Search results for 'equivalence' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John Worrall (2011). Underdetermination, Realism and Empirical Equivalence. Synthese 180 (2):157 - 172.score: 24.0
    Are theories 'underdetermined by the evidence' in any way that should worry the scientific realist? I argue that no convincing reason has been given for thinking so. A crucial distinction is drawn between data equivalence and empirical equivalence. Duhem showed that it is always possible to produce a data equivalent rival to any accepted scientific theory. But there is no reason to regard such a rival as equally well empirically supported and hence no threat to realism. Two theories (...)
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  2. Elias Okon & Craig Callender (2011). Does Quantum Mechanics Clash with the Equivalence Principle—and Does It Matter? European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (1):133-145.score: 24.0
    Does quantum mechanics clash with the equivalence principle—and does it matter? Content Type Journal Article Pages 133-145 DOI 10.1007/s13194-010-0009-z Authors Elias Okon, Philosophy Department, UC San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla CA, 92093, USA Craig Callender, Philosophy Department, UC San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla CA, 92093, USA Journal European Journal for Philosophy of Science Online ISSN 1879-4920 Print ISSN 1879-4912 Journal Volume Volume 1 Journal Issue Volume 1, Number 1.
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  3. Ronald R. Hatch (2004). Clocks and the Equivalence Principle. Foundations of Physics 34 (11):1725-1739.score: 24.0
    Einstein’s equivalence principle has a number of problems, and it is often applied incorrectly. Clocks on the earth do not seem to be affected by the sun’s gravitational potential. The most commonly accepted reason given is a faulty application of the equivalence principle. While no valid reason is available within either the special or general theories of relativity, ether theories can provide a valid explanation. A clock bias of the correct magnitude and position dependence can convert the Selleri (...)
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  4. R. Aldrovandi, P. B. Barros & J. G. Pereira (2003). The Equivalence Principle Revisited. Foundations of Physics 33 (4):545-575.score: 24.0
    A precise fomulation of the strong Equivalence Principle is essential to the understanding of the relationship between gravitation and quantum mechanics. The relevant aspects are reviewed in a context including General Relativity but allowing for the presence of torsion. For the sake of brevity, a concise statement is proposed for the Principle: An ideal observer immersed in a gravitational field can choose a reference frame in which gravitation goes unnoticed. This statement is given a clear mathematical meaning through an (...)
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  5. E. Guendelman & H. Ruchvarger (2006). The Universe Accelerated Expansion Using Extra-Dimensions with Metric Components Found by a New Equivalence Principle. Foundations of Physics 36 (12):1846-1868.score: 24.0
    Curved multi-dimensional space-times (5D and higher) are constructed by embedding them in one higher-dimensional flat space. The condition that the embedding coordinates have a separable form, plus the demand of an orthogonal resulting space-time, implies that the curved multi-dimensional space-time has 4D de-Sitter subspaces (for constant extra-dimensions) in which the 3D subspace has an accelerated expansion. A complete determination of the curved multi-dimensional spacetime geometry is obtained provided we impose a new type of “equivalence principle”, meaning that there is (...)
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  6. Pablo Acuña & Dennis Dieks (2014). Another Look at Empirical Equivalence and Underdetermination of Theory Choice. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (2):153-180.score: 24.0
    In 1991 Larry Laudan and Jarret Leplin proposed a solution for the problem of empirical equivalence and the empirical underdetermination that is often thought to result from it. In this paper we argue that, even though Laudan and Leplin’s reasoning is essentially correct, their solution should be accurately assessed in order to appreciate its nature and scope. Indeed, Laudan and Leplin’s analysis does not succeed in completely removing the problem or, as they put it, in refuting the thesis of (...)
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  7. Nikolaos Galatos & Constantine Tsinakis (2009). Equivalence of Consequence Relations: An Order-Theoretic and Categorical Perspective. Journal of Symbolic Logic 74 (3):780-810.score: 24.0
    Equivalences and translations between consequence relations abound in logic. The notion of equivalence can be defined syntactically, in terms of translations of formulas, and order-theoretically, in terms of the associated lattices of theories. W. Blok and D. Pigozzi proved in [4] that the two definitions coincide in the case of an algebraizable sentential deductive system. A refined treatment of this equivalence was provided by W. Blok and B. Jónsson in [3]. Other authors have extended this result to the (...)
