Search results for 'descriptive' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Heidi Savage, Descriptive Names and Shifty Characters: A Context-Sensitive Account.score: 24.0
    Standard rigid designator accounts of a name’s meaning have trouble accommodating what I will call a descriptive name’s “shifty” character -- its tendency to shift its referent over time in response to a discovery that the conventional referent of that name does not satisfy the description with which that name was introduced. I offer a variant of Kripke’s historical semantic theory of how names function, a variant that can accommodate the character of descriptive names while maintaining rigidity for (...)
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  2. Terence Rajivan Edward (2012). Descriptive Metaphysics, Revisionary Metaphysics, Anti-Metaphysics. Ethos 5 (2):36-43.score: 24.0
    This paper observes that P. F. Strawson’s distinction between descriptive and revisionary metaphysics is a baffling one from the perspective of traditional metaphysics. If one thinks of metaphysics as the study of the fundamental nature of reality, it is bewildering to divide up metaphysics in this way. The paper then tries to show how the distinction is no longer bewildering if we deny that such study is possible.
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  3. Edward Kanterian (2009). Puzzles About Descriptive Names. Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (4):409-428.score: 24.0
    This article explores Gareth Evans’s idea that there are such things as descriptive names, i.e. referring expressions introduced by a definite description which have, unlike ordinary names, a descriptive content. Several ignored semantic and modal aspects of this idea are spelled out, including a hitherto little explored notion of rigidity, super-rigidity. The claim that descriptive names are (rigidified) descriptions, or abbreviations thereof, is rejected. It is then shown that Evans’s theory leads to certain puzzles concerning the referential (...)
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  4. Bart Streumer (2011). Are Normative Properties Descriptive Properties? Philosophical Studies 154 (3):325 - 348.score: 24.0
    Some philosophers think that normative properties are identical to descriptive properties. In this paper, I argue that this entails that it is possible to say which descriptive properties normative properties are identical to. I argue that Frank Jackson's argument to show that this is possible fails, and that the objections to this argument show that it is impossible to say which descriptive properties normative properties are identical to. I conclude that normative properties are not identical to (...) properties. I then show that if we combine this conclusion with the conclusion of a different argument that Jackson has given to show that there are no irreducibly normative properties, it follows that there are no normative properties at all. (shrink)
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  5. Derek A. McDougall (1973). &Quot;Descriptive" and "Revisionary" Metaphysics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 34 (2):209-223.score: 24.0
    A discussion of the concept of Descriptive v Revisionary Metaphysics as it applies to the work of P.F. Strawson amongst others.
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  6. Agustin Arrieta Urtizberea (2005). 'Neptune' Between 'Hesperus' and 'Vulcan': On Descriptive Names and Non-Existence. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 20 (3):48-58.score: 24.0
    This work will focus on some aspects of descriptive names. The New Theory of Reference, in line with Kripke, takes descriptive names to be proper names. I will argue in this paper that descriptive names and certain theory in reference to them, even when it disagrees with the New Theory of Reference, can shed light on our understanding of (some) non-existence statements. I define the concept of descriptive name for hypothesised object (DNHO). My thesis being that (...)
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  7. Russell T. Hurlburt & Sarah A. Akhter (2006). The Descriptive Experience Sampling Method. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5 (3-4):271-301.score: 24.0
    Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) is a method for exploring inner experience. DES subjects carry a random beeper in natural environments; when the beep sounds, they capture their inner experience, jot down notes about it, and report it to an investigator in a subsequent expositional interview. DES is a fundamentally idiographic method, describing faithfully the pristine inner experiences of persons. Subsequently, DES can be used in a nomothetic way to describe the characteristics of groups of people who share some common (...)
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  8. Benjamin D. Miller (2012). The Graph-Theoretic Approach to Descriptive Set Theory. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (4):554-575.score: 24.0
    We sketch the ideas behind the use of chromatic numbers in establishing descriptive set-theoretic dichotomy theorems.
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  9. Mark T. Nelson (2005). Telling It Like It Is: Philosophy as Descriptive Manifestation. American Philosophical Quarterly 42 (3):2005.score: 24.0
    What do Ross’s The Right and the Good; Chisholm’s Theory of Knowledge; Kripke’s Naming and Necessity; and Audi’s The Architecture of Reason have in common? They all advance important philosophical positions, but not so much via analytic arguments as via formal schemas, distinctions, examples, and analogies. They use such formal schemas, etc, to describe the world so as to make some aspect of it manifest. That is, they simply try to ‘tell it like it is’. This ‘method of descriptive (...)
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  10. Étienne Matheron & Miroslav Zelený (2007). Descriptive Set Theory of Families of Small Sets. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 13 (4):482-537.score: 24.0
    This is a survey paper on the descriptive set theory of hereditary families of closed sets in Polish spaces. Most of the paper is devoted to ideals and σ-ideals of closed or compact sets.
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  11. Harry L. Moore (2008). Diversity in Society: Normative and Descriptive Considerations. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (3):464-476.score: 24.0
    Diversity in society can be viewed from two perspectives, normative and descriptive, both of which define how we think, discuss, and live. Normatively we are called to be responsible. This notion ideally depicts the vision of people of various backgrounds and beliefs living with an attitude of tolerance, respect, and the desire for justice. Descriptively, it is to recognize that people of diverse ethnic, social, economic, and philosophical backgrounds come together to live in various geographic locations, often resulting in (...)
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  12. Tore Langholm (2006). A Descriptive Characterisation of Linear Languages. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (3):233-250.score: 24.0
    Lautemann et al. (1995) gave a descriptive characterisation of the class of context-free languages, showing that a language is context-free iff it is definable as the set of words satisfying some sentence of a particular logic (fragment) over words. The present notes discuss how to specialise this result to the class of linear languages. Somewhat surprisingly, what would seem the most straightforward specialisation actually fails, due to the fact that linear grammars fail to admit a Greibach normal form. We (...)
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  13. Grigor Sargsyan (2013). Descriptive Inner Model Theory. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 19 (1):1-55.score: 24.0
    The purpose of this paper is to outline some recent progress in descriptive inner model theory, a branch of set theory which studies descriptive set theoretic and inner model theoretic objects using tools from both areas. There are several interlaced problems that lie on the border of these two areas of set theory, but one that has been rather central for almost two decades is the conjecture known as the Mouse Set Conjecture (MSC). One particular motivation for resolving (...)
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  14. Denis Fisette (2010). Descriptive Psychology and Natural Sciences: Husserl’s Early Criticism of Brentano. In C. Iena (ed.), Edmund Husserl 150 Years: Philosophy, Phenomenology, Sciences. Springer. 221--253.score: 24.0
    In defining his phenomenology as descriptive psychology in the introduction to the first edition of his Logical Investigations 1, Husserl suggests that the field study of his phenomenology as his methodology are very close to that of Brentano’s psychology, and that the research in the book somehow contributes to Brentano’s philosophical program, one of whose main axes is psychology or philosophy of mind.
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  15. S. Eng (1999). Criteria That Are Used in the Setting Up of and Choice Between Descriptive Characterisations. Law and Philosophy 18 (5):475-495.score: 24.0
    This paper investigates the actual use of truth as a criterion in the setting up of and choice between descriptive characterisations. The consideration for truth is often weighed against other considerations. This weighing character is illuminated through examples from everyday life, politics, law, and science. In everyday life the weighing character shows itself inter alia through the categories of `white lies' and `great questions', and in politics, inter alia through the categories of `personal character' versus `the party'. In law (...)
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  16. David Trafimow (2013). Descriptive Vs. Inferential Cheating. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
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  17. G. E. Berrios (1996). The History of Mental Symptoms: Descriptive Psychopathology Since the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    Since psychiatry remains a descriptive discipline, it is essential for its practitioners to understand how the language of psychiatry came to be formed. This important book, written by a psychiatrist-historian, traces the genesis of the descriptive categories of psychopathology and examines their interaction with the psychological and philosophical context within which they arose. The author explores particularly the language and ideas that have characterised descriptive psychopathology from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day. He presents a masterful (...)
     
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  18. Matthew Cashen (2012). Happiness,Eudaimonia, and The Principle of Descriptive Adequacy. Metaphilosophy 43 (5):619-635.score: 21.0
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  19. James Shanteau (1972). Descriptive Versus Normative Models of Sequential Inference Judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (1):63.score: 21.0
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  20. Wilhelm Dilthey (1977). Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. Nijhoff.score: 21.0
  21. J. Jepson Wulff & Lawrence M. Stolurow (1957). The Role of Class-Descriptive Cues in Paired-Associates Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (3):199.score: 21.0
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  22. Agnes Verbiest (1989). Confrontation in Conversations: The Adjacency Pair as a Tool of the Descriptive Component of a Pragma-Dialectical Analysis. [REVIEW] Argumentation 3 (4):395-400.score: 20.0
    Within the Pragma-Dialectical School of argumentation theory both a normative and a descriptive component are essential in order to account for a reconstruction of argumentative language use. This paper concentrates on the descriptive component and discusses the choice of the adjacency pair as a tool for the systematic description of the confrontation stage of argumentative conversations. First a structural description of confrontation in conversation is developed from the discourse analytical approach to argumentation of Jackson and Jacobs, within the (...)
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  23. Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (2009). Animation: The Fundamental, Essential, and Properly Descriptive Concept. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 42 (3):375-400.score: 18.0
    As its title indicates, this article shows animation to be the fundamental, essential, and properly descriptive concept to understandings of animate life. A critical and constructive path is taken toward an illumination of these threefold dimensions of animation. The article is critical in its attention to a central linguistic formulation in cognitive neuroscience, namely, enaction ; it is constructive in setting forth an analysis of affectivity as exemplar of a staple of animate life, elucidating its biological and existential foundations (...)
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  24. P. F. Strawson (1959/1963). Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics. Routledge.score: 18.0
    The classic, influential essay in 'descriptive metaphysics' by the distinguished English philosopher.
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  25. Michael D. Resnik (1985). Logic: Normative or Descriptive? The Ethics of Belief or a Branch of Psychology? Philosophy of Science 52 (2):221-238.score: 18.0
    By a logical theory I mean a formal system together with its semantics, meta-theory, and rules for translating ordinary language into its notation. Logical theories can be used descriptively (for example, to represent particular arguments or to depict the logical form of certain sentences). Here the logician uses the usual methods of empirical science to assess the correctness of his descriptions. However, the most important applications of logical theories are normative, and here, I argue, the epistemology is that of wide (...)
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  26. Moti Mizrahi (forthcoming). Constructive Empiricism: Normative or Descriptive? International Journal of Philosophical Studies:1-13.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I argue that Constructive Empiricism (CE) is ambiguous between two interpretations: CE as a normative epistemology of science and CE as a descriptive philosophy of science. When they present CE, constructive empiricists write as if CE is supposed to be more than a normative epistemology of science and that it is meant to be responsible to actual scientific practices. However, when they respond to objections, constructive empiricists fall back on a strictly normative interpretation of CE. This (...)
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  27. Nigel Pleasants (2000). Winch and Wittgenstein on Understanding Ourselves Critically: Descriptive Not Metaphysical. Inquiry 43 (3):289 – 317.score: 18.0
    This paper presents an 'internal' criticism of Winch's seminal 'Understanding a Primitive Society'. It distinguishes between two contrasting approaches to critical social understanding: (1) the metaphysical approach, central to the whole tradition of critical philosophy and critical social theory from Kant, through Marx to the Frankfurt School and contemporary theorists such as Habermas and Searle; (2) the descriptive approach, advocated by Winch, and which derives from Wittgenstein's critique of philosophical theory. It is argued, against a long tradition of 'critical (...)
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  28. Jeff Wisdom (2009). A Defense of Descriptive Moral Content. Southern Journal of Philosophy 47 (3):285-300.score: 18.0
    Terry Horgan and Mark Timmons have recently provided an updated presentation and defense of a metaethical view that they call cognitivist expressivism. Expressivists claim that moral judgments express propositional attitudes that do not represent or describe the external world. Horgan and Timmons agree with this claim, but they also deny the traditional expressivist claim that moral judgments do not express beliefs. On their view, moral judgments are genuine, truth-apt beliefs, thus making their form of expressivism a cognitivist one. In this (...)
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  29. Manuel Garcı´A.-Carpintero, Foundational Semantics I: Descriptive Accounts.score: 18.0
    Descriptive semantic theories purport to characterize the meanings of the expressions of languages in whatever complexity they might have. Foundational semantics purports to identify the kind of considerations relevant to establish that a given descriptive semantics accurately characterizes the language used by a given individual or community. Foundational Semantics I presents three contrasting approaches to the foundational matters, and the main considerations relevant to appraise their merits. These approaches contend that we should look at the contents of speakers’ (...)
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  30. Gualtiero Piccinini (forthcoming). Scientific Methods Ought to Be Public, and Descriptive Experience Sampling is One of Them. Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (1).score: 18.0
    Hurlburt and Schwitzgebel’s groundbreaking book, Describing Inner Experience: Proponent Meets Skeptic, examines a research method called Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES). DES, which was developed by Hurlburt and collaborators, works roughly as follows. An investigator gives a subject a random beeper. During the day, as the subject hears a beep, she writes a description of her conscious experience just before the beep. The next day, the investigator interviews the subject, asks for more details, corrects any apparent mistakes made by the (...)
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  31. Rachel A. Ankeny (2000). Fashioning Descriptive Models in Biology: Of Worms and Wiring Diagrams. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):272.score: 18.0
    The biological sciences have become increasingly reliant on so-called 'model organisms'. I argue that in this domain, the concept of a descriptive model is essential for understanding scientific practice. Using a case study, I show how such a model was formulated in a preexplanatory context for subsequent use as a prototype from which explanations ultimately may be generated both within the immediate domain of the original model and in additional, related domains. To develop this concept of a descriptive (...)
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  32. Andrew Boucher, On Descriptive Ethics.score: 18.0
    In its descriptive sense ethical language allows one to make assertions, which like other assertions may be true or not. “One should not torture,” descriptively, makes an assertion about torture - that it is an act that one should not do. While the peculiar force of ethical language comes from its overloading of different types of uses - descriptive, imperative, and emotive -, our concern here will be with the descriptive. Many of our assertions will focus on (...)
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  33. J. Z. Sadler (1997). Recognizing Values: A Descriptive-Causal Method for Medical/Scientific Discourses. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 22 (6):541-565.score: 18.0
    While much discussion in bioethics, philosophy of science, and philosophy of medicine concerns the proper handling and uses of value considerations, there has been little discussion about how to identify or recognize values in medical/scientific discourse. This article presents a heuristic method for identifying values in such discourses. Values are defined as descriptions or conditions that guide human action and are praise- or blameworthy. Values manifest themselves in discourses in one or more of three dimensions: linguistic, causal, and descriptive; (...)
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  34. Henry Jackman, Descriptive Atomism and Foundational Holism: Semantics Between the Old Testament and the New.score: 18.0
    While holism and atomism are often treated as mutually exclusive approaches to semantic theory, the apparent tension between the two usually results from running together distinct levels of semantic explanation. In particular, there is no reason why one can’t combine an atomistic conception of what the semantic values of our words are (one’s “descriptive semantics”), with a holistic explanation of why they have those values (one’s “foundational semantics”). Most objections to holism can be shown to apply only to holistic (...)
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  35. Jeffrey Alan Barrett (2008). Approximate Truth and Descriptive Nesting. Erkenntnis 68 (2):213 - 224.score: 18.0
    There is good reason to suppose that our best physical theories, quantum mechanics and special relativity, are false if taken together and literally. If they are in fact false, then how should they count as providing knowledge of the physical world? One might imagine that, while strictly false, our best physical theories are nevertheless in some sense probably approximately true. This paper presents a notion of local probable approximate truth in terms of descriptive nesting relations between current and subsequent (...)
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  36. Paul Thagard (1982). From the Descriptive to the Normative in Psychology and Logic. Philosophy of Science 49 (1):24-42.score: 18.0
    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for revising logical principles in the light of empirical psychological findings. Historical philosophy of science and wide reflective equilibrium in ethics are considered as providing possible models for arguing from the descriptive to the normative. Neither is adequate for the psychology/logic case, and a new model is constructed, employing criteria for evaluating inferential systems. Once we have such criteria, the notion of reflective equilibrium becomes redundant.
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  37. Peter Balint (2014). Acts of Tolerance: A Political and Descriptive Account. European Journal of Political Theory 13 (3):264-281.score: 18.0
    Almost all philosophical understandings of tolerance as forbearance require that the reasons for objection and/or the reasons for withholding the power to negatively interfere must be of the morally right kind. In this paper, I instead put forward a descriptive account of an act of tolerance and argue that in the political context, at least, it has several important advantages over the standard more moralised accounts. These advantages include that it better addresses instances of intolerance and that it is (...)
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  38. W. W. Norton, On the Emergence of Descriptive Norms.score: 18.0
    A descriptive norm is a behavioral rule that individuals follow when their empirical expectations of others following the same rule are met. We aim to provide an account of the emergence of descriptive norms by first looking at a simple case, that of the standing ovation. We examine the structure of a standing ovation, and show it can be generalized to describe the emergence of a wide range of descriptive norms.
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  39. Jonathan Y. Tsou (forthcoming). DSM-5 and Psychiatry's Second Revolution: Descriptive Vs. Theoretical Approaches to Psychiatric Classification. In Steeves Demazeux & Patrick Singy (eds.), The DSM-5 in Perspective: Philosophical Reflections on the Psychiatric Babel. Springer.score: 18.0
    A large part of the controversy surrounding the publication of DSM-5 stems from the possibility of replacing the purely descriptive approach to classification favored by the DSM since 1980. This paper examines the question of how mental disorders should be classified, focusing on the issue of whether the DSM should adopt a purely descriptive or theoretical approach. I argue that the DSM should replace its purely descriptive approach with a theoretical approach that integrates causal information into the (...)
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  40. Ryan Muldoon, Chiara Lisciandra, Cristina Bicchieri, Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (2013). On the Emergence of Descriptive Norms. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (1):1470594-12447791.score: 18.0
    A descriptive norm is a behavioral rule that individuals follow when their empirical expectations of others following the same rule are met. We aim to provide an account of the emergence of descriptive norms by first looking at a simple case, that of the standing ovation. We examine the structure of a standing ovation, and show it can be generalized to describe the emergence of a wide range of descriptive norms.
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  41. Samuel Ruhmkorff (2007). The Descriptive Criterion and Models of God-Modeling: Response to Hustwit's “Can Models of God Compete?”. Philosophia 35 (3-4):441-444.score: 18.0
    In “Can Models of God Compete?”, J. R. Hustwit engages with fundamental questions regarding the epistemological foundations of modeling God. He argues that the approach of fallibilism best captures the criteria he employs to choose among different “models of God-modeling,” including one criterion that I call the Descriptive Criterion. I argue that Hustwit’s case for fallibilism should include both a stronger defense for the Descriptive Criterion and an explanation of the reasons that fallibilism does not run awry of (...)
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  42. ByBrad Majors (2005). Moral Discourse and Descriptive Properties. Philosophical Quarterly 55 (220):475–494.score: 18.0
    I discuss a strategy for grounding ethical naturalism propounded by Frank Jackson and more recently by Allan Gibbard: that the undisputed supervenience of the moral upon the natural (or descriptive) entails that moral properties are natural (or descriptive) properties. I show that this strategy falls foul of certain indubitable constraints governing natural kinds; and I then rebut some objections. The upshot is that no viable strategy for supporting ethical naturalism is to be found along these lines. This result (...)
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  43. John Sutton (2011). Time, Experience, and Descriptive Experience Sampling. Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (1):118 - 129.score: 18.0
    This rich book, the best I’ve read in consciousness studies, offers more at each encounter. It was a brilliant idea to evaluate Hurlburt’s Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) method through concrete sceptical enquiry by Schwitzgebel, whose role as open-minded but hard-nosed interlocutor makes the debate an intriguing, even gripping read. The radically different views about introspective reports held by the two authors (hereafter Russ and Eric, following the book’s informality) are put to the test in the concrete context of ‘an (...)
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  44. James R. Beebe (2001). Interpretation and Epistemic Evaluation in Goldman's Descriptive Epistemology. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (2):163-186.score: 18.0
    One branch of Alvin Goldman's proposed "scientific epistemology" is devoted to the scientific study of how folk epistemic evaluators acquire and deploy the concepts of knowledge and justified belief. The author argues that such a "descriptive epistemology," as Goldman calls it, requires a more sophisticated theory of interpretation than is provided by the simulation theory Goldman adopts. The author also argues that any adequate account of folk epistemic concepts must reconstruct the intersubjective conceptual roles those concepts play in discursive (...)
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  45. Kelly C. Strong & G. Dale Meyer (1992). An Integrative Descriptive Model of Ethical Decision Making. Journal of Business Ethics 11 (2):89 - 94.score: 18.0
    This paper presents an integrative, descriptive model of ethical decision making, with special attention given to issues of measurement. After building the model, hypotheses are developed from a portion of it. These hypotheses are tested in an exploratory analysis to determine if further research and testing of this model and the measurement instruments it employs are warranted.
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  46. Jason S. Miller, Free Will in Context: A Defense of Descriptive Variantism.score: 18.0
    Are free will and determinism compatible? Philosophical focus on this deceptively simple `compatibility question' has historically been so pervasive that the entire free will debate is now standardly framed in its terms - that is, as a dispute between compatibilists, who answer the question affirmatively, and incompatibilists, who respond in the negative. This dissertation, in contrast, adopts a position that I call `descriptive variantism,' according to which prevailing notions of free will exhibit significant aspects of both compatibilism and incompatibilism. (...)
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  47. Rod Bertolet (2001). Recanati, Descriptive Names, and the Prospect of New Knowledge. Journal of Philosophical Research 26:37-41.score: 18.0
    The immediate purpose of this note is to provide counterexamples to François Recanati’s claim in Direct Reference that descriptive names (a name whose reference is fixed by an attributive definite description) are created with the expectation that we will be able to think of the referent nondescriptively at some point in the future. The larger issue is how to reconcile the existence of descriptive names with the theoretical commitments Recanati takes direct reference to have. The point of the (...)
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  48. Franz Brentano (1982/1995). Descriptive Psychology. Routledge.score: 18.0
    Franz Brentano (1838-1917) is a key figure in the development of Twentieth Century thought. It was his work that set Husserl on to the road of phenomenology and intentionality, that inspired Meinong's theory of the object which influenced Bertrand Russell, and the entire Polish school of philosophy. ^Descriptive Psychology presents a series of lectures given by Brentano in 1887; they were the culmination of his work, and the clearest statement of his mature thought. It was this later period which (...)
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  49. B. E. Gibson, E. Stasiulis, S. Gutfreund, M. McDonald & L. Dade (2011). Assessment of Children's Capacity to Consent for Research: A Descriptive Qualitative Study of Researchers' Practices. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (8):504-509.score: 18.0
    Background In Canadian jurisdictions without specific legislation pertaining to research consent, the onus is placed on researchers to determine whether a child is capable of independently consenting to participate in a research study. Little, however, is known about how child health researchers are approaching consent and capacity assessment in practice. The aim of this study was to explore and describe researchers' current practices. Methods The study used a qualitative descriptive design consisting of 14 face-to-face interviews with child health researchers (...)
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  50. H. Jerome Keisler, Kenneth Kunen, Arnold Miller & Steven Leth (1989). Descriptive Set Theory Over Hyperfinite Sets. Journal of Symbolic Logic 54 (4):1167-1180.score: 18.0
    The separation, uniformization, and other properties of the Borel and projective hierarchies over hyperfinite sets are investigated and compared to the corresponding properties in classical descriptive set theory. The techniques used in this investigation also provide some results about countably determined sets and functions, as well as an improvement of an earlier theorem of Kunen and Miller.
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