Search results for 'generalized' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Peter Fritz (2013). Modal Ontology and Generalized Quantifiers. Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (4):643-678.score: 24.0
    Timothy Williamson has argued that in the debate on modal ontology, the familiar distinction between actualism and possibilism should be replaced by a distinction between positions he calls contingentism and necessitism. He has also argued in favor of necessitism, using results on quantified modal logic with plurally interpreted second-order quantifiers showing that necessitists can draw distinctions contingentists cannot draw. Some of these results are similar to well-known results on the relative expressivity of quantified modal logics with so-called inner and outer (...)
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  2. Kinjalk Lochan, Seema Satin & Tejinder P. Singh (2012). Statistical Thermodynamics for a Non-Commutative Special Relativity: Emergence of a Generalized Quantum Dynamics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 42 (12):1556-1572.score: 24.0
    There ought to exist a description of quantum field theory which does not depend on an external classical time. To achieve this goal, in a recent paper we have proposed a non-commutative special relativity in which space-time and matter degrees of freedom are treated as classical matrices with arbitrary commutation relations, and a space-time line element is defined using a trace. In the present paper, following the theory of Trace Dynamics, we construct a statistical thermodynamics for the non-commutative special relativity, (...)
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  3. Arundhati Das, Surajit Chattopadhyay & Ujjal Debnath (2012). Validity of the Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics in the Logamediate and Intermediate Scenarios of the Universe. Foundations of Physics 42 (2):266-283.score: 24.0
    In this work, we have investigated the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in logamediate and intermediate scenarios of the universe bounded by the Hubble, apparent, particle and event horizons using and without using first law of thermodynamics. We have observed that the GSL is valid for Hubble, apparent, particle and event horizons of the universe in the logamediate scenario of the universe using first law and without using first law. Similarly the GSL is valid for all (...)
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  4. Thomas Filk & Hartmann Römer (2011). Generalized Quantum Theory: Overview and Latest Developments. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 21 (2):211-220.score: 24.0
    The main formal structures of generalized quantum theory are summarized. Recent progress has sharpened some of the concepts, in particular the notion of an observable, the action of an observable on states (putting more emphasis on the role of proposition observables), and the concept of generalized entanglement. Furthermore, the active role of the observer in the structure of observables and the partitioning of systems is emphasized.
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  5. Wiebe Van Der Hoek & Maarten De Rijke (1993). Generalized Quantifiers and Modal Logic. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 2 (1):19-58.score: 24.0
    We study several modal languages in which some (sets of) generalized quantifiers can be represented; the main language we consider is suitable for defining any first order definable quantifier, but we also consider a sublanguage thereof, as well as a language for dealing with the modal counterparts of some higher order quantifiers. These languages are studied both from a modal logic perspective and from a quantifier perspective. Thus the issues addressed include normal forms, expressive power, completeness both of modal (...)
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  6. Jakub Szymanik (2009). Quantifiers in TIME and SPACE. Computational Complexity of Generalized Quantifiers in Natural Language. Dissertation, University of Amsterdamscore: 24.0
    In the dissertation we study the complexity of generalized quantifiers in natural language. Our perspective is interdisciplinary: we combine philosophical insights with theoretical computer science, experimental cognitive science and linguistic theories. -/- In Chapter 1 we argue for identifying a part of meaning, the so-called referential meaning (model-checking), with algorithms. Moreover, we discuss the influence of computational complexity theory on cognitive tasks. We give some arguments to treat as cognitively tractable only those problems which can be computed in polynomial (...)
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  7. Hanoch Ben-Yami (2009). Generalized Quantifiers, and Beyond. Logique Et Analyse (208):309-326.score: 24.0
    I show that the contemporary dominant analysis of natural language quantifiers that are one-place determiners by means of binary generalized quantifiers has failed to explain why they are, according to it, conservative. I then present an alternative, Geachean analysis, according to which common nouns in the grammatical subject position are plural logical subject-terms, and show how it does explain that fact and other features of natural language quantification.
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  8. Fredrik Engström (2012). Generalized Quantifiers in Dependence Logic. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (3):299-324.score: 24.0
    We introduce generalized quantifiers, as defined in Tarskian semantics by Mostowski and Lindström, in logics whose semantics is based on teams instead of assignments, e.g., IF-logic and Dependence logic. Both the monotone and the non-monotone case is considered. It is argued that to handle quantifier scope dependencies of generalized quantifiers in a satisfying way the dependence atom in Dependence logic is not well suited and that the multivalued dependence atom is a better choice. This atom is in fact (...)
