Search results for 'TOP' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Georg Northoff (2002). What Catatonia Can Tell Us AboutTop-Down Modulation”: A Neuropsychiatric Hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):555-577.score: 24.0
    Differential diagnosis of motor symptoms, for example, akinesia, may be difficult in clinical neuropsychiatry. Symptoms may be either of neurologic origin, for example, Parkinson's disease, or (...)of psychiatric origin, for example, catatonia, leading to a so-calledconflict of paradigms.” Despite their different origins, symptoms may appear more or less clinically similar. Possibility of dissociation between origin and clinical appearance may reflect functional brain organisation in general, and cortical-cortical/subcortical relations in particular. It is therefore hypothesized that similarities and differences between Parkinson's disease and catatonia may be accounted for by distinct kinds of modulation between cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical relations. Catatonia can be characterized by concurrent motor, emotional, and behavioural symptoms. The different symptoms may be accounted for by dysfunction in orbitofrontal-prefrontal/parietal cortical connectivity reflectinghorizontal modulationof cortico-cortical relation. Furthermore, alteration intop-down modulationreflectingvertical modulationof caudate and other basal ganglia by GABA-ergic mediated orbitofrontal cortical deficits may account for motor symptoms in catatonia. Parkinson's disease, in contrast, can be characterized by predominant motor symptoms. Motor symptoms may be accounted for by alteredbottom-up modulationbetween dopaminergic mediated deficits in striatum and premotor/motor cortex. Clinical similarities between Parkinson's disease and catatonia with respect to akinesia may be related with involvement of the basal ganglia in both disorders. Clinical differences with respect to emotional and behavioural symptoms may be related with involvement of different cortical areas, that is, orbitofrontal/parietal and premotor/motor cortex implying distinct kinds of modulation – “verticalandhorizontalmodulation, respectively. Key Words: Bottom-up modulation; catatonia; horizontal modulation; Parkinson's disease; top-down modulation; vertical modulation. (shrink)
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  2. Janet L. Kottke & Kathie L. Pelletier (2013). Measuring and Differentiating Perceptions of Supervisor and Top Leader Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 113 (3):415-428.score: 24.0
    We report the results of two studies that evaluated the perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. In our first study, we re-analyzed data from Pelletier (...)and Bligh (J Bus Ethics 67:359374, 2006) and found that the Perceptions of Ethical Leadership Scale from that study could be used to differentiate perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. In a second study with a different sample, we examined the relationships between (1) individual employeesperceptions of top managersand immediate supervisorsethical tendencies, and (2) organizational climate, confidence in top leadership direction, commitment, and citizenship behavior. Results indicated that employee perceptions of top managersand supervisorsethics were significantly related to climate, top leadership direction, organizational commitment and the OCB dimension, civic virtue. (shrink)
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  3. Sefa Hayibor, Bradley R. Agle, Greg J. Sears, Jeffrey A. Sonnenfeld & Andrew Ward (2011). Value Congruence and Charismatic Leadership in CEOTop Manager Relationships: An Empirical Investigation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 102 (2):237-254.score: 24.0
    Although charismatic leadership theorists have long argued that leaderfollower value congruence plays a central role in the development of charismatic relationships, few studies have tested this (...)proposition. Using data from two studies involving a total of 329 CEOs and 1807 members of their top management teams, we tested the hypothesis that value congruence between leaders and their followers is empirically linked to follower perceptions of the charisma of their leader. Consistent with a relational perspective on charismatic leadership, strong support was found for the hypothesis that perceived value congruence between leaders (CEOs) and their followers (members of their top management teams) is positively related to follower perceptions of the degree of charisma possessed by the leader. Conversely, only limited support was found for the hypothesis that actual value congruence is linked to perceptions of charismatic leadership. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed. (shrink)
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  4. Kevin Ibeh, Sara Carter, Deborah Poff & Jim Hamill (2008). How Focused Are the World's Top-Rated Business Schools on Educating Women for Global Management? Journal of Business Ethics 83 (1):65 - 83.score: 24.0
    Persuaded by the observed positive link between the flow of appropriately skilled and trained female talent and female presence at the upper echelons of management (Plitch, Dow (...)
