Search results for 'descriptive' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  36
    Russell T. Hurlburt & Sarah A. Akhter (2006). The Descriptive Experience Sampling Method. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5 (3-4):271-301.
    Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) is a method for exploring inner experience. DES subjects carry a random beeper in natural environments; when the beep sounds, they capture their inner experience, jot down notes about it, and report it to an investigator in a subsequent expositional interview. DES is a fundamentally idiographic method, describing faithfully the pristine inner experiences of persons. Subsequently, DES can be used in a nomothetic way to describe the characteristics of groups of people who share some common (...)
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  2. Terence Rajivan Edward (2012). Descriptive Metaphysics, Revisionary Metaphysics, Anti-Metaphysics. Ethos: Felsefe ve Toplumsal Bilimlerde Diyaloglar 5 (2):36-43.
    This paper observes that P. F. Strawson’s distinction between descriptive and revisionary metaphysics is a baffling one from the perspective of traditional metaphysics. If one thinks of metaphysics as the study of the fundamental nature of reality, it is bewildering to divide up metaphysics in this way. The paper then tries to show how the distinction is no longer bewildering if we deny that such study is possible.
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  3.  97
    Bart Streumer (2011). Are Normative Properties Descriptive Properties? Philosophical Studies 154 (3):325 - 348.
    Some philosophers think that normative properties are identical to descriptive properties. In this paper, I argue that this entails that it is possible to say which descriptive properties normative properties are identical to. I argue that Frank Jackson's argument to show that this is possible fails, and that the objections to this argument show that it is impossible to say which descriptive properties normative properties are identical to. I conclude that normative properties are not identical to (...) properties. I then show that if we combine this conclusion with the conclusion of a different argument that Jackson has given to show that there are no irreducibly normative properties, it follows that there are no normative properties at all. (shrink)
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  4. Heidi Savage, Descriptive Names and Shifty Characters: A Context-Sensitive Account.
    Standard rigid designator accounts of a name’s meaning have trouble accommodating what I will call a descriptive name’s “shifty” character -- its tendency to shift its referent over time in response to a discovery that the conventional referent of that name does not satisfy the description with which that name was introduced. I offer a variant of Kripke’s historical semantic theory of how names function, a variant that can accommodate the character of descriptive names while maintaining rigidity for (...)
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  5.  24
    Grigor Sargsyan (2013). Descriptive Inner Model Theory. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 19 (1):1-55.
    The purpose of this paper is to outline some recent progress in descriptive inner model theory, a branch of set theory which studies descriptive set theoretic and inner model theoretic objects using tools from both areas. There are several interlaced problems that lie on the border of these two areas of set theory, but one that has been rather central for almost two decades is the conjecture known as the Mouse Set Conjecture. One particular motivation for resolving MSC (...)
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  6. Edward Kanterian (2009). Puzzles About Descriptive Names. Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (4):409-428.
    This article explores Gareth Evans’s idea that there are such things as descriptive names, i.e. referring expressions introduced by a definite description which have, unlike ordinary names, a descriptive content. Several ignored semantic and modal aspects of this idea are spelled out, including a hitherto little explored notion of rigidity, super-rigidity. The claim that descriptive names are (rigidified) descriptions, or abbreviations thereof, is rejected. It is then shown that Evans’s theory leads to certain puzzles concerning the referential (...)
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  7.  24
    Benjamin D. Miller (2012). The Graph-Theoretic Approach to Descriptive Set Theory. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (4):554-575.
    We sketch the ideas behind the use of chromatic numbers in establishing descriptive set-theoretic dichotomy theorems.
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  8.  68
    Derek A. McDougall (1973). "Descriptive" and "Revisionary" Metaphysics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 34 (2):209-223.
    A discussion of the concept of Descriptive v Revisionary Metaphysics as it applies to the work of P.F. Strawson amongst others.
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  9.  10
    Katarzyna Kijania-Placek (forthcoming). Descriptive Indexicals and Epistemic Modality. Topoi:1-10.