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  9. T. Barakat & H. A. Alhendi (2013). Generalized Dirac Equation with Induced Energy-Dependent Potential Via Simple Similarity Transformation and Asymptotic Iteration Methods. Foundations of Physics 43 (10):1171-1181.score: 24.0
    This study shows how precise simple analytical solutions for the generalized Dirac equation with repulsive vector and attractive energy-dependent Lorentz scalar potentials, position-dependent mass potential, and a tensor interaction term can be obtained within the framework of both similarity transformation and the asymptotic iteration methods. These methods yield a significant improvement over existing approaches and provide more plausible and applicable ways in explaining the pseudospin symmetry’s breaking mechanism in nuclei.
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  10. Gemma Robles & José M. Méndez (2014). Curry's Paradox, Generalized Modus Ponens Axiom and Depth Relevance. Studia Logica 102 (1):185-217.score: 24.0
    “Weak relevant model structures” (wr-ms) are defined on “weak relevant matrices” by generalizing Brady’s model structure ${\mathcal{M}_{\rm CL}}$ built upon Meyer’s Crystal matrix CL. It is shown how to falsify in any wr-ms the Generalized Modus Ponens axiom and similar schemes used to derive Curry’s Paradox. In the last section of the paper we discuss how to extend this method of falsification to more general schemes that could also be used in deriving Curry’s Paradox.
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  11. Natasha Alechina (1995). On a Decidable Generalized Quantifier Logic Corresponding to a Decidable Fragment of First-Order Logic. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 4 (3):177-189.score: 24.0
    Van Lambalgen (1990) proposed a translation from a language containing a generalized quantifierQ into a first-order language enriched with a family of predicatesR i, for every arityi (or an infinitary predicateR) which takesQxg(x, y1,..., yn) to x(R(x, y1,..., y1) (x,y1,...,yn)) (y 1,...,yn are precisely the free variables ofQx). The logic ofQ (without ordinary quantifiers) corresponds therefore to the fragment of first-order logic which contains only specially restricted quantification. We prove that it is decidable using the method of analytic tableaux. (...)
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  12. Livio Robaldo (2010). Independent Set Readings and Generalized Quantifiers. Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (1):23-58.score: 24.0
    Several authors proposed to devise logical structures for Natural Language (NL) semantics in which noun phrases yield referential terms rather than standard Generalized Quantifiers. In this view, two main problems arise: the need to refer to the maximal sets of entities involved in the predications and the need to cope with Independent Set (IS) readings, where two or more sets of entities are introduced in parallel. The article illustrates these problems and their consequences, then presents an extension of the (...)
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  13. Lauri Hella, Jouko Väänänen & Dag Westerståhl (1997). Definability of Polyadic Lifts of Generalized Quantifiers. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 6 (3):305-335.score: 24.0
    We study generalized quantifiers on finite structures.With every function : we associate a quantifier Q by letting Q x say there are at least (n) elementsx satisfying , where n is the sizeof the universe. This is the general form ofwhat is known as a monotone quantifier of type .We study so called polyadic liftsof such quantifiers. The particular lifts we considerare Ramseyfication, branching and resumption.In each case we get exact criteria fordefinability of the lift in terms of simpler (...)
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  14. Juha Kontinen & Jakub Szymanik (2011). Characterizing Definability of Second-Order Generalized Quantifiers. In L. Beklemishev & R. de Queiroz (eds.), Proceedings of the 18th Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 6642. Springer.score: 24.0
    We study definability of second-order generalized quantifiers. We show that the question whether a second-order generalized quantifier $\sQ_1$ is definable in terms of another quantifier $\sQ_2$, the base logic being monadic second-order logic, reduces to the question if a quantifier $\sQ^{\star}_1$ is definable in $\FO(\sQ^{\star}_2,<,+,\times)$ for certain first-order quantifiers $\sQ^{\star}_1$ and $\sQ^{\star}_2$. We use our characterization to show new definability and non-definability results for second-order generalized quantifiers. In particular, we show that the monadic second-order majority quantifier $\most^1$ (...)
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  15. Jan Paseka & Zdenka Riečanová (2011). Considerable Sets of Linear Operators in Hilbert Spaces as Operator Generalized Effect Algebras. Foundations of Physics 41 (10):1634-1647.score: 24.0
    We show that considerable sets of positive linear operators namely their extensions as closures, adjoints or Friedrichs positive self-adjoint extensions form operator (generalized) effect algebras. Moreover, in these cases the partial effect algebraic operation of two operators coincides with usual sum of operators in complex Hilbert spaces whenever it is defined. These sets include also unbounded operators which play important role of observables (e.g., momentum and position) in the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics.