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  5. Robert Strand (2013). The Chief Officer of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Study of Its Presence in Top Management Teams. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 112 (4):721-734.score: 24.0
    I present a review of the top management teams (TMTs) of the largest public corporations in the U.S. and Scandinavia (one thousand in total) to identify (...)corporations that have a TMT position withcorporate social responsibility” (CSR) or aCSR synonymlike sustainability or citizenship explicitly included in the position title. Through this I present three key findings. First, I establish that a number of CSR TMT positions exist and I list all identified corporations and associated position titles. Second, I show that Scandinavian corporations are significantly more likely than U.S. corporations to have such CSR TMT positions. This finding serves as evidence that the U.S. may have been surpassed by a subset of Europe, i.e., Scandinavia, in at least one relevant measure of explicit CSR, whereby this study may serve witness to a noteworthy juncture post Matten and Moons (Academy of Management Review, 33(2):404424, 2008) “Implicit & Explicit CSRarticle. And third, I show that corporations with a CSR TMT position are three times more likely to be included in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) than corporations with none. A range of further research opportunities stemming from these findings include exploring whether explicit attention to CSR by the corporation is indicative of a longer term trend that has to do with attention to responsible business and whether a move away from the expressionCSRtoward the expressionsustainabilityis underway and what this may entail. (shrink)
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  6. Sarah-Jayne Blakemore Jennifer Cook, Guillaume Barbalat (2012). Top-Down Modulation of the Perception of Other People in Schizophrenia and Autism. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Accurately and efficiently perceiving social cues such as body movements and facial expressions is important in social interaction. Accurate social perception of this kind does not solely (...)
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  7. Gilles Pourtois Karsten Rauss (2013). What is Bottom-Up and What is Top-Down in Predictive Coding? Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Everyone knows what bottom-up is, and how it is different from top-down. At least one is tempted to think so, given that both terms are ubiquitiously (...) used, but only rarely defined in the psychology and neuroscience literature. In this review, we highlight the problems and limitations of our current understanding of bottom-up and top-down processes, and we propose a reformulation of this distinction in terms of predictive coding. (shrink)
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  8. X. H. Meng, S. X. Zeng, C. M. Tam & X. D. Xu (2013). Whether Top Executives' Turnover Influences Environmental Responsibility: From the Perspective of Environmental Information Disclosure. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 114 (2):341-353.score: 24.0
    We have empirically examined the relationship between top executivesturnover and the corporate environmental responsibility by identifying the influence of ten specific turnover reasons resulting in the (...)
