroscience have traditionally described interfield integration using reduction models. Such models describe formal inferential relations between theories at different levels. I argue against reduction and for a mechanistic model of interfield integration. According to the mechanistic model, different fields integrate their research by adding constraints on a multilevel description of a mechanism. Mechanistic integration may occur at a given level or in the effort to build a theory that oscillates among several levels. I develop this alternative model using (...)
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  35.  73
    Matthew P. Walker (2005). A Refined Model of Sleep and the Time Course of Memory Formation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):51-64.
    Research in the neurosciences continues to provide evidence that sleep plays a role in the processes of learning and memory. There is less of a consensus, however, regarding the precise stages of memory development during which sleep is considered a requirement, simply favorable, or not important. This article begins with an overview of recent studies regarding sleep and learning, predominantly in the procedural memory domain, and is measured against our current understanding of the mechanisms that govern memory formation. Based on (...)
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  36.  79
    Richard A. Depue & Jeannine V. Morrone-Strupinsky (2005). A Neurobehavioral Model of Affiliative Bonding: Implications for Conceptualizing a Human Trait of Affiliation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):313-350.
    Because little is known about the human trait of affiliation, we provide a novel neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding. Discussion is organized around processes of reward and memory formation that occur during approach and consummatory phases of affiliation. Appetitive and consummatory reward processes are mediated independently by the activity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA)–nucleus accumbens shell (NAS) pathway and the central corticolimbic projections of the u-opiate system of the medial basal arcuate nucleus, respectively, although these two projection (...)
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  37.  64
    Carl F. Craver (2003). The Making of a Memory Mechanism. Journal of the History of Biology 36 (1):153-95.
    Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) is a kind of synaptic plasticity that many contemporary neuroscientists believe is a component in mechanisms of memory. This essay describes the discovery of LTP and the development of the LTP research program. The story begins in the 1950's with the discovery of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus (a medial temporal lobe structure now associated with memory), and it ends in 1973 with the publication of three papers sketching the future course of the LTP research program. (...)
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  38.  12
    Maurice K. D. Schouten & Huib Looren De Jong (1999). Reduction, Elimination, and Levels: The Case of the LTP-Learning Link. Philosophical Psychology 12 (3):237 – 262.
    We argue in this paper that so-called new wave reductionism fails to capture the nature of the interlevel relations between psychology and neuroscience. Bickle (1995, Psychoneural reduction of the genuinely cognitive: some accomplished facts, Philosophical Psychology, 8, 265-285; 1998, Psychoneural reduction: the new wave, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) has claimed that a (bottom-up) reduction of the psychological concepts of learning and memory to the concepts of neuroscience has in fact already been accomplished. An investigation of current research on the phenomenon (...)
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  39.  9
    Donald F. Smith (2010). Cognitive Brain Mapping for Better or Worse. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (3):321-329.
    The scientific method is a potentiation of common sense, exercised with a specially firm determination not to persist in error if any exertion of hand or mind can deliver us from it. We are all affected by our past. I grew up in the “Land of Lincoln,” so stories about the 16th U.S. President, “Honest Abe” as we called him, were unavoidable in my youth. In particular, we learned that Abraham Lincoln never told a lie. Well, one day when (...)
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  40.  27
    Clive R. Bramham (2005). Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Consolidation During Sleep: BDNF Function and Dendritic Protein Synthesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):65-66.
    Insights into the role of sleep in the molecular mechanisms of memory consolidation may come from studies of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP). This commentary posits a specific contribution of sleep to LTP stabilization, in which mRNA transported to dendrites during wakefulness is translated during sleep. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor may drive the translation of newly transported and resident mRNA.
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  41.  4
    Mark M. Rasenick (1995). Adenylyl Cyclase, G Proteins, and Synaptic Plasticity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):484-485.
    It has been suggested that type I adenylyl cyclase may play a unique role in long-term potentiation, due to both unique regulatory properties as well as a specialized distribution within the mammalian brain. This would allow an integration of the signals wrought by increased intracellular calcium with those conveyed into the cellular milieu via increased cAMP. These results are discussed in the context of changes in cellular structure, because of changing interactions between G proteins and cytoskeletal components, which might (...)
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  42.  19
    Giulio Tononi & Chiara Cirelli (2005). Sleep and Synaptic Homeostasis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):85-85.