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  16. Lauri Hella, Kerkko Luosto & Jouko Väänänen (1996). The Hierarchy Theorem for Generalized Quantifiers. Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (3):802-817.score: 24.0
    The concept of a generalized quantifier of a given similarity type was defined in [12]. Our main result says that on finite structures different similarity types give rise to different classes of generalized quantifiers. More exactly, for every similarity type t there is a generalized quantifier of type t which is not definable in the extension of first order logic by all generalized quantifiers of type smaller than t. This was proved for unary similarity types by (...)
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  17. Dorit Ben Shalom (2003). One Connection Between Standard Invariance Conditions on Modal Formulas and Generalized Quantifiers. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (1):47-52.score: 24.0
    The language of standard propositional modal logic has one operator (? or ?), that can be thought of as being determined by the quantifiers ? or ?, respectively: for example, a formula of the form ?F is true at a point s just in case all the immediate successors of s verify F.This paper uses a propositional modal language with one operator determined by a generalized quantifier to discuss a simple connection between standard invariance conditions on modal formulas and (...)
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  18. Júlia Vaz de Carvalho (2010). On the Variety of M -Generalized Łukasiewicz Algebras of Order N. Studia Logica 94 (2):291-305.score: 24.0
    In this paper we pursue the study of the variety of m -generalized Łukasiewicz algebras of order n which was initiated in [1]. This variety contains the variety of Łukasiewicz algebras of order n . Given , we establish an isomorphism from its congruence lattice to the lattice of Stone filters of a certain Łukasiewicz algebra of order n and for each congruence on A we find a description via the corresponding Stone filter. We characterize the principal congruences on (...)
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  19. Anatolij Dvurečenskij & Jiří Janda (2013). On Bilinear Forms From the Point of View of Generalized Effect Algebras. Foundations of Physics 43 (9):1136-1152.score: 24.0
    We study positive bilinear forms on a Hilbert space which are not necessarily bounded nor induced by some positive operator. We show when different families of bilinear forms can be described as a generalized effect algebra. In addition, we present families which are or are not monotone downwards (Dedekind upwards) σ-complete generalized effect algebras.
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  20. Jacques Wainer (2007). Modeling Generalized Implicatures Using Non-Monotonic Logics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (2):195-216.score: 24.0
    This paper reports on an approach to model generalized implicatures using nonmonotonic logics. The approach, called compositional, is based on the idea of compositional semantics, where the implicatures carried by a sentence are constructed from the implicatures carried by its constituents, but it also includes some aspects nonmonotonic logics in order to model the defeasibility of generalized implicatures.
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  21. John Quiggin (2001). Production Under Uncertainty and Choice Under Uncertainty in the Emergence of Generalized Expected Utility Theory. Theory and Decision 51 (2/4):125-144.score: 24.0
    This paper presents a personal view of the interaction between the analysis of choice under uncertainty and the analysis of production under uncertainty. Interest in the foundations of the theory of choice under uncertainty was stimulated by applications of expected utility theory such as the Sandmo model of production under uncertainty. This interest led to the development of generalized models including rank-dependent expected utility theory. In turn, the development of generalized expected utility models raised the question of whether (...)
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  22. Dorit Ben Shalom (2003). One Connection Between Standard Invariance Conditions on Modal Formulas and Generalized Quantifiers. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (1):47-52.score: 24.0
    The language of standard propositional modal logic has one operator ( or ), that can be thought of as being determined by the quantifiers or , respectively: for example, a formula of the form is true at a point s just in case all the immediate successors of s verify .This paper uses a propositional modal language with one operator determined by a generalized quantifier to discuss a simple connection between standard invariance conditions on modal formulas and generalized (...)
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  23. Todor D. Todorov & Hans Vernaeve (2008). Full Algebra of Generalized Functions and Non-Standard Asymptotic Analysis. Logic and Analysis 1 (3-4):205-234.score: 24.0
    We construct an algebra of generalized functions endowed with a canonical embedding of the space of Schwartz distributions.We offer a solution to the problem of multiplication of Schwartz distributions similar to but different from Colombeau’s solution.We show that the set of scalars of our algebra is an algebraically closed field unlike its counterpart in Colombeau theory, which is a ring with zero divisors. We prove a Hahn–Banach extension principle which does not hold in Colombeau theory. We establish a connection (...)