    In this paper I argue for a non-referential interpretation of some uses of indexicals embedded under epistemic modals. The so-called descriptive uses of indexicals come in several types and it is argued that those embedded within the scope of modal operators do not require non-referential interpretation, provided the modality is interpreted as epistemic. I endeavor to show that even if we allow an epistemic interpretation of modalities, the resulting interpretation will still be inadequate as long as we retain a (...)
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  10. G. E. Berrios (1996). The History of Mental Symptoms: Descriptive Psychopathology Since the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press.
    Since psychiatry remains a descriptive discipline, it is essential for its practitioners to understand how the language of psychiatry came to be formed. This important book, written by a psychiatrist-historian, traces the genesis of the descriptive categories of psychopathology and examines their interaction with the psychological and philosophical context within which they arose. The author explores particularly the language and ideas that have characterised descriptive psychopathology from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day. He presents a masterful (...)
     
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  11.  37
    Mark T. Nelson (2005). Telling It Like It Is: Philosophy as Descriptive Manifestation. American Philosophical Quarterly 42 (3):2005.
    What do Ross’s The Right and the Good; Chisholm’s Theory of Knowledge; Kripke’s Naming and Necessity; and Audi’s The Architecture of Reason have in common? They all advance important philosophical positions, but not so much via analytic arguments as via formal schemas, distinctions, examples, and analogies. They use such formal schemas, etc, to describe the world so as to make some aspect of it manifest. That is, they simply try to ‘tell it like it is’. This ‘method of descriptive (...)
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  12.  13
    Ryan Muldoon, Chiara Lisciandra & Stephan Hartmann (2014). Why Are There Descriptive Norms? Because We Looked for Them. Synthese 191 (18):4409-4429.
    In this work, we present a mathematical model for the emergence of descriptive norms, where the individual decision problem is formalized with the standard Bayesian belief revision machinery. Previous work on the emergence of descriptive norms has relied on heuristic modeling. In this paper we show that with a Bayesian model we can provide a more general picture of the emergence of norms, which helps to motivate the assumptions made in heuristic models. In our model, the priors formalize (...)
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  13.  48
    Agustin Arrieta Urtizberea (2005). 'Neptune' Between 'Hesperus' and 'Vulcan': On Descriptive Names and Non-Existence. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 20 (3):48-58.
    This work will focus on some aspects of descriptive names. The New Theory of Reference, in line with Kripke, takes descriptive names to be proper names. I will argue in this paper that descriptive names and certain theory in reference to them, even when it disagrees with the New Theory of Reference, can shed light on our understanding of (some) non-existence statements. I define the concept of descriptive name for hypothesised object (DNHO). My thesis being that (...)
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  14.  24
    Matthew Cashen (2012). Happiness,Eudaimonia, and The Principle of Descriptive Adequacy. Metaphilosophy 43 (5):619-635.
    Historically, philosophers have identified happiness with, among other things, pleasure, contentment, desire satisfaction, and, if we count the Greek eudaimonia as happiness, the life of virtue. When faced with competing theories of happiness, we need a way to decide which theory is more accurate. According to Larry Wayne Sumner's principle of descriptive adequacy, the best theory of happiness is the theory that best describes our ordinary, pretheoretical beliefs and intuitions. The chief aim of this article is to show that (...)
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  15.  10
    Denis Fisette (2010). Descriptive Psychology and Natural Sciences: Husserl’s Early Criticism of Brentano. In Carlo Ierna, Hanne Jacobs & Filip Mattens (eds.), Philosophy, Phenomenology, Sciences. Springer 221-253.
    In defining his phenomenology as descriptive psychology in the introduction to the first edition of his Logical Investigations 1, Husserl suggests that the field study of his phenomenology as his methodology are very close to that of Brentano’s psychology, and that the research in the book somehow contributes to Brentano’s philosophical program, one of whose main axes is psychology or philosophy of mind.
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  16.  22
    Harry L. Moore (2008). Diversity in Society: Normative and Descriptive Considerations. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (3):464-476.
    Diversity in society can be viewed from two perspectives, normative and descriptive, both of which define how we think, discuss, and live. Normatively we are called to be responsible. This notion ideally depicts the vision of people of various backgrounds and beliefs living with an attitude of tolerance, respect, and the desire for justice. Descriptively, it is to recognize that people of diverse ethnic, social, economic, and philosophical backgrounds come together to live in various geographic locations, often resulting in (...)