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  8. Greg Hjorth (1993). Thin Equivalence Relations and Effective Decompositions. Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (4):1153-1164.score: 24.0
    Let E be a Σ1 1 equivalence relation for which there does not exist a perfect set of inequivalent reals. If 0# exists or if V is a forcing extension of L, then there is a good ▵1 2 well-ordering of the equivalence classes.
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  9. Anja Jauernig (2008). Leibniz on Motion and the Equivalence of Hypotheses. The Leibniz Review 18:1-40.score: 24.0
    Contrary to popular belief, I argue that Leibniz is not hopelessly confused about motion: Leibniz is indeed both a relativist and an absolutist about motion, as suggested by the textual evidence, but, appearances to the contrary, this is not a problem; Leibniz’s infamous doctrine of the equivalence of hypotheses is well-supported and well-integrated within Leibniz’s physical theory; Leibniz’s assertion that the simplest hypothesis of several equivalent hypotheses can be held to be true can be explicated in such a way (...)
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  10. Deborah C. Smith (2007). Superassertibility and the Equivalence Schema: A Dilemma for Wright's Antirealist. Synthese 157 (1):129 - 139.score: 24.0
    Crispin Wright champions the notion of superassertibility as providing a truth predicate that is congenial to antirealists in many debates in that it satisfies relevant platitudes concerning truth and does so in a very minimal way. He motivates such a claim by arguing that superassertibility can satisfy the equivalence schema: it is superassertible that P if and only if P. I argue that Wright’s attempted proof that superassertibility can satisfy this schema is unsuccessful, because it requires a premise that (...)
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  11. Marco Mamone-Capria (2012). Simultaneity as an Invariant Equivalence Relation. Foundations of Physics 42 (11):1365-1383.score: 24.0
    This paper deals with the concept of simultaneity in classical and relativistic physics as construed in terms of group-invariant equivalence relations. A full examination of Newton, Galilei and Poincaré invariant equivalence relations in ℝ4 is presented, which provides alternative proofs, additions and occasionally corrections of results in the literature, including Malament’s theorem and some of its variants. It is argued that the interpretation of simultaneity as an invariant equivalence relation, although interesting for its own sake, does not (...)
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  12. Charlotte Werndl (2011). On the Observational Equivalence of Continuous-Time Deterministic and Indeterministic Descriptions. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (2):193-225.score: 24.0
    On the observational equivalence of continuous-time deterministic and indeterministic descriptions Content Type Journal Article Pages 193-225 DOI 10.1007/s13194-010-0011-5 Authors Charlotte Werndl, Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE UK Journal European Journal for Philosophy of Science Online ISSN 1879-4920 Print ISSN 1879-4912 Journal Volume Volume 1 Journal Issue Volume 1, Number 2.
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  13. Roberto Cignoli & Daniele Mundici (1998). An Elementary Presentation of the Equivalence Between MV-Algebras and L-Groups with Strong Unit. Studia Logica 61 (1):49-64.score: 24.0
    Aim of this paper is to provide a self-contained presentation of the natural equivalence between MV-algebras and lattice-ordered abelian groups with strong unit.
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  14. Samuel Coskey & Joel David Hamkins (2010). Infinite Time Decidable Equivalence Relation Theory. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 52 (2):203-228.score: 24.0
    We introduce an analogue of the theory of Borel equivalence relations in which we study equivalence relations that are decidable by an infinite time Turing machine. The Borel reductions are replaced by the more general class of infinite time computable functions. Many basic aspects of the classical theory remain intact, with the added bonus that it becomes sensible to study some special equivalence relations whose complexity is beyond Borel or even analytic. We also introduce an infinite time (...)