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  24. Raul V. Fabella (2000). Generalized Sharing, Membership Size and Pareto Efficiency in Teams. Theory and Decision 48 (1):47-60.score: 24.0
    We first show that the Generalized Sharing mechanism which is exhaustive, allows a team of identical members voluntarily supplying the observable effort to attain Pareto efficient production under increasing returns provided team size is allowed to vary. We then show that where true effort is imperfectly observable (moral hazard) Pareto efficient production under nonconstant returns to scale is still attainable by varying team size.
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  25. David J. Foulis & Sylvia Pulmannová (2009). Spin Factors as Generalized Hermitian Algebras. Foundations of Physics 39 (3):237-255.score: 24.0
    We relate so-called spin factors and generalized Hermitian (GH-) algebras, both of which are partially ordered special Jordan algebras. Our main theorem states that positive-definite spin factors of dimension greater than one are mathematically equivalent to generalized Hermitian algebras of rank two.
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  26. Sergei P. Odintsov & Heinrich Wansing (forthcoming). The Logic of Generalized Truth Values and the Logic of Bilattices. Studia Logica:1-22.score: 24.0
    This paper sheds light on the relationship between the logic of generalized truth values and the logic of bilattices. It suggests a definite solution to the problem of axiomatizing the truth and falsity consequence relations, \({\models_t}\) and \({\models_f}\) , considered in a language without implication and determined via the truth and falsity orderings on the trilattice SIXTEEN 3 (Shramko and Wansing, J Philos Logic, 34:121–153, 2005). The solution is based on the fact that a certain algebra isomorphic to SIXTEEN (...)
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  27. Dmitry Zaitsev & Yaroslav Shramko (2013). Bi-Facial Truth: A Case for Generalized Truth Values. Studia Logica 101 (6):1299-1318.score: 24.0
    We explore a possibility of generalization of classical truth values by distinguishing between their ontological and epistemic aspects and combining these aspects within a joint semantical framework. The outcome is four generalized classical truth values implemented by Cartesian product of two sets of classical truth values, where each generalized value comprises both ontological and epistemic components. This allows one to define two unary twin connectives that can be called “semi-classical negations”. Each of these negations deals only with one (...)
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  28. Philip Scowcroft (2009). Generalized Halfspaces in the Mixed-Integer Realm. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 50 (1):43-51.score: 24.0
    In the ordered Abelian group of reals with the integers as a distinguished subgroup, the projection of a finite intersection of generalized halfspaces is a finite intersection of generalized halfspaces. The result is uniform in the integer coefficients and moduli of the initial generalized halfspaces.
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  29. Georg Gottlob (1997). Relativized Logspace and Generalized Quantifiers Over Finite Ordered Structures. Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (2):545-574.score: 24.0
    We here examine the expressive power of first order logic with generalized quantifiers over finite ordered structures. In particular, we address the following problem: Given a family Q of generalized quantifiers expressing a complexity class C, what is the expressive power of first order logic FO(Q) extended by the quantifiers in Q? From previously studied examples, one would expect that FO(Q) captures L C , i.e., logarithmic space relativized to an oracle in C. We show that this is (...)
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  30. Christian Wallmann & Gernot D. Kleiter (2014). Probability Propagation in Generalized Inference Forms. Studia Logica 102 (4):913-929.score: 24.0
    Probabilistic inference forms lead from point probabilities of the premises to interval probabilities of the conclusion. The probabilistic version of Modus Ponens, for example, licenses the inference from \({P(A) = \alpha}\) and \({P(B|A) = \beta}\) to \({P(B)\in [\alpha\beta, \alpha\beta + 1 - \alpha]}\) . We study generalized inference forms with three or more premises. The generalized Modus Ponens, for example, leads from \({P(A_{1}) = \alpha_{1}, \ldots, P(A_{n})= \alpha_{n}}\) and \({P(B|A_{1} \wedge \cdots \wedge A_{n}) = \beta}\) to an according (...)
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  31. Francis C. Chu & Joseph Y. Halpern (2008). Great Expectations. Part I: On the Customizability of Generalized Expected Utility. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 64 (1):1-36.score: 24.0
    We propose a generalization of expected utility that we call generalized EU (GEU), where a decision maker’s beliefs are represented by plausibility measures and the decision maker’s tastes are represented by general (i.e., not necessarily real-valued) utility functions. We show that every agent, “rational” or not, can be modeled as a GEU maximizer. We then show that we can customize GEU by selectively imposing just the constraints we want. In particular, we show how each of Savage’s postulates corresponds to (...)
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  32. Sy-David Friedman & Tapani Hyttinen (2012). On Borel Equivalence Relations in Generalized Baire Space. Archive for Mathematical Logic 51 (3-4):299-304.score: 24.0
    We construct two Borel equivalence relations on the generalized Baire space κ κ , κ <κ = κ > ω, with the property that neither of them is Borel reducible to the other. A small modification of the construction shows that the straightforward generalization of the Glimm-Effros dichotomy fails.