    We propose that sleep is linked to synaptic homeostasis. Specifically, we propose that: (1) Wakefulness is associated with synaptic potentiation in cortical circuits; (2) synaptic potentiation is tied to the homeostatic regulation of slow wave activity; (3) slow wave activity is associated with synaptic downscaling; and (4) synaptic downscaling is tied to several beneficial effects of sleep, including performance enhancement.
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  43.  5
    Erik D. Roberson & J. David Sweatt (1995). Regulation of Adenylyl Cyclase in LTP. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):485-486.
    Our results on hippocampal long-term potentiation are considered in the context of Xia et al.'s hypothesis. Whereas the target article proposes presynaptic PKC involvement in adenylyl cyclase activation by phosphorylation of nenromodulin, we suggest an additional postsynaptic role involving RC3/nenrogranin. Finally, we examine the possibility that the adenylyl cyclase mutant mouse may display normal learning with a selective impairment of memory.
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  44.  6
    Zhengui Xia & Daniel R. Storm (1995). Evidence That the Type I Adenylyl Cyclase May Be Important for Neuroplasticity: Mutant Mice Deficient in the Gene for Type I Adenylyl Cyclase Show Altered Behavior and LTP. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):498-500.
    The regulatory properties of the neurospecific, type I adenylyl cyclase and its distribution within brain have suggested that this enzyme may be important for neuroplasticity. To address this issue, the murine, Ca2+ -stimulated adenylyl cyclase (type I), was inactivated by targeted mutagenesis. Ca2+ -stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was reduced 40% to 60% in the hippocampus, neocortex, and cerebellum. Long term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus from mutants was perturbed relative to controls. Both the initial slope and (...)
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  45.  19
    Susan Pockett (2006). The Great Subjective Back-Referral Debate: Do Neural Responses Increase During a Train of Stimuli? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (3):551-559.
    Evidence is summarised for and against the hypothesis that potentiation or facilitation of neural responses during a train of threshold-level stimuli occurred in the experiments reported by Libet et al. . It is concluded that such potentiation probably did occur. Since the main arguments for the existence of subjective backwards referral take it as given that such potentiation did not occur, it is further concluded that the main arguments for the existence of subjective backwards referral fail.
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  46.  12
    Tracey J. Shors & Louis D. Matzel (1997). LTP: Memory, Arousal, Neither, Both. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):634-645.
    The neurophysiological phenomenon of LTP (long term potentiation) is considered by many to represent an adequate mechanism for acquiring or storing memories in the mammalian brain. In our target article, we reviewed the various arguments put forth in support of the LTP/memory hypothesis. We concluded that these arguments were inconsistent with the purported data base and proposed an alternative interpretation that we suggested was at least as compatible with the available data as the more widely held view. In doing (...)
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  47.  10
    Stephen Maren (1997). Arousing the LTP and Learning Debate. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):622-623.
    Shors & Matzel provide compelling arguments against a role for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in mammalian learning and memory. As an alternative, they suggest that LTP is an arousal mechanism. I will argue that this view is not a satisfactory alternative to current conceptions of LTP function.
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  48.  2
    Ian Gold Daniel Stoljar (1998). On Biological and Cognitive Neuroscience. Mind and Language 13 (1):110-131.
    Many philosophers and neuroscientists defend a view we express with the slogan that mental science is neuroscience. We argue that there are two ways of interpreting this view, depending on what is meant by ‘neuroscience’. On one interpretation, the view is that mental science is cognitive neuroscience, where this is the science that integrates psychology with the biology of the brain. On another interpretation, the view is that mental science is biological neuroscience, where this is the investigation concerned with the (...)
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  49.  11
    Tracey J. Shors & Louis D. Matzel (2000). The Status of LTP as a Mechanism of Memory Formation in the Mammalian Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (2):288-290.
    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy that many consider the best candidate currently available for a neural mechanism of memory formation and/or storage in the mammalian brain. In our target article, LTP: What's learning got to do with it?, we concluded that there was insufficient data to warrant such a conclusion. In their commentaries, Jeffery and Zhadin raise a number of important issues that we did not raise, both for and against the hypothesis. Although we (...)
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  50.  9
    Peter M. Milner (1997). Repetition Priming: Memory or Attention? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):623-623.
    There is no general agreement as to the meaning of long-term potentiation, but this cannot be resolved by using it to explain additional phenomena. Increased attention to recently experienced stimuli is a form of learning known to neuropsychologists as repetition priming. As more is learned about the neurochemistry of synaptic change, the term LTP will wither.
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