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  9. Pieter Jong, Antony Paulraj & Constantin Blome (2014). The Financial Impact of ISO 14001 Certification: Top-Line, Bottom-Line, or Both? Journal of Business Ethics 119 (1):131-149.score: 24.0
    It is not easy being green, but it does beg the question: Does being green pay off on the bottom-line? Unfortunately, that question of becoming ISO (...)14001 to reap financial benefit remains widely unanswered. In particular, corporate practice is interested in how environmental management impacts firmsfinance through top-line impact, bottom-line impact, or bothas this paves the way for an investment of environmental management. As current findings are mixed, our study tracks financial performance of publicly traded US firms between 1996 and 2005 to test whether ISO 14001 leads to improved financial performance. Employing a rigorous event-study approach, we compare certified firms to different control groups based on several matching criteria that include industry, size, and/or ROA. In the short run, ISO 14001 certification makes only a minor impact on the bottom-line, according to our results. However, these same results show a significant financial improvement over the long haul with ISO 14001 certification. Additionally, this long-term improvement also makes a significant improvement in top-line performance. Thus, we conclude that environmental management pays off along both dimensions. (shrink)
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  10. Nicolas Houy (2011). Common Characterizations of the Untrapped Set and the Top Cycle. Theory and Decision 70 (4):501-509.score: 24.0
    We give some characterizations for both the untrapped set and the top cycle choice functions. We link these characterizations with the well-known characterization of the maximal (...)elements choice function. Our characterizations strongly rely on the notion oftwo-tier domination”. (shrink)
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  11. Naotsuga Tsuchiya, Ned Block & Christof Koch (2012). Top-Down Attention and Consciousness: Comment on Cohen, Et.Al. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (11):527.score: 21.0
  12. Lorenzo Patelli & Matteo Pedrini (forthcoming). Is Tone at the Top Associated with Financial Reporting Aggressiveness? Journal of Business Ethics.score: 21.0
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  13. Bradley Lail, Jason MacGregor, Martin Stuebs & Timothy Thomasson (forthcoming). The Influence of Regulatory Approach on Tone at the Top. Journal of Business Ethics.score: 21.0
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  14. Aprajita Mohanty & Tamara J. Sussman (2013). Top-Down Modulation of Attention by Emotion. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  15. Xinran Wang & Michael N. Young (2014). Does Collectivism Affect Environmental Ethics? A Multi-Level Study of Top Management Teams From Chemical Firms in China. Journal of Business Ethics 122 (3):387-394.score: 21.0
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  16. Carl F. Craver & William Bechtel (2007). Top-Down Causation Without Top-Down Causes. Biology and Philosophy 22 (4):547-563.score: 18.0
    We argue that intelligible appeals to interlevel causes (top-down and bottom-up) can be understood, without remainder, as appeals to mechanistically mediated effects. Mechanistically mediated effects are (...) hybrids of causal and constitutive relations, where the causal relations are exclusively intralevel. The idea of causation would have to stretch to the breaking point to accommodate interlevel causes. The notion of a mechanistically mediated effect is preferable because it can do all of the required work without appealing to mysterious interlevel causes. When interlevel causes can be translated into mechanistically mediated effects, the posited relationship is intelligible and should raise no special philosophical objections. When they cannot, they are suspect. (shrink)
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  17. Nicholas Shea (forthcoming). Distinguishing Top-Down From Bottom-Up Effects. In S. Biggs, M. Matthen & D. Stokes (eds.), Perception and Its Modalities. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    The distinction between top-down and bottom-up effects is widely relied on in experimental psychology. However, there is an important problem with the way it is normally (...) defined. Top-down effects are effects of previously-stored information on processing the current input. But on the face of it that includes the information that is implicit in the operation of any psychological processin its dispositions to transition from some types of representational state to others. This paper suggests a way to distinguish information stored in that way from the kind of influence of prior information that psychologists are concerned to classify as a top-down effect. So-drawn, the distinction is not just of service to theoretical psychology. Asking about the extent of top-down processing is one way to pose some of the questions at issue in philosophical debates about cognitive penetrabilityabout the extent of the influence of cognitive states on perception. The existence of a theoretically-useful perception-cognition distinction has come under pressure, but even if it has to be abandoned, some of the concerns addressed in the cognitive penetrability literature can be recaptured by asking about the extent of top-down influences on any given psychological process. That formulation is more general, since it can be applied to any psychological process, not just those that are paradigmatically perceptual. (shrink)
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  18. Grant Gillett & Sam C. Liu (2012). Free Will and Necker's Cube: Reason, Language and Top-Down Control in Cognitive Neuroscience. Philosophy 87 (01):29-50.score: 18.0
    The debates about human free will are traditionally the concern of metaphysics but neuroscientists have recently entered the field arguing that acts of the will are determined (...)
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  19. Mark S. Schwartz, Thomas W. Dunfee & Michael J. Kline (2005). Tone at the Top: An Ethics Code for Directors? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 58 (1-3):79 - 100.score: 18.0
    . Recent corporate scandals have focused the attention of a broad set of constituencies on reforming corporate governance. Boards of directors play a leading role in corporate governance (...) and any significant reforms must encompass their role. To date, most reform proposals have targeted the legal, rather than the ethical obligations of directors. Legal reforms without proper attention to ethical obligations will likely prove ineffectual. The ethical role of directors is critical. Directors have overall responsibility for the ethics and compliance programs of the corporation. The tone at the top that they set by example and action is central to the overall ethical environment of their firms. This role is reinforced by their legal responsibilities to provide oversight of the financial performance of the firm. Underlying this analysis is the critical assumption that ethical behavior, especially on the part of corporate leaders, leads to the best long-term interests of the corporation. We describe key components of a framework for a code of ethics for corporate boards and individual directors. The proposed code framework is based on six universal core ethical values: (1) honesty; (2) integrity; (3) loyalty; (4) responsibility; (5) fairness; and (6) citizenship. The paper concludes by suggesting critical issues that need to be dealt with in firm-based codes of ethics for directors. (shrink)
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  20. J. S. R. Chisholm & R. S. Farwell (1995). Unified Spin Gauge Model and the Top Quark Mass. Foundations of Physics 25 (10):1511-1522.score: 18.0
    Spin gauge models use a real Clifford algebraic structure Rp,q associated with a real manifold of dimension p + q to describe the fundamental interactions of elementary (...)
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  21. Ron Sun, Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Learning in Cognitive Skill Acquisition.score: 18.0
    This paper explores the interaction between implicit and explicit processes during skill learning, in terms of top-down learning (that is, learning that goes from explicit to (...)implicit knowledge) versus bottom-up learning (that is, learning that goes from implicit to explicit knowledge). Instead of studying each type of knowledge (implicit or explicit) in isolation, we stress the interaction between the two types, especially in terms of one type giving rise to the other, and its effects on learning. The work presents an integrated model of skill learning that takes into account both implicit and explicit processes and both top-down and bottom-up learning. We examine and simulate human data in the Tower of Hanoi task. The paper shows how the quantitative data in this task may be captured using either top-down or bottom-up approaches, although top-down learning is a more apt explanation of the human data currently available. These results illustrate the two different directions of learning (top-down versus bottom-up), and thereby provide a new perspective on skill learning. Ó 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (shrink)
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  22. Akira Inomata, Georg Junker & Claudia Rosch (1998). Remarks on the Magnetic Top. Foundations of Physics 28 (5):729-739.score: 18.0
    We revisit via a path-integral approach the magnetic top proposed recently by Barut, Božić, and Marić. We point out that the magnetic top has the SU(2 (...)) symmetry and that it can be viewed as a free top seen from a rotating frame. We present an alternative path-integral quantization of the magnetic top on the basis of the symmetry, and show that the magnetic coupling does not participate in altering the spin quantum numbers. (shrink)
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  23. Jaakko Kuorikoski (2011). Reality's Next Top Model? Metascience 20 (2):381-383.score: 18.0
    Realitys next top model? Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9475-3 Authors Jaakko Kuorikoski, Philosophy of Science Group/Social and Moral Philosophy, University of (...)Helsinki, P.O. Box 24, 00014 Helsinki, Finland Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796. (shrink)
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  24. Rashid Ameer & Radiah Othman (2012). Sustainability Practices and Corporate Financial Performance: A Study Based on the Top Global Corporations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 108 (1):61-79.score: 18.0
    Sustainability is concerned with the impact of present actions on the ecosystems, societies, and environments of the future. Such concerns should be reflected in the strategic planning (...)
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  25. Victor Dulewicz (2007). Leadership at the Top: A New Instrument for Assessing and Developing Directors. International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics 3 (2):127-138.score: 18.0
    Currently, there is great interest in leadership at the top leadership of the board and of the company. This paper describes a new instrument to assess top (...)
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  26. Don W. Finn, Lawrence B. Chonko & Shelby D. Hunt (1988). Ethical Problems in Public Accounting: The View From the Top. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 7 (8):605 - 615.score: 18.0
    The authors empirically examine the nature and extent of ethical problems confronting senior level AICPA members (CPAs) and examine the effectiveness of partner actions and codes of (...)
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  27. Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Satish P. Deshpande & Jacob Joseph (1998). Job Satisfaction as a Function of Top Management Support for Ethical Behavior: A Study of Indian Managers. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 17 (4):365 - 371.score: 18.0
    Based on organizational justice theories and cognitive dissonance theories, the authors hypothesized that: (a) perceived top management support for ethical behaviors will be positively correlated with all (...)
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  28. Lisa Jones Christensen, Ellen Peirce, Laura P. Hartman, W. Michael Hoffman & Jamie Carrier (2007). Ethics, CSR, and Sustainability Education in the Financial Times Top 50 Global Business Schools: Baseline Data and Future Research Directions. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 73 (4):347 - 368.score: 18.0
    This paper investigates how deans and directors at the top 50 global MBA programs (as rated by the "Financial Times" in their 2006 Global MBA rankings) respond (...)
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  29. Joseph A. Bellizzi & Terry Bristol (2005). Supervising the Unethical Selling Behavior of Top Sales Performers: Assessing the Impact of Social Desirability Bias. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 57 (4):377 - 388.score: 18.0
    . This study measures social desirability bias (SD bias) by comparing the level of discipline sales managers believe they would administer when supervising unethical selling behavior with the (...) level of discipline they perceive other sales managers would select. Results indicate the presence of SD bias; the sales manager respondents consistently claimed that they would be stricter while their peers would be more lenient. Using an analytical technique that takes social desirability bias into account, it appears that sales managers use of discipline is affected by the sales performance of the salesperson being disciplined resulting in more lenient discipline for top sales performers. In addition, the more lenient treatment for top sales performers persists even when there is a pattern of a prior ethical infraction and the existence of an explicit organizational policy proscribing the act in question. Sales managers believe that, like themselves, others would be stricter when an unethical act is committed for the second time but not as strict as they personally would be. A within-subjects interaction effect indicates more SD bias under the condition of the unethical act being committed for the second time. (shrink)
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  30. Maria Bittner, Nominal Quantification as Top-Level Anaphora.score: 18.0
    So far, we have focused on discourse reference to atomic individuals and specific times, events, and states. The basic point of the argument was that all types (...)
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  31. Jamie D. Collins, Klaus Uhlenbruck & Peter Rodriguez (2009). Why Firms Engage in Corruption: A Top Management Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):89 - 108.score: 18.0
    This study builds upon the top management literature to predict and test antecedents to firmsengagement in corruption. Building on a survey of 341 executives in India, (...)
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  32. Bruce Walters, Tim Hardin & James Schick (1995). Top Executive Compensation: Equity or Excess? Implications for Regaining American Competitiveness. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 14 (3):227 - 234.score: 18.0
    The debate over compensation packages for top executives is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the decoupling of CEO pay and organizational performance. A contrast is drawn (...)
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  33. Jonathan Breslin, Susan MacRae, Jennifer Bell & Peter Singer (2005). Top 10 Health Care Ethics Challenges Facing the Public: Views of Toronto Bioethicists. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 6 (1):1-8.score: 18.0
    Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted (...)
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  34. Wendell Wallach, Colin Allen & Iva Smit (2007). Machine Morality: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Approaches for Modelling Human Moral Faculties. [REVIEW] AI and Society 22 (4):565-582.score: 18.0
    The implementation of moral decision making abilities in artificial intelligence (AI) is a natural and necessary extension to the social mechanisms of autonomous software agents and robots. (...)
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  35. Russell Craig, Tony Mortensen & Shefali Iyer (2013). Exploring Top Management Language for Signals of Possible Deception: The Words of Satyam's Chair Ramalinga Raju. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 113 (2):333-347.score: 18.0
    This paper explores the potential for systematic scrutiny of the language of top management to reveal signals of possible deceptive conduct. The language used in letters signed (...)
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  36. Tessa Warren & Keith Rayner (2004). Top-Down Influences in the Interactive Alignment Model: The Power of the Situation Model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):211-211.score: 18.0
    Pickering & Garrod's (P&G's) model is an innovative and important step in the study of naturalistic language. However, the simplicity of its mechanisms for dialogue coordination (...) may be overstated and the hypothesized direct priming channel between interlocutors' situation models is questionable. A complete specification of the model will require more investigation of the role of top-down inhibition among representations. (shrink)
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  37. Rafael E. Núñez (2008). Proto-Numerosities and Concepts of Number: Biologically Plausible and Culturally Mediated Top-Down Mathematical Schemas. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):665-666.score: 18.0
    Early quantitative skills cannot be directly extended to provide the richness, precision, and sophistication of the concept of natural number. These skills must interact with top-down (...)mathematical schemas, which can be explained by bodily grounded everyday mechanisms for abstraction and imagination (e.g., conceptual metaphor, blending) that are both biologically plausible and culturally shaped (established beyond the child's mind). (shrink)
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  38. André Aleman & René S. Kahn (2002). Top-Down Modulation, Emotion, and Hallucination. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):578-578.score: 18.0
    We argue that the pivotal role assigned by Northoff to the principle of top-down modulation in catatonia might successfully be applied to other symptoms of schizophrenia, (...)for example, hallucinations. Second, we propose that Northoff's account would benefit from a more comprehensive analysis of the cognitive level of explanation. Finally, contrary to Northoff, we hypothesize thattop-down modulationmight play as important a role ashorizontal modulationin affective-behavioral alterations. (shrink)
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  39. Julia Jansen (2008). 'Top Down' and 'Bottom Up'. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 19:31-39.score: 18.0
    In this paper I want to discuss the implications of adopting different general philosophical approaches for assessing the relation between perception and imagination. In particular, I am (...)
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  40. Duje Tadin, Peiyan Wong, Michael W. Mebane, Michael J. Berkowitz, Hollister Trott & Sohee Park (2005). Believing is Seeing in Schizophrenia: The Role of Top-Down Processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):775-775.score: 18.0
    The etiology of visual hallucinations is largely undetermined in schizophrenia. Collerton et al.'s PAD model partly concurs with what we know about neurocognition in schizophrenia, but (...)we need to specify the types of perceptual and attentional abnormalities that are implicated in recurrent complex visual hallucinations (RCVH). Available data suggest that abnormal attentional control and top-down processing play a larger role than the ventral stream deficits. (shrink)
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  41. Joseph A. Bellizzi & Ronald W. Hasty (2003). Supervising Unethical Sales Force Behavior: How Strong Is the Tendency to Treat Top Sales Performers Leniently? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 43 (4):337 - 351.score: 18.0
    Findings from prior research show that there is a general tendency to discipline top sales performers more leniently than poor sales performers for engaging in identical forms (...)
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  42. Maria Bittner, Temporal Quantification as Top-Level Anaphora.score: 18.0
    This is part two of our discussion of discourses involving anaphora to and by quantificational expressions of various types. In part one (March 8), we focused on (...)
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  43. Peter König, Carl Chiang & Astrid von Stein (1997). Internal Context and Top-Down Processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):691-692.score: 18.0
    Recent experimental work suggests that the concept of contextual fields should be generalized to allow the modulation of local information extraction by both external and internal context. (...)
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  44. Herb Koplowitz (2008). In Praise of Top-Down Decision Making in Managerial Hierarchies. World Futures 64 (5):513-523.score: 18.0
    (2008). In Praise of Top-Down Decision Making in Managerial Hierarchies. World Futures: Vol. 64, Postformal Thought and Hierarchical Complexity, pp. 513-523.
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  45. Ruth Rosenholtz, Jie Huang & Krista A. Ehinger (2012). Rethinking the Role of Top-Down Attention in Vision: Effects Attributable to a Lossy Representation in Peripheral Vision. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Common wisdom in the field of human vision suggests that top-down selective attention is required in order to bind features into objects. Without selective attention, presumably (...)we are unable even to distinguish such simple stimuli as a rotated T vs. a rotated L. Selective attention, in turn, is often described as volitional and involving intentionality, suggestingimplicitly or explicitlythat it requires awareness. The resulting implication that we might need so expensive (and possibly human) a resource as consciousness in order to perform so basic a function as perception is improbable and counter-intuitive. In fact, we can carry out complex sensorimotor tasks, seemingly in the near absence of awareness or volitional shifts of attention (“zombie behaviors”). More generally, the tight association between attention and awareness, and the presumed role of attention on perception, is problematic. We propose that under normal viewing conditions, top-down selective attention does have an effect, but is not the critical determinant of feature binding and perception. Recent work on the nature of the representation in early vision instead attributes significant information loss to limitations of peripheral vision. We argue that this lossy representation leads to perceptual ambiguities often interpreted as a lack of feature binding, but is sufficiently rich to explain performance in such complex tasks as recognizing the gist of a scene, noticing popout targets, and navigating. These results are consistent with the notion that (largely non-volitional) shifts of the point of gaze may bear the primary responsibility for determining the information available to the visual system. The available information, in turn, provides a key determinant of the visual systems capabilities and deficiencies. This scheme dissociates basic perceptual operations, such as feature binding, from both top-down attention and conscious awareness. (shrink)
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  46. Kent W. Staley (1996). Novelty, Severity, and History in the Testing of Hypotheses: The Case of the Top Quark. Philosophy of Science 63 (3):255.score: 18.0
    It is sometimes held that facts confirm a hypothesis only if they were not used in the construction of that hypothesis. This requirement of "use novelty" introduces (...)
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  47. Kenneth N. Stevens (2000). Recognition of Continuous Speech Requires Top-Down Processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (3):348-348.score: 18.0
    The proposition that feedback is never necessary in speech recognition is examined for utterances consisting of sequences of words. In running speech the features near word boundaries (...)
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  48. Edward Awh, Artem V. Belopolsky & Jan Theeuwes (2012). Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Attentional Control: a Failed Theoretical Dichotomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (8):437.score: 18.0
    Prominent models of attentional control assert a dichotomy between top-down and bottom-up control, with the former determined by current selection goals and the latter determined by (...) physical salience. This theoretical dichotomy, however, fails to explain a growing number of cases in which neither current goals nor physical salience can account for strong selection biases. For example, equally salient stimuli associated with reward can capture attention, even when this contradicts current selection goals. Thus, although 'top-down' sources of bias are sometimes defined as those that are not due to physical salience, this conception conflates distinct - and sometimes contradictory - sources of selection bias. We describe an alternative framework, in which past selection history is integrated with current goals and physical salience to shape an integrated priority map. (shrink)
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  49. Gerald E. Fryxell & Linda D. Lerner (1989). Contrasting Corporate Profiles: Women and Minority Representation in Top Management Positions. Journal of Business Ethics 8 (5):341 - 352.score: 18.0
    This paper investigates the characteristics of firms which have underrepresented groups in top management positions and those which do not. It is argued that profiles of these (...)
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  50. Raul Gouvea, Jonathan D. Linton, Manuel Montoya & Steven T. Walsh (2012). Emerging Technologies and Ethics: A Race-to-the-Bottom or the Top? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 109 (4):553-567.score: 18.0
    Does national success with an emerging technology require ethical sacrifices? This question is considered through the simultaneous consideration of ethics, investment, and outcomes in the nine jurisdictions (...)
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