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  33. Kerkko Luosto (2012). On Vectorizations of Unary Generalized Quantifiers. Archive for Mathematical Logic 51 (3-4):241-255.score: 24.0
    Vectorization of a class of structures is a natural notion in finite model theory. Roughly speaking, vectorizations allow tuples to be treated similarly to elements of structures. The importance of vectorizations is highlighted by the fact that if the complexity class PTIME corresponds to a logic with reasonable syntax, then it corresponds to a logic generated via vectorizations by a single generalized quantifier (Dawar in J Log Comput 5(2):213–226, 1995). It is somewhat surprising, then, that there have been few (...)
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  34. Lavinia Corina Ciungu, George Georgescu & Claudia Mureşan (2013). Generalized Bosbach States: Part I. [REVIEW] Archive for Mathematical Logic 52 (3-4):335-376.score: 24.0
    States have been introduced on commutative and non-commutative algebras of fuzzy logics as functions defined on these algebras with values in [0,1]. Starting from the observation that in the definition of Bosbach states there intervenes the standard MV-algebra structure of [0,1], in this paper we introduce Bosbach states defined on residuated lattices with values in residuated lattices. We are led to two types of generalized Bosbach states, with distinct behaviours. Properties of generalized states are useful for the development (...)
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  35. Wiebe Hoek & Maarten Rijke (1993). Generalized Quantifiers and Modal Logic. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 2 (1):19-58.score: 24.0
    We study several modal languages in which some (sets of) generalized quantifiers can be represented; the main language we consider is suitable for defining any first order definable quantifier, but we also consider a sublanguage thereof, as well as a language for dealing with the modal counterparts of some higher order quantifiers. These languages are studied both from a modal logic perspective and from a quantifier perspective. Thus the issues addressed include normal forms, expressive power, completeness both of modal (...)
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  36. Kathleen M. Whitcomb (2005). Quasi-Bayesian Analysis Using Imprecise Probability Assessments And The Generalized Bayes' Rule. Theory and Decision 58 (2):209-238.score: 24.0
    The generalized Bayes’ rule (GBR) can be used to conduct ‘quasi-Bayesian’ analyses when prior beliefs are represented by imprecise probability models. We describe a procedure for deriving coherent imprecise probability models when the event space consists of a finite set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. The procedure is based on Walley’s theory of upper and lower prevision and employs simple linear programming models. We then describe how these models can be updated using Cozman’s linear programming formulation of the (...)
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  37. Thilo Hinterberger & Nikolaus Stillfried (2013). The Concept of Complementarity and its Role in Quantum Entanglement and Generalized Entanglement. Axiomathes 23 (3):443-459.score: 22.0
    The term complementarity plays a central role in quantum physics, not least in various approaches to defining entanglement and the conditions for its occurrence. It has, however, been used in a variety of ways by different authors, denoting different concepts and relationships. Here we describe and clarify some of them and analyze the role they play with respect to the phenomenon of entanglement. Based on these considerations we discuss the recently proposed system-theoretical generalization of the concepts entanglement and complementarity (Atmanspacher (...)
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  38. Thilo Hinterberger & Nikolaus von Stillfried (2013). The Concept of Complementarity and its Role in Quantum Entanglement and Generalized Entanglement. Axiomathes 23 (3):443-459.score: 22.0
    The term complementarity plays a central role in quantum physics, not least in various approaches to defining entanglement and the conditions for its occurrence. It has, however, been used in a variety of ways by different authors, denoting different concepts and relationships. Here we describe and clarify some of them and analyze the role they play with respect to the phenomenon of entanglement. Based on these considerations we discuss the recently proposed system-theoretical generalization of the concepts entanglement and complementarity (Atmanspacher (...)
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  39. Fabio Cardone, Alessio Marrani & Roberto Mignani (2004). Killing Symmetries of Generalized Minkowski Spaces. I. Algebraic-Infinitesimal Structure of Spacetime Rotation Groups. Foundations of Physics 34 (4):617-641.score: 21.0
  40. Fabio Cardone, Alessio Marrani & Roberto Mignani (2004). Killing Symmetries of Generalized Minkowski Spaces. Part 2: Finite Structure of Space–Time Rotation Groups in Four Dimensions. Foundations of Physics 34 (8):1155-1201.score: 21.0
  41. Fabio Cardone, Alessio Marrani & Roberto Mignani (2004). