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Jean-Dominique Robert [142]C. Robert [54]Jason Scott Robert [49]Louis Robert [36]
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Profile: Aurélien Robert (Centre d'Etudes Supérieures de la Renaissance)
Profile: Joerissen Robert (Freie Universität Berlin)
Profile: Julia Robert
Profile: Julien Robert (Maastricht University)
Profile: Philippe Robert
Profile: Smith Robert
Profile: Stephen Robert
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  1.  54
    Robert Van Rooy (2004). Evolution of Conventional Meaning and Conversational Principles. Synthese 139 (2):331-366.
    In this paper we study language use and language organisation by making use of Lewisean signalling games. Standard game theoretical approaches are contrasted with evolutionary ones to analyze conventional meaning and conversational interpretation strategies. It is argued that analyzing successful communication in terms of standard game theory requires agents to be very rational and fully informed. The main goal of the paper is to show that in terms of evolutionary game theory we can motivate the emergence and self-sustaining force of (...)
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  2. Jason Scott Robert (2004). Embryology, Epigenesis, and Evolution Taking Development Seriously. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    Historically, philosophers of biology have tended to sidestep the problem of development by focusing primarily on evolutionary biology and, more recently, on molecular biology and genetics. Quite often too, development has been misunderstood as simply, or even primarily, a matter of gene activation and regulation. Nowadays a growing number of philosophers of science are focusing their analyses on the complexities of development, and in Embryology, Epigenesis and Evolution Jason Scott Robert explores the nature of development against current trends in biological (...)
     
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  3.  49
    Jason Scott Robert & Françoise Baylis (2003). Crossing Species Boundaries. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):1 – 13.
    This paper critically examines the biology of species identity and the morality of crossing species boundaries in the context of emerging research that involves combining human and nonhuman animals at the genetic or cellular level. We begin with the notion of species identity, particularly focusing on the ostensible fixity of species boundaries, and we explore the general biological and philosophical problem of defining species. Against this backdrop, we survey and criticize earlier attempts to forbid crossing species boundaries in the creation (...)
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  4.  13
    Jane Maienschein, Mary Sunderland, Rachel A. Ankeny & Jason Scott Robert (2008). The Ethos and Ethics of Translational Research. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (3):43 – 51.
    Calls for the “translation” of research from bench to bedside are increasingly demanding. What is translation, and why does it matter? We sketch the recent history of outcome-oriented translational research in the United States, with a particular focus on the Roadmap Initiative of the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD). Our main example of contemporary translational research is stem cell research, which has superseded genomics as the translational object of choice. We explore the nature of and obstacles to translational research (...)
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  5. Guillaume Beaulac & Serge Robert (2011). Théories à processus duaux et théories de l’éducation : Le cas de l’enseignement de la pensée critique et de la logique. Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 6 (1):63-77.
    Many theories about the teaching of logic and critical thinking take for granted that theoretical learning, the learning of formal rules for example, and its practical application are sufficient to master the tools taught and to take the habit of using them. However, this way of teaching is not efficient, a conclusion supported by much work in cognitive science. Approaching cognition evolutionarily with dual-process theories allows for an explanation of these insufficiencies and offers clues on how we could teach critical (...)
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  6. Aurélien Robert (2013). Epicure et les épicuriens au Moyen Âge. Micrologus:3-46.
    Contrary to what is generally said about the reception of Epicurus in the Middle Ages, many medieval authors agreed on his great wisdom, even if he made some philosophical and theological errors. From the 12th century to the 14th century on can find several "Lives of Epicurus" in which the best sayings of Epicurus are gathered from ancient sources (Seneca, Cicero, Lactantius, etc.). In this paper, we follow these quite unknown sources about Epicureanism in the Middle Ages. We try to (...)
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  7.  57
    Françoise Baylis & Jason Scott Robert (2004). The Inevitability of Genetic Enhancement Technologies. Bioethics 18 (1):1–26.
    We outline a number of ethical objections to genetic technologies aimed at enhancing human capacities and traits. We then argue that, despite the persuasiveness of some of these objections, they are insufficient to stop the development and use of genetic enhancement technologies. We contend that the inevitability of the technologies results from a particular guiding worldview of humans as masters of the human evolutionary future, and conclude that recognising this worldview points to new directions for ethical thinking about genetic enhancement (...)
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  8.  6
    Jason Scott Robert (2004). Model Systems in Stem Cell Biology. Bioessays 26 (9):1005-1012.
  9.  4
    F. A. Miller, R. Christensen, M. Giacomini & J. S. Robert (2008). Duty to Disclose What? Querying the Putative Obligation to Return Research Results to Participants. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):210-213.
    Many research ethics guidelines now oblige researchers to offer research participants the results of research in which they participated. This practice is intended to uphold respect for persons and ensure that participants are not treated as mere means to an end. Yet some scholars have begun to question a generalised duty to disclose research results, highlighting the potential harms arising from disclosure and questioning the ethical justification for a duty to disclose, especially with respect to individual results. In support of (...)
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  10.  48
    Georg Theiner & Wilson Robert (2013). Group Mind. In Byron Kaldis (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences. Sage 401-04.
    Talk of group minds has arisen in a number of distinct traditions, such as in sociological thinking about the “madness of crowds” in the 19th-century, and more recently in making sense of the collective intelligence of social insects, such as bees and ants. Here we provide an analytic framework for understanding a range of contemporary appeals to group minds and cognate notions, such as collective agency, shared intentionality, socially distributed cognition, transactive memory systems, and group-level cognitive adaptations.
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  11.  41
    Françoise Baylis & Jason Scott Robert (2007). Part-Human Chimeras: Worrying the Facts, Probing the Ethics. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (5):41 – 45.
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  12.  17
    Jason Scott Robert, Brian K. Hall & Wendy M. Olson (2001). Bridging the Gap Between Developmental Systems Theory and Evolutionary Developmental Biology†. Bioessays 23 (10):954-962.
  13.  22
    Jason Scott Robert, Jane Maienschein & Manfred D. Laubichler (2006). Systems Bioethics and Stem Cell Biology. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1-2):19-31.
    The complexities of modern science are not adequately reflected in many bioethical discussions. This is especially problematic in highly contested cases where there is significant pressure to generate clinical applications fast, as in stem cell research. In those cases a more integrated approach to bioethics, which we call systems bioethics, can provide a useful framework to address ethical and policy issues. Much as systems biology brings together different experimental and methodological approaches in an integrative way, systems bioethics integrates aspects of (...)
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  14.  46
    Jason Scott Robert (2002). How Developmental is Evolutionary Developmental Biology? Biology and Philosophy 17 (5):591-611.
    Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) offers both an account of developmental processes and also new integrative frameworks for analyzing interactions between development and evolution. Biologists and philosophers are keen on evo-devo in part because it appears to offer a comfort zone between, on the one hand, what some take to be the relative inability of mainstream evolutionary biology to integrate a developmental perspective; and, on the other hand, what some take to be more intractable syntheses of development and evolution. In this (...)
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  15.  95
    M. Palencia-Roth & J. -N. Robert (2008). Preface. Diogenes 55 (2):3-5.
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  16.  2
    Antonio Zadra & Geneviève Robert (2012). Dream Recall Frequency: Impact of Prospective Measures and Motivational Factors. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (4):1695-1702.
    Significant individual differences exist in dream recall frequency but some variance is likely attributable to instrument choice in measuring DRF. Three hundred and fifty eight participants estimated their weekly DRF and recorded their dreams in either a narrative log or checklist log for 2–5 weeks. There was an early peak in DRF within the first week of both types of prospective logs after which DRF remained relatively stable. Although the two groups did not differ in their estimated DRF, significantly fewer (...)
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  17.  3
    Jason Scott Robert, Mary Sunderland, Rachel Ankeny & Jane Maienschein (2008). Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “The Ethos and Ethics of Translational Research”. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (3):1-3.
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  18.  15
    Christian P. Robert (2014). On the Jeffreys-Lindley Paradox. Philosophy of Science 81 (2):216-232,.
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  19.  4
    Isabelle Ecuyer-Dab & Michèle Robert (2004). Have Sex Differences in Spatial Ability Evolved From Male Competition for Mating and Female Concern for Survival? Cognition 91 (3):221-257.
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  20. Goodin, E. Robert & Kai Spiekermann (2012). Epistemic Aspects of Representative Government. European Political Science Review 4 (3):303--325.
    The Federalist, justifying the Electoral College to elect the president, claimed that a small group of more informed individuals would make a better decision than the general mass. But the Condorcet Jury Theorem tells us that the more independent, better-than-random voters there are, the more likely it will be that the majority among them will be correct. The question thus arises as to how much better, on average, members of the smaller group would have to be to compensate for the (...)
     
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  21.  27
    Thomas C. Vinci & Jason Scott Robert (2005). Aristotle and Modern Genetics. Journal of the History of Ideas 66 (2):201-221.
  22.  1
    Fiona A. Miller, R. Christensen, M. Giacomini & J. S. Robert (2008). Duty to Disclose What? Querying the Putative Obligation to Return Research Results to Participants. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):210-213.
    Many research ethics guidelines now oblige researchers to offer research participants the results of research in which they participated. This practice is intended to uphold respect for persons and ensure that participants are not treated as mere means to an end. Yet some scholars have begun to question a generalised duty to disclose research results, highlighting the potential harms arising from disclosure and questioning the ethical justification for a duty to disclose, especially with respect to individual results. In support of (...)
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  23. L. Woolfolk Robert, M. Doris John & M. Darley John (2007). Identification, Situational Constraint, and Social Cognition : Studies in the Attribution of Moral Responsibility. In Joshua Knobe & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Experimental Philosophy. Oxford University Press
    In three experiments we studied lay observers’ attributions of responsibility for an antisocial act (homicide). We systematically varied both the degree to which the action was coerced by external circumstances and the degree to which the actor endorsed and accepted ownership of the act, a psychological state that philosophers have termed ‘identification’. Our findings with respect to identification were highly consistent. The more an actor was identified with an action, the more likely observers were to assign responsibility to the actor, (...)
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  24. M. Bayart, G. Benoit, E. Benoit, L. Cauffriez, M. Robert, A. Chovin, J. Ciccotelli, B. Conrard, G. Mauris & R. Planade (forthcoming). Réseaux de Terrain. Hermes.
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  25.  41
    Brother S. Robert (1959). Petrus Abaelerdus, Dialectica. New Scholasticism 33 (4):516-520.
  26.  9
    Jason Scott Robert (2007). Systems Bioethics. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (4):80-82.
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  27.  7
    Serge Robert & Janie Brisson (2016). The Klein Group, Squares of Opposition and the Explanation of Fallacies in Reasoning. Logica Universalis 10 (2-3):377-392.
    During the last decades, the psychology of reasoning has identified experimentally many fallacies committed by spontaneous reasoners. Given these experimental results, some theories have been developed about this phenomenon, mainly algorithmic theories. This paper develops instead a computational modelling of these current fallacies which appear as simplifications in the treatment of information that do not respect the formal rules of classical propositional logic. These fallacies are explained as crushes in the Klein group structure and so, in squares of opposition. These (...)
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  28.  19
    J. Robert & G. Williams (2012). Counterfactual Triviality. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (3):648-670.
    I formulate a counterfactual version of the notorious 'Ramsey Test'. Whereas the Ramsey Test for indicative conditionals links credence in indicatives to conditional credences, the counterfactual version links credence in counterfactuals to expected conditional chance. I outline two forms: a Ramsey Identity on which the probability of the conditional should be identical to the corresponding conditional probabihty/expectation of chance; and a Ramsey Bound on which credence in the conditional should never exceed the latter.Even in the weaker, bound, form, the counterfactual (...)
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  29.  15
    Jason Scott Robert & Andrea Smith (2004). Toxic Ethics: Environmental Genomics and the Health of Populations. Bioethics 18 (6):493–514.
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  30.  11
    William Robert (2010). Trials: Of Antigone and Jesus. Fordham University Press.
    Impossible love -- Between nature and culture -- Surviving, forever foreign -- Cryptic crossing -- Touching transcendence, in the flesh -- The tragedy of Christianity.
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  31.  4
    Sylvain Robert (2012). L’expertise collégiale à l’IRD : une courte présentation. Hermes 64:, [ p.].
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  32.  13
    Franck Robert (2011). Merleau-Ponty et Whitehead. Chromatikon: Annales de la Philosophie En Procès / Yearbook of Philosophy in Process 7:239-241.
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  33.  2
    Fiona A. Miller, Mita Giacomini, Catherine Ahern, Jason S. Robert & Sonya de Laat (2008). When Research Seems Like Clinical Care: A Qualitative Study of the Communication of Individual Cancer Genetic Research Results. BMC Medical Ethics 9 (1):4.
    Research ethicists have recently declared a new ethical imperative: that researchers should communicate the results of research to participants. For some analysts, the obligation is restricted to the communication of the general findings or conclusions of the study. However, other analysts extend the obligation to the disclosure of individual research results, especially where these results are perceived to have clinical relevance. Several scholars have advanced cogent critiques of the putative obligation to disclose individual research results. They question whether ethical goals (...)
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  34.  17
    Jason Scott Robert & Françoise Baylis (2005). Stem Cell Politics: The NAS Prohibitions Pack More Bark Than Bite. Hastings Center Report 35 (6):15-16.
  35.  17
    Jason Scott Robert (2007). Gene Maps, Brain Scans, and Psychiatric Nosology. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (2):209-218.
    Neuroethics to date has tended to focus on social and ethical implications of developments in brain science, especially in functional neuroimaging. Within clinical neuroethics, the emphasis has been on ethical issues in clinical neuroscience practice, including informed consent to neuroimaging; the development of ethical research protocols for functional magnetic resonance imaging especially, and especially in children; and the ethical clinical management of incidental findings. Within normative neuroethics, we have witnessed the more philosophical and/or social scientific study of the meanings of (...)
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  36.  71
    Jenny Dyck Brian & Jason Scott Robert (2008). Biotechnology, Bioethics, and the Future: A Review of Ronald Bailey's Liberation Biology. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (2):125-128.
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  37. Jason Scott Robert (2008). Evo-devo. In Michael Ruse (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press
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  38.  19
    Christian P. Robert (1996). Intrinsic Losses. Theory and Decision 40 (2):191-214.
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  39.  10
    Aurélien Robert (2016). John of Jandun on Relations and Cambridge Changes†. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (3):490-511.
    The paradigmatic examples of what we call nowadays ‘mere Cambridge changes’ are relational properties. If someone is on the left of a table at t − 1 and on the right of this table at t, the table does not undergo a physical change, but it has nonetheless new relational properties. What kind of relation lies behind this kind of change? Should we abandon the definition of identity as a set of permanent properties through time? This concern with identity and (...)
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  40.  4
    Rebecca A. Martin & Jason Scott Robert (2007). Is Risky Pediatric Research Without Prospect of Direct Benefit Ever Justified? American Journal of Bioethics 7 (3):12 – 15.
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  41. Jason Scott Robert (2007). Molecular and Systems Biology and Bioethics. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press
  42.  38
    Christian P. Robert (2013). Error and Inference: An Outsider Stand on a Frequentist Philosophy. Theory and Decision 74 (3):447-461.
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  43.  36
    Jason Scott Robert (2000). Schizophrenia Epigenesis? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (2):191-215.
    I begin by examining how genetics drivesschizophrenia research, and raise both familiar andrelatively novel criticisms of the evidence putativelysupporting the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Inparticular, I call attention to a set of concernsabout the effects of placentation on concordance ratesof schizophrenia in monozygotic twins, which furtherweakens the case for schizophrenia''s so-called stronggenetic component. I then underscore two criticalpoints. First, I emphasize the importance of takingseriously considerations about the complexity of bothontogenesis and the development of hereditarydiseases. The recognition of developmentalconstraints and (...)
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  44.  55
    Richmond Campbell & Jason Scott Robert (2005). The Structure of Evolution by Natural Selection. Biology and Philosophy 20 (4):673-696.
    We attempt a conclusive resolution of the debate over whether the principle of natural selection (PNS), especially conceived as the `principle' of the `survival of the fittest', is a tautology. This debate has been largely ignored for the past 15 years but not, we think, because it has actually been settled. We begin by describing the tautology objection, and situating the problem in the philosophical and biology literature. We then demonstrate the inadequacy of six prima facie plausible reasons for believing (...)
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  45.  12
    Philippe Sonntag, Erick Gokalsing, Carinne Olivier, Philippe Robert, Franck Burglen, Françoise Kauffmann-Muller, Caroline Huron, Pierre Salame & Jean-Marie Danion (2003). Impaired Strategic Regulation of Contents of Conscious Awareness in Schizophrenia. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (2):190-200.
    Conscious awareness comprises two distinct states, autonoetic and noetic awareness. Schizophrenia impairs autonoetic, but not noetic, awareness. We investigated the strategic regulation of relevant and irrelevant contents of conscious awareness in schizophrenia using a directed forgetting paradigm. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and 21 normal controls were presented with words and told to learn some of them and forget others. In a subsequent test, they were asked to recognize all the words they had seen previously and give remember, know or guess (...)
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  46.  5
    Jason Scott Robert & Françoise Baylis (2003). A Response to Commentators on "Crossing Species Boundaries". American Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):66-66.
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  47.  13
    Jason Scott Robert (2009). Toward a Better Bioethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (3):283-291.
    It has been argued that bioethicists too often tend to represent the interests of scientists and not of the broader polity. Indeed, bioethicists seem predisposed to discard the voices and viewpoints of all but the cognoscenti . Focusing particularly on human pluripotent stem cell research, this commentary explores a variety of characterizations of bioethics and bioethicists in relation to forbidding science. Rather than proselytizing or prohibiting, bioethicists should work in partnership with scientists and publics to craft scientifically well-informed and morally (...)
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  48.  42
    Aurélien Robert (2012). L'idée de Logique Morale aux XIIIe Et XIVe Siècles. Médiévales 63:27-45.
    This paper tries to understand how three medieval philosophers (Roger Bacon, Albert the Great and John Buridan) developed the idea of a special logic for ethics, taking into account Aristotle's thesis according to which ethics does not need theoretical syllogisms and uses a special kind of scientific reasoning. If rhetoric is a good candidate, we find three different readings of this approach and then three different theories of ethical reasoning.
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  49.  17
    Franck Robert (2000). Ground and Foundation (Abstract). Chiasmi International 2:370-371.
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  50.  7
    Isabelle Ecuyer-Dab & Michèle Robert (2007). The Female Advantage in Object Location Memory According to the Foraging Hypothesis: A Critical Analysis. [REVIEW] Human Nature 18 (4):365-385.
    According to the evolutionary hypothesis of Silverman and Eals (1992, Sex differences in spatial abilities: Evolutionary theory and data. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 533–549). Oxford: Oxford University Press), women evolutionary hypothesis, women surpass men in object location memory as a result of a sexual division in foraging activities among early humans. After surveying the main anthropological information on ancestral sex-related foraging, we review the (...)
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