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  15. Sylvie Pouteau (2000). Beyond Substantial Equivalence: Ethical Equivalence. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 13 (3-4):273-291.score: 24.0
    The concept of substantial equivalence,introduced for the risk assessment of geneticallymodified (GM) food, is a reducing concept because itignores the context in which these products have beenproduced and brought to the consumer at the end of thefood chain. Food quality cannot be restricted to meresubstance and food acts on human beings not only atthe level of nutrition but also through theirrelationship to environment and society. To make thiscontext explicit, I will introduce an ``equivalencescale'' for the evaluation of food chains (...)
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  16. Sy-David Friedman & Tapani Hyttinen (2012). On Borel Equivalence Relations in Generalized Baire Space. Archive for Mathematical Logic 51 (3-4):299-304.score: 24.0
    We construct two Borel equivalence relations on the generalized Baire space κ κ , κ <κ = κ > ω, with the property that neither of them is Borel reducible to the other. A small modification of the construction shows that the straightforward generalization of the Glimm-Effros dichotomy fails.
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  17. Sylvie Pouteau (2002). The Food Debate: Ethical Versus Substantial Equivalence. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (3):289-303.score: 24.0
    Substantial equivalence (SE) has beenintroduced to assess novel foods, includinggenetically modified (GM) food, by means ofcomparison with traditional food. Besides anumber of objections concerning its scientificvalidity for risk assessment, the maindifficulty with SE is that it implies that foodcan be qualified on a purely substantial basis.SE embodies the assumption that only reductivescientific arguments are legitimate fordecision-making in public policy due to theemphasis on legal issues. However, the surge ofthe food debate clearly shows that thistechnocratic model is (...)
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  18. Joshua B. Palmatier & Fernando Guzman (2012). M-Zeroids: Structure and Categorical Equivalence. Studia Logica 100 (5):975-1000.score: 24.0
    In this note we develop a method for constructing finite totally-ordered m-zeroids and prove that there exists a categorical equivalence between the category of finite, totally-ordered m-zeroids and the category of pseudo Łukasiewicz-like implicators.
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  19. Greg Hjorth (2008). Borel Equivalence Relations Which Are Highly Unfree. Journal of Symbolic Logic 73 (4):1271-1277.score: 24.0
    There is an ergodic, measure preserving, countable Borel equivalence relation E on a standard Borel probability space (X, µ) such that E\c is not essentially free on any conull C ⊂ X.
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  20. Keith A. Kearnes (2000). Categorical Quasivarieties Via Morita Equivalence. Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (2):839-856.score: 24.0
    We give a new proof of the classification of ℵ 0 -categorical quasivarieties by using Morita equivalence to reduce to term minimal quasivarieties.
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  21. Su Gao, Steve Jackson & Vincent Kieftenbeld (2010). The {L}Aczkovich—{K}Omjáth Property for Coanalytic Equivalence Relations. Journal of Symbolic Logic 75 (3):1091-1101.score: 24.0
    Let E be a coanalytic equivalence relation on a Polish space X and (A n ) n∈ω a sequence of analytic subsets of X. We prove that if lim sup n∈K A n meets uncountably many E-equivalence classes for every K ∈ [ω] ω , then there exists a K ∈ [ω] ω such that ⋂ n∈K A n contains a perfect set of pairwise E-inequivalent elements.
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  22. Arthur W. Apter (2006). Failures of SCH and Level by Level Equivalence. Archive for Mathematical Logic 45 (7):831-838.score: 24.0
    We construct a model for the level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness in which below the least supercompact cardinal κ, there is a stationary set of cardinals on which SCH fails. In this model, the structure of the class of supercompact cardinals can be arbitrary.
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  23. Arthur W. Apter (2014). Inaccessible Cardinals, Failures of GCH, and Level-by-Level Equivalence. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 55 (4):431-444.score: 24.0
    We construct models for the level-by-level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness containing failures of the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis at inaccessible cardinals. In one of these models, no cardinal is supercompact up to an inaccessible cardinal, and for every inaccessible cardinal $\delta $, $2^{\delta }\gt \delta ^{++}$. In another of these models, no cardinal is supercompact up to an inaccessible cardinal, and the only inaccessible cardinals at which GCH holds are also measurable. These results extend and generalize earlier work (...)
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  24. Arthur W. Apter (2007). Supercompactness and Level by Level Equivalence Are Compatible with Indestructibility for Strong Compactness. Archive for Mathematical Logic 46 (3-4):155-163.score: 24.0
    It is known that if $\kappa < \lambda$ are such that κ is indestructibly supercompact and λ is 2λ supercompact, then level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness fails. We prove a theorem which points towards this result being best possible. Specifically, we show that relative to the existence of a supercompact cardinal, there is a model for level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness containing a supercompact cardinal κ in which κ’s strong compactness (...)
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  25. Francesca Ervas (2008). Davidson's Notions of Translation Equivalence. Journal of Language and Translation 9 (2):7-29.score: 24.0
    Francesca Ervas 7 Journal of Language & Translation 9-2September 2008, 7-29 Davidson’s Notions of TranslationEquivalence Francesca Ervas Università Roma Tre Abstract The paper analyses the relationship of semantic equivalence as described by Donald Davidson in his theory of meaning, showing its limits above all in respect to language use in the contextual situation.The notion of equivalence used by the “first” Davidson does not successfully explain why some biconditionals are simply true and why others, besides being true, offer the (...)
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  26. Arthur W. Apter (2005). Diamond, Square, and Level by Level Equivalence. Archive for Mathematical Logic 44 (3):387-395.score: 24.0
    We force and construct a model in which level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness holds, along with certain additional combinatorial properties. In particular, in this model, ♦ δ holds for every regular uncountable cardinal δ, and below the least supercompact cardinal κ, □ δ holds on a stationary subset of κ. There are no restrictions in our model on the structure of the class of supercompact cardinals.
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  27. Ludomir Newelski & Krzysztof Krupi?Ski (2002). On Bounded Type-Definable Equivalence Relations. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 43 (4):231-242.score: 24.0
    We investigate some topological properties of the spaces of classes of bounded type-definable equivalence relations.
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  28. [deleted]Jasper Robinson (2013). Diminished Acquired Equivalence yet Good Discrimination Performance in Older Participants. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    We asked younger and older human participants to perform computer-based configural discriminations that were designed to detect acquired equivalence. Both groups solved the discriminations but only the younger participants demonstrated acquired equivalence. The discriminations involved learning the preferences (‘like’ [+] or ‘dislike’ [-]) for sports (e.g., tennis [t] and hockey [h]) of four fictitious people (e.g., Alice [A], Beth [B], Charlotte [C] & Dorothy [D]). In one experiment, the discrimination had the form: At+, Bt-, Ct+, Dt-, Ah-, Bh+, (...)
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  29. Sy-David Friedman & Luca Motto Ros (2011). Analytic Equivalence Relations and Bi-Embeddability. Journal of Symbolic Logic 76 (1):243-266.score: 24.0
    Louveau and Rosendal [5] have shown that the relation of bi-embeddability for countable graphs as well as for many other natural classes of countable structures is complete under Borel reducibility for analytic equivalence relations. This is in strong contrast to the case of the isomorphism relation, which as an equivalence relation on graphs (or on any class of countable structures consisting of the models of a sentence of ℒω1ω) is far from complete (see [5, 2]). In this article (...)
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  30. Saharon Shelah (2004). On Nice Equivalence Relations on Λ2. Archive for Mathematical Logic 43 (1):31-64.score: 24.0
    Let E be an equivalence relation on the powerset of an uncountable set, which is reasonably definable. We assume that any two subsets with symmetric difference of size exactly 1 are not equivalent. We investigate whether for E there are many pairwise non equivalent sets.
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  31. Vedran Čačić & Domagoj Vrgoč (2013). A Note on Bisimulation and Modal Equivalence in Provability Logic and Interpretability Logic. Studia Logica 101 (1):31-44.score: 22.0
    Provability logic is a modal logic for studying properties of provability predicates, and Interpretability logic for studying interpretability between logical theories. Their natural models are GL-models and Veltman models, for which the accessibility relation is well-founded. That’s why the usual counterexample showing the necessity of finite image property in Hennessy-Milner theorem (see [1]) doesn’t exist for them. However, we show that the analogous condition must still hold, by constructing two GL-models with worlds in them that are modally equivalent but not (...)
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  32. Vincent Astier (2008). Elementary Equivalence of Some Rings of Definable Functions. Archive for Mathematical Logic 47 (4):327-340.score: 22.0
    We characterize elementary equivalences and inclusions between von Neumann regular real closed rings in terms of their boolean algebras of idempotents, and prove that their theories are always decidable. We then show that, under some hypotheses, the map sending an L-structure R to the L-structure of definable functions from R n to R preserves elementary inclusions and equivalences and gives a structure with a decidable theory whenever R is decidable. We briefly consider structures of definable functions satisfying an extra condition (...)
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  33. Stephen Parrott (2002). Radiation From a Uniformly Accelerated Charge and the Equivalence Principle. Foundations of Physics 32 (3):407-440.score: 21.0
    We argue that purely local experiments can distinguish a stationary charged particle in a static gravitational field from an accelerated particle in (gravity-free) Minkowski space. Some common arguments to the contrary are analyzed and found to rest on a misidentification of “energy.”.
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  34. Nicola Olivetti & Lea Terracini (1992). N-Prolog and Equivalence of Logic Programs. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 1 (4):253-340.score: 21.0
    The aim of this work is to develop a declarative semantics for N-Prolog with negation as failure. N-Prolog is an extension of Prolog proposed by Gabbay and Reyle (1984, 1985), which allows for occurrences of nested implications in both goals and clauses. Our starting point is an operational semantics of the language defined by means of top-down derivation trees. Negation as finite failure can be naturally introduced in this context. A goal-G (...)
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  35. Arthur W. Apter (2005). An Easton Theorem for Level by Level Equivalence. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 51 (3):247-253.score: 21.0
    We establish an Easton theorem for the least supercompact cardinal that is consistent with the level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness. In both our ground model and the model witnessing the conclusions of our theorem, there are no restrictions on the structure of the class of supercompact cardinals. We also briefly indicate how our methods of proof yield an Easton theorem that is consistent with the level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness in (...)
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  36. Ekaterina B. Fokina & Sy‐David Friedman (2012). On Σ11 Equivalence Relations Over the Natural Numbers. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 58 (1‐2):113-124.score: 21.0
    We study the structure of Σ11 equivalence relations on hyperarithmetical subsets of ω under reducibilities given by hyperarithmetical or computable functions, called h-reducibility and FF-reducibility, respectively. We show that the structure is rich even when one fixes the number of properly equation imagei.e., Σ11 but not equation image equivalence classes. We also show the existence of incomparable Σ11 equivalence relations that are complete as subsets of ω × ω with respect to the corresponding reducibility on sets. We (...)
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  37. Thomas Vetterlein (2008). Residuated Lattices Arising From Equivalence Relations on Boolean and Brouwerian Algebras. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 54 (4):350-367.score: 21.0
    Logics designed to deal with vague statements typically allow algebraic semantics such that propositions are interpreted by elements of residuated lattices. The structure of these algebras is in general still unknown, and in the cases that a detailed description is available, to understand its significance for logics can be difficult. So the question seems interesting under which circumstances residuated lattices arise from simpler algebras in some natural way. A possible construction is described in this paper.Namely, we consider pairs consisting of (...)
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  38. A. Rosenberg & N. J. Mackintosh (1973). On Fodor's Distinction Between Strong and Weak Equivalence in Machine Simulation. Philosophy of Science 40 (March):118-120.score: 21.0
  39. Ralf Schindler & Philipp Schlicht (2011). Thin Equivalence Relations in Scaled Pointclasses. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 57 (6):615-620.score: 21.0
    For ordinals α beginning a Σ1 gap in equation image, where equation image is closed under number quantification, we give an inner model-theoretic proof that every thin equation image equivalence relation is equation image in a real parameter from the hypothesis equation image.
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  40. Arthur W. Apter (2010). Tallness and Level by Level Equivalence and Inequivalence. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 56 (1):4-12.score: 21.0
    We construct two models containing exactly one supercompact cardinal in which all non-supercompact measurable cardinals are strictly taller than they are either strongly compact or supercompact. In the first of these models, level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness holds. In the other, level by level inequivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness holds. Each universe has only one strongly compact cardinal and contains relatively few large cardinals.
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  41. Vladimir Kanovei (1998). Ulm Classification of Analytic Equivalence Relations in Generic Universes. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 44 (3):287-303.score: 21.0
    We prove that if every real belongs to a set generic extension of L, then every Σmath image equivalence relation E on reals either admits a Δ1 reduction to the equality on the set 2< ω1 of all countable binary sequences, or the Vitali equivalence E0 continuously embeds in E. The proofs are based on a topology generated by OD sets.
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  42. M. Reeken & V. Kanovei (2003). A Theorem on ROD-Hypersmooth Equivalence Relations in the Solovay Model. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (3):299.score: 21.0
    It is known that every Borel hypersmooth but non-smooth equivalence relation is Borel bi-reducible to E1. We prove a ROD version of this result in the Solovay model.
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  43. A. W. Apter (2003). Failure of GCH and the Level by Level Equivalence Between Strong Compactness and Supercompactness. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (6):587.score: 21.0
    We force and obtain three models in which level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness holds and in which, below the least supercompact cardinal, GCH fails unboundedly often. In two of these models, GCH fails on a set having measure 1 with respect to certain canonical measures. There are no restrictions in all of our models on the structure of the class of supercompact cardinals.
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  44. Daniel Dzierzgowski (1993). Typical Ambiguity and Elementary Equivalence. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 39 (1):436-446.score: 21.0
    A sentence of the usual language of set theory is said to be stratified if it is obtained by “erasing” type indices in a sentence of the language of Russell's Simple Theory of Types. In this paper we give an alternative presentation of a proof the ambiguity theorem stating that any provable stratified sentence has a stratified proof. To this end, we introduce a new set of ambiguity axioms, inspired by Fraïssé's characterization of elementary equivalence; these axioms can be (...)
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  45. [deleted]Sergio E. Lew & B. Silvano Zanutto (2011). A Computational Theory for the Learning of Equivalence Relations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 21.0
  46. André Nies (1994). Recursively Enumerable Equivalence Relations Modulo Finite Differences. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 40 (4):490-518.score: 21.0
    We investigate the upper semilattice Eq* of recursively enumerable equivalence relations modulo finite differences. Several natural subclasses are shown to be first-order definable in Eq*. Building on this we define a copy of the structure of recursively enumerable many-one degrees in Eq*, thereby showing that Th has the same computational complexity as the true first-order arithmetic.
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  47. Irwin Pollack (1973). Time-Intensity Equivalence Relations for Auditory Pulse Trains. Journal of Experimental Psychology 100 (2):239.score: 21.0
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  48. David R. Thomas, James T. Miller & Gary Hansen (1972). Role of Stimulus Comparison in Equivalence Training. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (2):297.score: 21.0
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  49. Arthur W. Apter (2007). Indestructibility and Level by Level Equivalence and Inequivalence. Mlq 53 (1):78-85.score: 21.0
    If κ < λ are such that κ is indestructibly supercompact and λ is 2λ supercompact, it is known from [4] that {δ < κ | δ is a measurable cardinal which is not a limit of measurable cardinals and δ violates level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness}must be unbounded in κ. On the other hand, using a variant of the argument used to establish this fact, it is possible to prove that if κ < λ (...)
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  50. Arthur W. Apter (2009). Indestructibility Under Adding Cohen Subsets and Level by Level Equivalence. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 55 (3):271-279.score: 21.0
    We construct a model for the level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness in which the least supercompact cardinal κ has its strong compactness indestructible under adding arbitrarily many Cohen subsets. There are no restrictions on the large cardinal structure of our model.
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