Search results for 'TARGETED MUTATION' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  7
    Iñigo Martincorena & Nicholas M. Luscombe (2013). Non‐Random Mutation: The Evolution of Targeted Hypermutation and Hypomutation. Bioessays 35 (2):123-130.
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  2. John Bickle (2006). Reducing Mind to Molecular Pathways: Explicating the Reductionism Implicit in Current Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience. [REVIEW] Synthese 151 (3):411-434.
    As opposed to the dismissive attitude toward reductionism that is popular in current philosophy of mind, a “ruthless reductionism” is alive and thriving in “molecular and cellular cognition”—a field of research within cellular and molecular neuroscience, the current mainstream of the discipline. Basic experimental practices and emerging results from this field imply that two common assertions by philosophers and cognitive scientists are false: (1) that we do not know much about how the brain works, and (2) that lower-level neuroscience cannot (...)
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  3. Y. Wen, W. H. Yu, B. Maloney, J. Bailey, J. Ma, I. Marie, T. Maurin, L. Wang, H. Figueroa, M. Herman, P. Krishnamurthy, L. Liu, E. Planel, L. F. Lau, D. K. Lahiri & K. Duff (2008). Transcriptional Regulation of Beta-Secretase by P25/Cdk5 Leads to Enhanced Amyloidogenic Processing. Neuron 57:680-90.
    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of p25, an activator of cdk5, led to increased levels of BACE1 mRNA and protein in vitro and in vivo. A p25/cdk5 responsive region containing multiple sites for signal transducer and activator of transcription was identified in the BACE1 promoter. STAT3 interacts with the BACE1 promoter, and p25-overexpressing mice had elevated levels of pSTAT3 and BACE1, whereas cdk5-deficient mice had reduced levels. Furthermore, mice with a (...)
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  4.  93
    Porto André (2015). Semantical Mutation, Algorithms and Programs. Dissertatio:44-76.
    This article offers an explanation of perhaps Wittgenstein’s strangest and least intuitive thesis – the semantical mutation thesis – according to which one can never answer a mathematical conjecture because the new proof alters the very meanings of the terms involved in the original question. Instead of basing our justification on the distinction between mere calculation and proofs of isolated propositions, characteristic of Wittgenstein’s intermediary period, we generalize it to include conjectures involving effective procedures as well.
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  5.  58
    Tomasz Zuradzki (2015). Targeted Killings: Legal and Ethical Justifications. In Marcelo Galuppo (ed.), Human Rights, Rule of Law and the Contemporary Social Challenges in Complex Societies. 2909-2923.
    The purpose of this paper is the analysis of both legal and ethical ways of justifying targeted killings. I compare two legal models: the law enforcement model vs the rules of armed conflicts; and two ethical ones: retribution vs the right of self-defence. I argue that, if the targeted killing is to be either legally or ethically justified, it would be so due to fulfilling of some criteria common for all acceptable forms of killing, and not because terrorist (...)
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  6.  5
    J. H. Van Hateren (2015). Intrinsic Estimates of Fitness Affect the Causal Structure of Evolutionary Change. Biology and Philosophy 30 (5):729-746.
    The causal structure of Darwinian evolution by natural selection is investigated. Its basic scheme is reproduction resulting from a feedback loop driven by internal and external causes. Causation internal to the loop connects genotype, development, phenotype, and fitness, with environmental constraints on the latter preventing runaway reproduction. External causes driving the core loop are environmental change and genetic change. This basic causal structure is complicated by modern additions such as control of mutation rate, niche construction, interactions between evolution and (...)
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  7.  4
    David L. Vaux (2011). In Defense of the Somatic Mutation Theory of Cancer. Bioessays 33 (5):341-343.
  8.  2
    Susan M. Rosenberg, Chandan Shee, Ryan L. Frisch & P. J. Hastings (2012). Stress‐Induced Mutation Via DNA Breaks in Escherichia Coli: A Molecular Mechanism with Implications for Evolution and Medicine. Bioessays 34 (10):885-892.
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  9.  3
    Melissa A. Wilson Sayres & Kateryna D. Makova (2011). Genome Analyses Substantiate Male Mutation Bias in Many Species. Bioessays 33 (12):938-945.