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  17.  16
    Étienne Matheron & Miroslav Zelený (2007). Descriptive Set Theory of Families of Small Sets. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 13 (4):482-537.
    This is a survey paper on the descriptive set theory of hereditary families of closed sets in Polish spaces. Most of the paper is devoted to ideals and σ-ideals of closed or compact sets.
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  18.  15
    Tore Langholm (2006). A Descriptive Characterisation of Linear Languages. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (3):233-250.
    Lautemann et al. (1995) gave a descriptive characterisation of the class of context-free languages, showing that a language is context-free iff it is definable as the set of words satisfying some sentence of a particular logic (fragment) over words. The present notes discuss how to specialise this result to the class of linear languages. Somewhat surprisingly, what would seem the most straightforward specialisation actually fails, due to the fact that linear grammars fail to admit a Greibach normal form. We (...)
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  19.  5
    S. Eng (1999). Criteria That Are Used in the Setting Up of and Choice Between Descriptive Characterisations. Law and Philosophy 18 (5):475-495.
    This paper investigates the actual use of truth as a criterion in the setting up of and choice between descriptive characterisations. The consideration for truth is often weighed against other considerations. This weighing character is illuminated through examples from everyday life, politics, law, and science. In everyday life the weighing character shows itself inter alia through the categories of `white lies' and `great questions', and in politics, inter alia through the categories of `personal character' versus `the party'. In law (...)
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  20. P. F. Strawson (1959). Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics. Routledge.
    The classic, influential essay in 'descriptive metaphysics' by the distinguished English philosopher.
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  21. Wilhelm Dilthey (1977). Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. Nijhoff.
  22.  3
    James Shanteau (1972). Descriptive Versus Normative Models of Sequential Inference Judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (1):63.
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  23.  2
    J. Jepson Wulff & Lawrence M. Stolurow (1957). The Role of Class-Descriptive Cues in Paired-Associates Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (3):199.
  24. Natalie Depraz (2013). D'une science descriptive de l'expérience en première personne: pour une phénoménologie expérientielle. Studia Phaenomenologica 13 (1):387-402.
    I would like to propose an interpretation of Ricœur’s first phenomenological works in the light of what I call an “experiential phenomenology”, by answeringthree important questions. The first is a factual and historical interrogation: why has Ricœur abandoned his project of a descriptive phenomenology after publishing his first volume of the The Voluntary and the Involuntary and why did he afterwards direct his philosophical research towards the problem of interpretation? The second interrogation is an epistemological and a methodological one: (...)
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  25.  91
    Hans Johann Glock, Strawson's Descriptive Metaphysics.
    Strawson's descriptive metaphysics was the first explicit and elaborate rehabilitation of metaphysics within the analytic tradition. This chapter discusses Strawson's contributions to metaphysics with a particular view to his conception of the nature of metaphysics-cum-ontology. This chapter first dwells on the background of Strawson's metaphysics. Next it introduces Strawson's idea of descriptive metaphysics and of connective analysis. Sections 3–8 discuss Strawson's main claims: self-conscious experience presupposes a distinction between experience and its mind-independent objects, objective particulars must be situated (...)
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  26. Andrew Boucher, On Descriptive Ethics.
    In its descriptive sense ethical language allows one to make assertions, which like other assertions may be true or not. “One should not torture,” descriptively, makes an assertion about torture - that it is an act that one should not do. While the peculiar force of ethical language comes from its overloading of different types of uses - descriptive, imperative, and emotive -, our concern here will be with the descriptive. Many of our assertions will focus on (...)
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  27.  20
    Christian List, Levels: Descriptive, Explanatory, and Ontological.
    Scientists and philosophers frequently speak about levels of description, levels of explanation, and ontological levels. This paper presents a framework for studying levels. I give a general definition of a system of levels and discuss several applications, some of which refer to descriptive or explanatory levels while others refer to ontological levels. I illustrate the usefulness of this framework by bringing it to bear on some familiar philosophical questions. Is there a hierarchy of levels, with a fundamental level at (...)
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  28. Philip K. Bock (1967). Three Descriptive Models of Social Structure. Philosophy of Science 34 (2):168-174.
    In this article, three descriptive models are described and compared in an attempt to discover the minimum number of concepts and relations necessary to an abstract description of social structure. It is argued that a "situational model" which uses the concepts of social time, social space and social role together with the relations of internal structure and external distribution is both adequate to the task and superior to the two other models. The advantages and implications of the situational model (...)
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  29.  53
    Rachel A. Ankeny (2000). Fashioning Descriptive Models in Biology: Of Worms and Wiring Diagrams. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):272.
    The biological sciences have become increasingly reliant on so-called 'model organisms'. I argue that in this domain, the concept of a descriptive model is essential for understanding scientific practice. Using a case study, I show how such a model was formulated in a preexplanatory context for subsequent use as a prototype from which explanations ultimately may be generated both within the immediate domain of the original model and in additional, related domains. To develop this concept of a descriptive (...)
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  30. Moti Mizrahi (2014). Constructive Empiricism: Normative or Descriptive? International Journal of Philosophical Studies 22 (4):604-616.
    In this paper, I argue that Constructive Empiricism (CE) is ambiguous between two interpretations: CE as a normative epistemology of science and CE as a descriptive philosophy of science. When they present CE, constructive empiricists write as if CE is supposed to be more than a normative epistemology of science and that it is meant to be responsible to actual scientific practices. However, when they respond to objections, constructive empiricists fall back on a strictly normative interpretation of CE. This (...)
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  31.  62
    R. Pedersen, S. A. Hurst, J. Schildmann, S. Schuster & B. Molewijk (2010). The Development of a Descriptive Evaluation Tool for Clinical Ethics Case Consultations. Clinical Ethics 5 (3):136-141.
    There is growing interest in clinical ethics. However, we still have sparse knowledge about what is actually going on in the everyday practice of clinical ethics consultations. This paper introduces a descriptive evaluation tool to present, discuss and compare how clinical ethics case consultations are actually carried out. The tool does not aim to define ‘best practice’. Rather, it facilitates concrete comparisons and evaluative discussions of the role, function, procedures and ideals inherent in clinical ethics case consultation practices. The (...)
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  32. Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (2009). Animation: The Fundamental, Essential, and Properly Descriptive Concept. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 42 (3):375-400.
    As its title indicates, this article shows animation to be the fundamental, essential, and properly descriptive concept to understandings of animate life. A critical and constructive path is taken toward an illumination of these threefold dimensions of animation. The article is critical in its attention to a central linguistic formulation in cognitive neuroscience, namely, enaction ; it is constructive in setting forth an analysis of affectivity as exemplar of a staple of animate life, elucidating its biological and existential foundations (...)
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  33.  16
    Patricia H. Werhane (1994). The Normatice/Descriptive Distinction in Methodologies of Business Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (2):175-180.
    Most papers in this issue carefully analyze normative and empirical methodologies. I shall argue that (a) there is no purely empirical nor purely normative methodology; (b) some terms escape the division of the normative and descriptive. (c) Most importantly, dialogues such as this one point to a form of integration that allows us to reflect on what it is that each approach presupposes in its study of business ethics. Thus we have made progress in recognizing the importance of each (...)
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  34.  26
    Paul Thagard (1982). From the Descriptive to the Normative in Psychology and Logic. Philosophy of Science 49 (1):24-42.
    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for revising logical principles in the light of empirical psychological findings. Historical philosophy of science and wide reflective equilibrium in ethics are considered as providing possible models for arguing from the descriptive to the normative. Neither is adequate for the psychology/logic case, and a new model is constructed, employing criteria for evaluating inferential systems. Once we have such criteria, the notion of reflective equilibrium becomes redundant.
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  35.  20
    Andrei Marmor (2006). Legal Positivism: Still Descriptive and Morally Neutral. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 26 (4):683-704.
    It has become increasingly popular to argue that legal positivism is actually a normative theory, and that it cannot be purely descriptive and morally neutral as H.L.A. Hart has suggested. This article purports to disprove this line of thought. It argues that legal positivism is best understood as a descriptive, morally neutral, theory about the nature of law. The article distinguishes between five possible views about the relations between normative claims and legal positivism, arguing that some of them (...)
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  36.  36
    R. Muldoon, C. Lisciandra, C. Bicchieri, S. Hartmann & J. Sprenger (2014). On the Emergence of Descriptive Norms. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (1):3-22.
    A descriptive norm is a behavioral rule that individuals follow when their empirical expectations of others following the same rule are met. We aim to provide an account of the emergence of descriptive norms by first looking at a simple case, that of the standing ovation. We examine the structure of a standing ovation, and show it can be generalized to describe the emergence of a wide range of descriptive norms.
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  37.  40
    Jeffrey Alan Barrett (2008). Approximate Truth and Descriptive Nesting. Erkenntnis 68 (2):213 - 224.
    There is good reason to suppose that our best physical theories, quantum mechanics and special relativity, are false if taken together and literally. If they are in fact false, then how should they count as providing knowledge of the physical world? One might imagine that, while strictly false, our best physical theories are nevertheless in some sense probably approximately true. This paper presents a notion of local probable approximate truth in terms of descriptive nesting relations between current and subsequent (...)
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  38. Peter Balint (2014). Acts of Tolerance: A Political and Descriptive Account. European Journal of Political Theory 13 (3):264-281.
    Almost all philosophical understandings of tolerance as forbearance require that the reasons for objection and/or the reasons for withholding the power to negatively interfere must be of the morally right kind. In this paper, I instead put forward a descriptive account of an act of tolerance and argue that in the political context, at least, it has several important advantages over the standard more moralised accounts. These advantages include that it better addresses instances of intolerance and that it is (...)
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  39.  43
    Jonathan Y. Tsou (2015). DSM-5 and Psychiatry's Second Revolution: Descriptive Vs. Theoretical Approaches to Psychiatric Classification. In Steeves Demazeux & Patrick Singy (eds.), The DSM-5 in Perspective: Philosophical Reflections on the Psychiatric Babel. Springer 43-62.
    A large part of the controversy surrounding the publication of DSM-5 stems from the possibility of replacing the purely descriptive approach to classification favored by the DSM since 1980. This paper examines the question of how mental disorders should be classified, focusing on the issue of whether the DSM should adopt a purely descriptive or theoretical approach. I argue that the DSM should replace its purely descriptive approach with a theoretical approach that integrates causal information into the (...)
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  40.  38
    Franz Brentano (1982/1995). Descriptive Psychology. Routledge.
    Franz Brentano (1838-1917) is a key figure in the development of Twentieth Century thought. It was his work that set Husserl on to the road of phenomenology and intentionality, that inspired Meinong's theory of the object which influenced Bertrand Russell, and the entire Polish school of philosophy. ^Descriptive Psychology presents a series of lectures given by Brentano in 1887; they were the culmination of his work, and the clearest statement of his mature thought. It was this later period which (...)
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  41.  7
    David Wornham (2003). A Descriptive Investigation of Morality and Victimisation at Work. Journal of Business Ethics 45 (1-2):29 - 40.
    This paper attempts to define the moral terrain attached to bullying, or work victimisation. Existing research on this problem tends to focus on the phenomenon as a personnel or organisational issue. Bullying is fairly endemic and harmful but not accorded the same priority as other forms of harassment and there is little protection in law. Much research has concentrated on the nature and extent of bullying and impact on its victims. The education sector in the United Kingdom provides fertile ground (...)
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  42.  57
    Sherri C. Widen & James A. Russell (2010). Descriptive and Prescriptive Definitions of Emotion. Emotion Review 2 (4):377-378.
    Izard (2010) did not seek a descriptive definition of emotion—one that describes the concept as it is used by ordinary folk. Instead, he surveyed scientists’ prescriptive definitions—ones that prescribe how the concept should be used in theories of emotion. That survey showed a lack of agreement today and thus raised doubts about emotion as a useful scientific concept.
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  43.  16
    Kelly C. Strong & G. Dale Meyer (1992). An Integrative Descriptive Model of Ethical Decision Making. Journal of Business Ethics 11 (2):89 - 94.
    This paper presents an integrative, descriptive model of ethical decision making, with special attention given to issues of measurement. After building the model, hypotheses are developed from a portion of it. These hypotheses are tested in an exploratory analysis to determine if further research and testing of this model and the measurement instruments it employs are warranted.
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  44.  50
    Nicolas Delon (2013). Pour une éthique animale descriptive. Klesis 27:118-154.
    This article outlines a “descriptive animal ethics” based on the study of people’s intuitions about particular cases, in order to determine which moral theories best comport with those intuitions. I suggest that the latter need not be unreliable since they may be endorsed as considered judgments, and that even if they were, knowing them would still provide relevant information for a complete moral theory concerned with what moral agents can do. I describe a survey in descriptive ethics, discuss (...)
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  45.  65
    Gualtiero Piccinini (2011). Scientific Methods Must Be Public, and Descriptive Experience Sampling Qualifies. Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (1):102-117.
    I defend three main conclusions. First, whether a method is public is important, because non-public methods are scientifically illegitimate. Second, there are substantive prescriptive differences between the view that private methods are legitimate and the view that private methods are illegitimate. Third, Descriptive Experience Sam-pling is a public method.
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  46.  67
    Michael R. Waldmann (2011). Neurath's Ship: The Constitutive Relation Between Normative and Descriptive Theories of Rationality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):273-274.
    I defend the claim that in psychological theories concerned with theoretical or practical rationality there is a constitutive relation between normative and descriptive theories: Normative theories provide idealized descriptive accounts of rational agents. However, we need to resist the temptation to collapse descriptive theories with any specific normative theory. I show how a partial separation is possible.
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  47.  11
    B. E. Gibson, E. Stasiulis, S. Gutfreund, M. McDonald & L. Dade (2011). Assessment of Children's Capacity to Consent for Research: A Descriptive Qualitative Study of Researchers' Practices. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (8):504-509.
    Background In Canadian jurisdictions without specific legislation pertaining to research consent, the onus is placed on researchers to determine whether a child is capable of independently consenting to participate in a research study. Little, however, is known about how child health researchers are approaching consent and capacity assessment in practice. The aim of this study was to explore and describe researchers' current practices. Methods The study used a qualitative descriptive design consisting of 14 face-to-face interviews with child health researchers (...)
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  48.  15
    Annika Wallin, A Peace Treaty for the Rationality Wars? External Validity and its Relation to Normative and Descriptive Theories of Rationality.
    If we know that certain ways of making decisions are associated with real-life success, is this then how we should decide? In this paper the relationship between normative and descriptive theories of decision-making is examined. First, it is shown that the history of the decision sciences ensures that it is impossible to separate descriptive theories from normative ones. Second, recent psychological research implies new ways of arguing from the descriptive to the normative. The paper ends with an (...)
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  49.  11
    Jie W. Weiss, David J. Weiss & Ward Edwards (2010). A Descriptive Multi-Attribute Utility Model for Everyday Decisions. Theory and Decision 68 (1-2):101-114.
    We propose a descriptive version of the classical multi-attribute utility model; to that end, we add a new parameter, momentary salience, to the customary formulation. The addition of this parameter allows the theory to accommodate changes in the decision maker’s mood and circumstances, as the saliencies of anticipated consequences are driven by concerns of the moment. By allowing for the number of consequences given attention at the moment of decision to vary, the new model mutes the criticism that SEU (...)
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  50.  12
    ByBrad Majors (2005). Moral Discourse and Descriptive Properties. Philosophical Quarterly 55 (220):475–494.
    I discuss a strategy for grounding ethical naturalism propounded by Frank Jackson and more recently by Allan Gibbard: that the undisputed supervenience of the moral upon the natural (or descriptive) entails that moral properties are natural (or descriptive) properties. I show that this strategy falls foul of certain indubitable constraints governing natural kinds; and I then rebut some objections. The upshot is that no viable strategy for supporting ethical naturalism is to be found along these lines. This result (...)
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