Search results for 'Stereotype-threat' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  89
    Rachel Mckinnon (2014). Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women. Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, we gain (...)
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  2.  78
    Mark Alfano (2014). Stereotype Threat and Intellectual Virtue. In Owen Flanagan & Abrol Fairweather (eds.), Naturalizing Virtue. Cambridge University Press 155-74.
    For decades, intelligence and achievement tests have registered significant differences between people of different races, ethnicities, classes, and genders. We argue that most of these differences are explained not as reflections of differences in the distribution of intellectual virtues but as evidence for the metacognitive mediation of the intellectual virtues. For example, in the United States, blacks typically score worse than whites on tests of mathematics. This might lead one to think that fewer blacks possess the relevant intellectual virtues, or (...)
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  3.  15
    Gina Schouten (2015). The Stereotype Threat Hypothesis: An Assessment From the Philosopher's Armchair, for the Philosopher's Classroom. Hypatia 30 (2):450-466.
    According to Stereotype Threat Hypothesis, fear of confirming gendered stereotypes causes women to experience anxiety in circumstances wherein their performance might potentially confirm those stereotypes, such as high-stakes testing scenarios in science, technology, engineering, and math courses. This anxiety causes women to underperform, which in turn causes them to withdraw from math-intensive disciplines. STH is thought by many to account for the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields, and a growing body of evidence substantiates this hypothesis. In considering the plausibility (...)
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  4.  13
    Ulrich W. Weger, Nic Hooper, Brian P. Meier & Tim Hopthrow (2012). Mindful Maths: Reducing the Impact of Stereotype Threat Through a Mindfulness Exercise. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):471-475.
    Individuals who experience stereotype threat – the pressure resulting from social comparisons that are perceived as unfavourable – show performance decrements across a wide range of tasks. One account of this effect is that the cognitive pressure triggered by such threat drains the same cognitive resources that are implicated in the respective task. The present study investigates whether mindfulness can be used to moderate stereotype threat, as mindfulness has previously been shown to alleviate working-memory load. Our results show that performance (...)
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  5.  1
    Markus Appel, Silvana Weber & Nicole Kronberger (2015). The Influence of Stereotype Threat on Immigrants: Review and Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  6.  1
    Toni Schmader, Michael Johns & Chad Forbes (2008). An Integrated Process Model of Stereotype Threat Effects on Performance. Psychological Review 115 (2):336-356.
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  7. Sian L. Beilock, Robert J. Rydell & Allen R. McConnell (2007). Stereotype Threat and Working Memory: Mechanisms, Alleviation, and Spillover. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 136 (2):256-276.
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  8.  2
    Michael Johns, Michael Inzlicht & Toni Schmader (2008). Stereotype Threat and Executive Resource Depletion: Examining the Influence of Emotion Regulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137 (4):691-705.
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  9. Bettina J. Casad & William J. Bryant (2016). Addressing Stereotype Threat is Critical to Diversity and Inclusion in Organizational Psychology. Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  10. Dabash Hend & Longstaff Mitchell (2015). Predicting Factors of Verbal Fluency and the Effects of Stereotype Threat and Boost. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  11.  10
    Teresa Marques (2016). The Relevance of Causal Social Construction. Journal of Social Ontology:DOI: 10.1515/jso-2016-0018.
    Social constructionist claims are surprising and interesting when they entail that presumably natural kinds are in fact socially constructed. The claims are interesting because of their theoretical and political importance. Authors like Díaz-León argue that constitutive social construction is more relevant for achieving social justice than causal social construction. This paper challenges this claim. Assuming there are socially salient groups that are discriminated against, the paper presents a dilemma: if there were no constitutively constructed social kinds, the causes of the (...)
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  12.  79
    David Benatar (2015). The Gendered Conference Campaign: A Critique. Philosophia 43 (1):13-23.
    The Gendered Conference Campaign seeks to reduce the prevalence of conferences at which the keynote speakers are all male. Such conferences, according to proponents of the campaign, stereotype philosophy as male, contribute to implicit bias against women and perpetuate stereotype threat. I argue, first, that if a more diverse list of keynote speakers were the correct way to counter harms such as implicit bias and stereotype threat, then a Gendered Conference Campaign would not be the solution. The campaign would need (...)
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  13.  5
    Adrian Opre & Dana Opre (2010). The Gender Sterotype Threat And The Academic Performance Of Women's University Teaching Staff. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 5 (14):41-50.
    Women working in academic environments that are male dominated are subjected to high levels of occupational stress due to the so called stereotype threat (ST) (Steele, 1997). Stereotype threat is a social-psychological threat that arises when one is in the situation of doing something for which a negative stereotype about his/her group applies. For women's university teaching staff stereotype threat is a source of anxiety that affects their performance, career commitment and overall job satisfaction. Additionally ST accounts, partly, for the (...)
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  14.  80
    Joshua Mugg (2013). What Are the Cognitive Costs of Racism? A Reply to Gendler. Philosophical Studies 166 (2):217-229.
    Tamar Gendler argues that, for those living in a society in which race is a salient sociological feature, it is impossible to be fully rational: members of such a society must either fail to encode relevant information containing race, or suffer epistemic costs by being implicitly racist. However, I argue that, although Gendler calls attention to a pitfall worthy of study, she fails to conclusively demonstrate that there are epistemic (or cognitive) costs of being racist. Gendler offers three supporting phenomena. (...)
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  15.  14
    Sean Allen-Hermanson (2016). Review: Implicit Bias and Philosophy (Vol. 1 & 2). Philosophy:1-8.
  16. Jeanine Weekes Schroer (2015). Giving Them Something They Can Feel: On the Strategy of Scientizing the Phenomenology of Race and Racism. Knowledge Cultures 3 (1):91-110.
  17.  83
    Saba Fatima (2014). Liberalism and the Muslim-American Predicament. Social Theory and Practice 40 (4):591-608.
    The underlying objective of this project is to examine the ways in which the exclusionary status of Muslim-Americans remains unchallenged within John Rawls’ version of political liberalism. Toward this end, I argue that the stipulation of genuine belief in what is reasonably accessible to others in our society is an unreasonable expectation from minorities, given our awareness of how we are perceived by others. Second, using the work of Lisa Schwartzman, I show that Rawls’ reliance on abstraction of closed society (...)
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  18.  5
    Jessica Gordon‐Roth & Nancy Kendrick (2015). Including Early Modern Women Writers in Survey Courses. Metaphilosophy 46 (3):364-379.
    There are many reasons to include texts written by women in early modern philosophy courses. The most obvious one is accuracy: women helped to shape the philosophical landscape of the time. Thus, to craft a syllabus that wholly excludes women is to give students an inaccurate picture of the early modern period. Since it seems safe to assume that we all aim for accuracy, this should be reason enough to include women writers in our courses. This article nonetheless offers an (...)
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  19. Mark Alfano, Latasha Holden & Andrew Conway (forthcoming). Intelligence, Race, and Psychological Testing. In Naomi Zack (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Race.
    This chapter has two main goals: to update philosophers on the state of the art in the scientific psychology of intelligence, and to explain and evaluate challenges to the measurement invariance of intelligence tests. First, we provide a brief history of the scientific psychology of intelligence. Next, we discuss the metaphysics of intelligence in light of scientific studies in psychology and neuroimaging. Finally, we turn to recent skeptical developments related to measurement invariance. These have largely focused on attributability: Where do (...)
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  20. Neven Sesardic & Rafael De Clercq (2014). Women in Philosophy: Problems with the Discrimination Hypothesis. Academic Questions 27 (4):461-473.
    A number of philosophers attribute the underrepresentation of women in philosophy largely to bias against women or some kind of wrongful discrimination. They cite six sources of evidence to support their contention: (1) gender disparities that increase along the path from undergraduate student to full time faculty member; (2) anecdotal accounts of discrimination in philosophy; (3) research on gender bias in the evaluation of manuscripts, grants, and curricula vitae in other academic disciplines; (4) psychological research on implicit bias; (5) psychological (...)
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  21. Melissa M. Kozma & Jeanine Weekes Schroer (2014). Purposeful Nonsense, Intersectionality, and the Mission to Save Black Babies. In Namita Goswami, Maeve O'Donavan & Lisa Yount (eds.), Why Race and Gender Still Matter: An Intersectional Approach. Pickering & Chatto Ltd 101-116.
    The competing expressions of ideology flooding the contemporary political landscape have taken a turn toward the absurd. The Radiance Foundation’s recent anti-abortion campaign targeting African-American women, including a series of billboards bearing the slogan “The most dangerous place for an African-American child is in the womb”, is just one example of political "discourse" that is both infuriating and confounding. Discourse with these features – problematic intelligibility, disinterest in the truth, and inflammatory rhetoric – has become increasingly common in politics, the (...)
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  22.  7
    Gina Schouten (2016). Philosophy in Schools: Can Early Exposure Help Solve Philosophy's Gender Problem? Hypatia 31 (2):275-292.
    In this article, I explore a new reason in favor of precollegiate philosophy: It could help narrow the persistent gender disparity within the discipline. I catalog some of the most widely endorsed explanations for the underrepresentation of women in philosophy and argue that, on each hypothesized explanation, precollegiate philosophy instruction could help improve our discipline's gender balance. Explanations I consider include stereotype threat, gendered philosophical intuitions, inhospitable disciplinary environment, lack of same-sex role models for women students in philosophy, and conflicting (...)
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  23.  3
    Jacob M. Vigil & Kamilla Venner (2012). Prejudicial Behavior: More Closely Linked to Homophilic Peer Preferences Than to Trait Bigotry. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (6):448-449.
    We disagree with Dixon et al. by maintaining that prejudice is primarily rooted in aversive reactions toward out-group members. However, these reactions are not indicative of negative attributes, such as trait bigotry, but rather normative homophily for peers with similar perceived attributes. Cognitive biases such as stereotype threat perpetuate perceptions of inequipotential and subsequent discrimination, irrespective of individuals' personality characteristics.
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  24. Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.) (2016). Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology. Oxford University Press Uk.
    There is abundant evidence that most people, often in spite of their conscious beliefs, values and attitudes, have implicit biases. 'Implicit bias' is a term of art referring to evaluations of social groups that are largely outside conscious awareness or control. These evaluations are typically thought to involve associations between social groups and concepts or roles like 'violent,' 'lazy,' 'nurturing,' 'assertive,' 'scientist,' and so on. Such associations result at least in part from common stereotypes found in contemporary liberal societies about (...)
     
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  25. Camille Z. Charles, Mary J. Fischer, Margarita A. Mooney & Douglas S. Massey (2009). Taming the River: Negotiating the Academic, Financial, and Social Currents in Selective Colleges and Universities. Princeton University Press.
    Building on their important findings in The Source of the River, the authors now probe even more deeply into minority underachievement at the college level. Taming the River examines the academic and social dynamics of different ethnic groups during the first two years of college. Focusing on racial differences in academic performance, the book identifies the causes of students' divergent grades and levels of personal satisfaction with their institutions. Using survey data collected from twenty-eight selective colleges and universities, Taming the (...)
     
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  26. Kenneth Fasching-Varner, Katrice A. Albert, Roland W. Mitchell & Chaunda Allen (eds.) (2014). Racial Battle Fatigue in Higher Education: Exposing the Myth of Post-Racial America. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Racial Battle Fatigue is described as the physical and psychological toll taken due to constant and unceasing discrimination, microagressions, and stereotype threat. This edited volume looks at RBF from the perspectives of graduate students, middle level academics, and chief diversity officers at major institutions of learning.
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  27. Katrina Hutchison & Fiona Jenkins (eds.) (2013). Women in Philosophy: What Needs to Change? Oxford University Press Usa.
    Despite its place in the humanities, the career prospects and numbers of women in philosophy much more closely resemble those found in the sciences and engineering. This book collects a series of critical essays by female philosophers pursuing the question of why philosophy continues to be inhospitable to women and what can be done to change it. By examining the social and institutional conditions of contemporary academic philosophy in the Anglophone world as well as its methods, culture, and characteristic commitments, (...)
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  28. William A. Smith (2014). Racial Battle Fatigue in Higher Education: Exposing the Myth of Post-Racial America. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Racial Battle Fatigue is described as the physical and psychological toll taken due to constant and unceasing discrimination, microagressions, and stereotype threat. This edited volume looks at RBF from the perspectives of graduate students, middle level academics, and chief diversity officers at major institutions of learning.
     
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  29.  87
    Antonio Zadra, Sophie Desjardins & Éric Marcotte (2006). Evolutionary Function of Dreams: A Test of the Threat Simulation Theory in Recurrent Dreams. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):450-463.
    Revonsuo proposed an intriguing and detailed evolutionary theory of dreams which stipulates that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events and to rehearse threat avoidance behaviors. The goal of the present study was to test this theory using a sample of 212 recurrent dreams that was scored using a slightly expanded version of the DreamThreat rating scale. Six of the eight hypotheses tested were supported. Among the positive findings, 66% of the recurrent dream reports contained one or (...)
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  30.  17
    Wade Munroe (2016). Testimonial Injustice and Prescriptive Credibility Deficits. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (6):924-947.
    In light of recent social psychological literature, I expand Miranda Fricker’s important notion of testimonial injustice. A fair portion of Fricker’s account rests on an older paradigm of stereotype and prejudice. Given recent empirical work, I argue for what I dub prescriptive credibility deficits in which a backlash effect leads to the assignment of a diminished level of credibility to persons who act in counter-stereotypic manners, thereby flouting prescriptive stereotypes. The notion of a prescriptive credibility deficit is not merely an (...)
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  31. Antti Revonsuo & Katja Valli (2000). Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the Threat Simulation Theory of the Function of Dreaming. Psyche 6 (8).
    We tested the new threat simulation theory of the biological function of dreaming by analysing 592 dreams from 52 subjects with a rating scale developed for quantifying threatening events in dreams. The main predictions were that dreams contain more frequent and more severe threats than waking life does; that dream threats are realistic; and that they primarily threaten the Dream Self who tends to behave in a relevant defensive manner in response to them. These predictions were confirmed and the theory (...)
     
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  32.  45
    Sophie Desjardins & Antonio Zadra (2006). Is the Threat Simulation Theory Threatened by Recurrent Dreams? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):470-474.
    Zadra, Desjardins, and Marcotte tested several predictions derived from the Threat Simulation Theory of dreaming in a large sample of recurrent dreams. In response to these findings, Valli and Revonsuo presented a commentary outlining alternate conceptualizations and explanations for the results obtained. We argue that many points raised by Valli and Revonsuo do not accurately reflect our main findings and at times present a biased assessment of the data. In this article, we provide necessary clarifications and responses to each one (...)
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  33. John Danaher (2016). The Threat of Algocracy: Reality, Resistance and Accommodation. Philosophy and Technology 29 (3):245-268.
    One of the most noticeable trends in recent years has been the increasing reliance of public decision-making processes on algorithms, i.e. computer-programmed step-by-step instructions for taking a given set of inputs and producing an output. The question raised by this article is whether the rise of such algorithmic governance creates problems for the moral or political legitimacy of our public decision-making processes. Ignoring common concerns with data protection and privacy, it is argued that algorithmic governance does pose a significant threat (...)
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  34. Katja Valli & Antti Revonsuo (2006). Recurrent Dreams: Recurring Threat Simulations? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):464-469.
  35.  4
    Gordana Djeric (2005). Stereotype: End of Story. Filozofija I Društvo 28:71-93.
    The paper is an analytic retrospective of the author’s work during the preceding research period, involving the study of role, meaning and place of stereotypes in identity discourses. In order to explain the reasons for and ways of dealing with stereotypes, she reviews the evolution of her own research approach and the alternative approaches to the topic from the perspective of various scholarly disciplines. Seeking to avoid the trap of “interpreting stereotypes stereotypically”, the author chooses not to follow the usual (...)
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  36.  20
    Jenny Wikström, Lars-Gunnar Lundh & Joakim Westerlund (2003). Stroop Effects for Masked Threat Words: Pre-Attentive Bias or Selective Awareness? Cognition and Emotion 17 (6):827-842.
  37.  19
    Caroline Hunt, Edmund Keogh & Christopher C. French (2006). Anxiety Sensitivity: The Role of Conscious Awareness and Selective Attentional Bias to Physical Threat. Emotion 6 (3):418-428.
  38.  6
    Robert E. Murphy (1959). Effects of Threat of Shock, Distraction, and Task Design on Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (2):134.
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  39.  14
    Thomas Suslow, Patricia Ohrmann, Jochen Bauer, Astrid V. Rauch, Wolfram Schwindt, Volker Arolt, Walter Heindel & Harald Kugel (2006). Amygdala Activation During Masked Presentation of Emotional Faces Predicts Conscious Detection of Threat-Related Faces. Brain and Cognition 61 (3):243-248.
  40.  2
    Charles D. Spielberger, Larry D. Southard & William F. Hodges (1966). Effects of Awareness and Threat of Shock on Verbal Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (3):434.
  41.  3
    Karine Charry, Patrick De Pelsmacker & Claude L. Pecheux (2014). How Does Perceived Effectiveness Affect Adults’ Ethical Acceptance of Anti-Obesity Threat Appeals to Children? When the Going Gets Tough, the Audience Gets Going. Journal of Business Ethics 124 (2):243-257.
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  42.  1
    Walter D. Fenz, Brain L. Kluck & C. Peter Bankart (1969). Effect of Threat and Uncertainty on Mastery of Stress. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (3p1):473.
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  43. Wayne Wu (2013). Mental Action and the Threat of Automaticity. In Andy Clark, Julian Kiverstein & Tillman Vierkant (eds.), Decomposing the Will. Oxford University Press 244-61.
    This paper considers the connection between automaticity, control and agency. Indeed, recent philosophical and psychological works play up the incompatibility of automaticity and agency. Specifically, there is a threat of automaticity, for automaticity eliminates agency. Such conclusions stem from a tension between two thoughts: that automaticity pervades agency and yet automaticity rules out control. I provide an analysis of the notions of automaticity and control that maintains a simple connection: automaticity entails the absence of control. An appropriate analysis, however, shows (...)
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  44. Andrew Chignell (2012). Kant, Real Possibility, and the Threat of Spinoza. Mind 121 (483):635-675.
    In the first part of the paper I reconstruct Kant’s proof of the existence of a ‘most real being’ while also highlighting the theory of modality that motivates Kant’s departure from Leibniz’s version of the proof. I go on to argue that it is precisely this departure that makes the being that falls out of the pre-critical proof look more like Spinoza’s extended natura naturans than an independent, personal creator-God. In the critical period, Kant seems to think that transcendental idealism (...)
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  45.  22
    K. Valli, A. Revonsuo, O. Palkas, K. Ismail, K. Ali & R. Punamaki (2005). The Threat Simulation Theory of the Evolutionary Function of Dreaming: Evidence From Dreams of Traumatized Children. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):188-218.
    The threat simulation theory of dreaming states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from TST is that real threatening events encountered by the individual during wakefulness should lead to an increased activation of the system, a threat simulation (...)
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  46.  75
    Michael Fuerstein (2015). Contesting the Market: An Assessment of Capitalism's Threat to Democracy. In Subramanian Rangan (ed.), Performance and Progress: Essays on Capitalism, Business, and Society. Oxford University Press
    I argue that capitalism presents a threat to “democratic contestation”: the egalitarian, socially distributed capacity to affect how, why, and whether power is used. Markets are not susceptible to mechanisms of accountability, nor are they bearers of intentions in the way that political power-holders are. This makes them resistant to the kind of rational, intentional oversight that constitutes one of democracy’s social virtues. I identify four social costs associated with this problem: the vulnerability of citizens to arbitrary interference, the insensitivity (...)
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  47.  41
    Kimberly Brewer & Eric Watkins (2012). A Difficulty Still Awaits: Kant, Spinoza, and the Threat of Theological Determinism. Kant-Studien 103 (2):163-187.
    In a short and much-neglected passage in the second Critique, Kant discusses the threat posed to human freedom by theological determinism. In this paper we present an interpretation of Kant’s conception of and response to this threat. Regarding his conception, we argue that he addresses two versions of the threat: either God causes appearances (and hence our spatio-temporal actions) directly or he does so indirectly by causing things in themselves which in turn cause appearances. Kant’s response to the first version (...)
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  48. B. Sharon Byrd (1989). Kant's Theory of Punishment: Deterrence in its Threat, Retribution in its Execution. [REVIEW] Law and Philosophy 8 (2):151 - 200.
    Kant's theory of punishment is commonly regarded as purely retributive in nature, and indeed much of his discourse seems to support that interpretation. Still, it leaves one with certain misgivings regarding the internal consistency of his position. Perhaps the problem lies not in Kant's inconsistency nor in the senility sometimes claimed to be apparent in the Metaphysic of Morals, but rather in a superimposed, modern yet monistic view of punishment. Historical considerations tend to show that Kant was discussing not one, (...)
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  49.  53
    Theodore Sider (2014). Outscoping and Discourse Threat. Inquiry 57 (4):413-426.
    Sometimes we give truth-conditions for sentences of a discourse in other terms. According to Agustín Rayo, when doing so it is sometimes legitimate to use the terms of that very discourse, so long as the terms do not occur in the truth-conditions themselves. I argue that giving truth-conditions in this "outscoping" way prevents one from answering "discourse threat" (for example, the threat of indeterminacy).
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  50.  52
    Erin Beeghly (2015). What is a Stereotype? What is Stereotyping? Hypatia 30 (4):675-691.
    If someone says, “Asians are good at math” or “women are empathetic,” I might interject, “you're stereotyping” in order to convey my disapproval of their utterance. But why is stereotyping wrong? Before we can answer this question, we must better understand what stereotypes are and what stereotyping is. In this essay, I develop what I call the descriptive view of stereotypes and stereotyping. This view is assumed in much of the psychological and philosophical literature on implicit bias and stereotyping, yet (...)
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