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  10.  1
    Koodali T. Nishant, Nadia D. Singh & Eric Alani (2009). Genomic Mutation Rates: What High‐Throughput Methods Can Tell Us. Bioessays 31 (9):912-920.
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  11.  2
    Christel Kamp, Claus O. Wilke, Christoph Adami & Stefan Bornholdt (2002). Viral Evolution Under the Pressure of an Adaptive Immune System: Optimal Mutation Rates for Viral Escape. Complexity 8 (2):28-33.
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  12.  4
    David L. Vaux (2011). Response to “The Tissue Organization Field Theory of Cancer: A Testable Replacement for the Somatic Mutation Theory” DOI: 10.1002/Bies. 201100025. [REVIEW] Bioessays 33 (9):660-661.
  13.  1
    William Amos (2010). Heterozygosity and Mutation Rate: Evidence for an Interaction and its Implications. Bioessays 32 (1):82-90.
  14.  70
    Edward L. Felton & Ronald R. Sims (2005). Teaching Business Ethics: Targeted Outputs. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 60 (4):377 - 391.
    Business ethics is once again a hot topic as examples of improper business practices that violate commonly accepted ethical norms are brought to our attention. With the increasing number of scandals business schools find themselves on the defensive in explaining what they are doing to help respond to the call to teach ‘‘more’’ business ethics. This paper focuses on two issues germane to business ethics teaching efforts: the ‘‘targeted output’’ goals of teaching business ethics and when in the curriculum (...)
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  15.  33
    Francesca Merlin (2010). Evolutionary Chance Mutation: A Defense of the Modern Synthesis' Consensus View. Philosophy & Theory in Biology 2 (20130604).
    One central tenet of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis , and the consensus view among biologists until now, is that all genetic mutations occur by “chance” or at “random” with respect to adaptation. However, the discovery of some molecular mechanisms enhancing mutation rate in response to environmental conditions has given rise to discussions among biologists, historians and philosophers of biology about the “chance” vs “directed” character of mutations . In fact, some argue that mutations due to a (...)
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  16.  18
    Claire Finkelstein, Jens David Ohlin & Andrew Altman (eds.) (2012). Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World. OUP Oxford.
    The controversy surrounding targeted killings represents a crisis of conscience for policymakers, lawyers, philosophers and leading military experts grappling with the moral and legal limits of the war on terror. The book examines the legal and philosophical issues raised by government efforts to target suspected terrorists without giving them the safeguards of a fair trial.
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  17.  32
    Steven R. David (2003). Israel's Policy of Targeted Killing. Ethics and International Affairs 17 (1):111–126.
    The policy is consistent with international law because Israel is engaged in armed conflict with terrorists, those targeted are usually killed by conventional military means, and the targets of the attacks are not civilians but combatants.
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  18.  2
    Peter J. Bowler (2006). Hugo De Vries and Thomas Hunt Morgan: The Mutation Theory and the Spirit of Darwinism. Annals of Science 35 (1):55-73.
    A great deal is known about the technical issues surrounding the introduction of Hugo De Vries's mutation theory and the subsequent development of the modern genetical theory of natural selection. But so far little has been done to relate these events to the wider issues of the time. This article suggests that extra-scientific factors played a significant role, and substantiates this by comparing De Vries's respect for the original Darwinian spirit with Thomas Hunt Morgan's use of the mutation (...)
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  19.  78
    Ted Honderich, Targeted Killing.
    This paper by Prof. Daniel Statman, moral philosopher at the University of Haifa in Israel and author of the books Moral Dilemmas and Religion and Morality , offers a philosophical defense for such targeted killings or assassinations as those by Israel of Palestinians. The paper argues that if one accepts the moral legitimacy of the large-scale killing of combatants in conventional (what may come to be called 'old-fashioned') wars, one cannot object -- on moral grounds -- to the (...) killing of terrorists in what are called wars against terror. If one rejects this legitimacy, one must object to all killing in war, targeted and non-targeted alike, and thus not support the view, which is criticized here, that targeted killings are particularly disturbing from a moral point of view. (shrink)
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  20.  17
    Katerina Hadjimatheou (2014). The Relative Moral Risks of Untargeted and Targeted Surveillance. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (2):187-207.
    Is surveillance that is targeted towards specific individuals easier to justify than surveillance that targets broad categories of people? Untargeted surveillance is routinely accused of treating innocent people as suspects in ways that are unfair and of failing to pursue security effectively. I argue that in a wide range of cases untargeted surveillance treats people less like suspects than more targeted alternatives. I also argue that it often deters unwanted behaviour more effectively than targeted alternatives, including profiling. (...)
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  21.  6
    Garland E. Allen (1969). Hugo De Vries and the Reception of the "Mutation Theory". Journal of the History of Biology 2 (1):55 - 87.
    De Vries' mutation theory has not stood the test of time. The supposed mutations of Oenothera were in reality complex recombination phenomena, ultimately explicable in Mendelian terms, while instances of large-scale mutations were found wanting in other species. By 1915 the mutation theory had begun to lose its grip on the biological community; by de Vries' death in 1935 it was almost completely abandoned. Yet, as we have seen, during the first decade of the present century it achieved (...)
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  22.  3
    Rafael Caballero (2002). Policy Schemes and Targeted Technologies in an Extensive Cereal–Sheep Farming System. Agriculture and Human Values 19 (1):63-74.
    Many commentators and experts arguethat extensive agricultural systems across theEuropean Union (EU) should be supported toreach the two main functions of the EuropeanModel of Agriculture (EMA): lively economicsystems and environmental awareness. We arguethat the main current policy instrument of theEMA, the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy),should be targeted to take advantage ofexisting regional diversity in social realitiesand agricultural structures. Community-basedresearch work has been carried out throughoutthe 1990s in the cereal–sheep farming system ofCastile-La Mancha (south-central Spain), wherea system of land-use operates (...)
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  23.  40
    David M. Buss (2006). The Evolutionary Genetics of Personality: Does Mutation Load Signal Relationship Load? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):409-409.
    The mutation-selection hypothesis may extend to understanding normal personality variation. Traits such as emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness figure strongly in mate selection and show evidence of non-additive genetic variance. They are linked with reproductively relevant outcomes, including longevity, resource acquisition, and mating success. Evolved difference-detection adaptations may function to spurn individuals whose high mutation load signals a burdensome relationship load. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  24.  10
    Hans Joachim Poethke (1988). Sex Ratio Polymorphism: The Impact of Mutation and Drift on Evolution. Acta Biotheoretica 37 (2):121-147.
    This paper addresses the question, which sex ratio will evolve in a population that is subject to mutation and drift. The problem is analyzed using a simulation model as well as analytical methods. A detailed simulation model for the evolution of a population's allele distribution shows that for the sex ratio game a wide spectrum of different population states may evolve from on the one hand a monomorphic state with one predominant allele and with all other alleles suppressed by (...)
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  25.  16
    Jerome C. Wakefield (2006). High Mental Disorder Rates Are Based on Invalid Measures: Questions About the Claimed Ubiquity of Mutation-Induced Dysfunction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):424-426.
    Three reservations about Keller & Miller's (K&M's) argument are explored: Serious validity problems afflict epidemiological criteria discriminating disorders from non-disorders, so high rates may be misleading. Normal variation need not be mild disorder, contrary to a possible interpretation of K&M's article. And, rather than mutation-selection balance, true disorders may result from unselected combinations of normal variants over many loci. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  26.  4
    Bernadette Bensaude Vincent & Sacha Loeve (2014). Metaphors in Nanomedicine: The Case of Targeted Drug Delivery. NanoEthics 8 (1):1-17.
    The promises of nanotechnology have been framed by a variety of metaphors, that not only channel the attention of the public, orient the questions asked by researchers, and convey epistemic choices closely linked to ethical preferences. In particular, the image of the ‘therapeutic missile’ commonly used to present targeted drug delivery devices emphasizes precision, control, surveillance and efficiency. Such values are highly praised in the current context of crisis of pharmaceutical innovation where military metaphors foster a general mobilization of (...)
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  27.  9
    S. Buetow (2005). High Need Patients Receiving Targeted Entitlements: What Responsibilities Do They Have in Primary Health Care? Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (5):304-306.
    Patient responsibilities in primary health care are controversial and, by comparison, the responsibilities of high need patients are less clear. This paper aims to suggest why high need patients receiving targeted entitlements in primary health care are free to have prima facie special responsibilities; why, given this freedom, these patients morally have special responsibilities; what these responsibilities are, and how publicly funded health systems ought to be able to respond when these remain unmet. It is suggested that the special (...)
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  28.  7
    Mary Malucchi (2011). A Novel “Planetary Man”: From the Philosophical Paradigm of Modernity to Contemporary Anthropological Mutation: The Perspective of Ernesto Balducci. World Futures 67 (8):519 - 530.
    Italian priest, essayist, and intellectual of the twentieth century, Ernesto Balducci identified the crucial turning points of the new millennium by advancing original perspectives capable of opening unusual future scenarios. Sensitive to emergences of society (pollution, wars, ecological collapse), he retraces the causes in the more general ?crisis of modernity,? proposing a new paideia and a new model of thought. He theorizes the construction of a novel planetary horizon that presupposes not only the building of new organizational structures, but also (...)
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  29.  8
    Anurag Mishra & Josef Pfeuffer, Targeted Contrast Agents for MR Imaging.
    Smart MR contrast agents exhibit modulation of their relaxivity by specific physiological or biochemical trigger-events, while targeted MR contrast agents are envisioned to deliver the large gadolinium chelates into the target tissue. In an effort to develop novel smart and targeted MR contrast agents, the series of the DO3A based multifunctional chelating agents with the variable length of the side chain has been synthesized. They serve as valuable multipurpose precursors for contrast agents based on gadolinium chelates in the (...)
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  30.  10
    Mark Bedau, Adaptation of Mutation Rates in a Simple Model of Evolution.
    We have studied the adaptation of mutation rates in a simple model of evolution. The model consists of a two-dimensional world with a periodically replenished resource and a uctuating population of evolving agents whose survival and reproduction are an implicit a function of their success at nding resources and their internal metabolism. Earlier work suggested that mutation rate is a control parameter that governs a transition between two qualitatively di erent kinds of complex adaptive systems, and that the (...)
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  31.  7
    A. Tahan & M. Monajjemi (2011). Solvent Dielectric Effect and Side Chain Mutation on the Structural Stability of Burkholderia Cepacia Lipase Active Site: A Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanics Study. Acta Biotheoretica 59 (3):291-312.
    Quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics methods were used to analyze the structure and stability of neutral and zwitterionic configurations of the extracted active site sequence from a Burkholderia cepacia lipase, histidyl-seryl-glutamin (His86-Ser87-Gln88) and its mutated form, histidyl-cysteyl-glutamin (His86-Cys87-Gln88) in vacuum and different solvents. The effects of solvent dielectric constant, explicit and implicit water molecules and side chain mutation on the structure and stability of this sequence in both neutral and zwitterionic forms are represented. The quantum mechanics computations represent that (...)
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  32.  7
    Daniel Nettle (2006). Reconciling the Mutation-Selection Balance Model with the Schizotypy-Creativity Connection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):418-418.
    Keller & Miller (K&M) make a persuasive case for the role of mutation-selection balance in the persistence of such disorders as schizophrenia. However, there is evidence relating illness liability to creativity, which seems to imply balancing selection. I argue for a hybrid position, where schizotypal personality traits can have fitness advantages or disadvantages, with mutational load and neurodevelopmental conditions determining which outcome is observed. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  33.  7
    George N. Reeke (1997). Constructivism: Can Directed Mutation Improve on Classical Neural Selection? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):574-575.
    Quartz & Sejnowski find flaws in standard theories of neural selection, which they propose to repair by introducing Lamarckian mechanisms for anatomical refinement that are analogous to directed mutation in evolution. The reversal of cause and effect that these mechanisms require is no more plausible in an explanation of cognition than it is in an explanation of evolution.
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  34. Vanessa Chenel, Patrick Boissy, Jean-Pierre Cloarec & Johane Patenaude (2015). Analyses of Acceptability Judgments Made Toward the Use of Nanocarrier-Based Targeted Drug Delivery: Interviews with Researchers and Research Trainees in the Field of New Technologies. NanoEthics 9 (3):199-215.
    The assessment of nanotechnology applications such as nanocarrier-based targeted drug delivery has historically been based mostly on toxicological and safety aspects. The use of nanocarriers for TDD, a leading-edge nanomedical application, has received little study from the angle of experts’ perceptions and acceptability, which may be reflected in how TDD applications are developed. In recent years, numerous authors have maintained that TDD assessment should also take into account impacts on ethical, environmental, economic, legal, and social issues in order to (...)
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  35. A. Berardinelli & J. Vale (1999). From Postmodernism to Mutation: How the Twentieth Century Draws to a Close. Diogenes 47 (186):93-105.
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  36.  6
    Kathleen Rehbein, Sandra Waddock & Samuel B. Graves (2004). Understanding Shareholder Activism: Which Corporations Are Targeted? Business and Society 43 (3):239-267.
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  37. Paul D. Sniegowski, Philip J. Gerrish, Toby Johnson & Aaron Shaver (2000). The Evolution of Mutation Rates: Separating Causes From Consequences. Bioessays 22 (12):1057-1066.
  38.  69
    Ana M. Soto & Carlos Sonnenschein (2011). The Tissue Organization Field Theory of Cancer: A Testable Replacement for the Somatic Mutation Theory. Bioessays 33 (5):332-340.
  39. Eelco Runia (2014). Moved by the Past: Discontinuity and Historical Mutation. Columbia University Press.
    Moved by the Past radically breaks with this tradition of predating the past, incites us to fully acknowledge the discontinuous nature of discontinuities, and proposes to use the fact that history is propelled by unforeseeable leaps and ...
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  40.  2
    Ana M. Soto & Carlos Sonnenschein (2004). The Somatic Mutation Theory of Cancer: Growing Problems with the Paradigm? Bioessays 26 (10):1097-1107.
  41.  2
    Sarah Brown‐Schmidt & Michael K. Tanenhaus (2008). Real‐Time Investigation of Referential Domains in Unscripted Conversation: A Targeted Language Game Approach. Cognitive Science 32 (4):643-684.
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  42.  23
    Megan Braun & Daniel R. Brunstetter (2013). Rethinking the Criterion for Assessing Cia-Targeted Killings: Drones, Proportionality and Jus Ad Vim. Journal of Military Ethics 12 (4):304-324.
  43.  11
    Delphine Oudiette & Ken A. Paller (2013). Upgrading the Sleeping Brain with Targeted Memory Reactivation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (3):142-149.
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  44. Aysen Bakir & Scott J. Vitell (2010). The Ethics of Food Advertising Targeted Toward Children: Parental Viewpoint. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):299 - 311.
    The children’s market has become significantly more important to marketers in recent years. They have been spending increasing amounts on advertising, particularly of food and beverages, to reach this segment. At the same time, there is a critical debate among parents, government agencies, and industry experts as to the ethics of food advertising practices aimed toward children. The␣present study examines parents’ ethical views of food advertising targeting children. Findings indicate that parents’ beliefs concerning at least some dimensions of moral intensity (...)
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  45.  7
    Steven A. Frank & Martin A. Nowak (2004). Problems of Somatic Mutation and Cancer. Bioessays 26 (3):291-299.
  46. Douglas Zook (2002). Symbiogenesis as a Partner of Mutation. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 45 (2):287-291.
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  47.  7
    Neta C. Crawford (2015). Accountability for Targeted Drone Strikes Against Terrorists? Ethics and International Affairs 29 (1):39-49.
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  48.  11
    Hugo de Vries (1907). Evolution and Mutation. The Monist 17 (1):6-22.
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  49.  2
    Joseph O. Chapa (2015). Drones and the Ethics of Targeted Killing. Journal of Military Ethics 14 (3-4):284-286.
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  50. Edward L. Felton & Ronald R. Sims (2005). Teaching Business Ethics: Targeted Outputs. Journal of Business Ethics 60 (4):377-391.
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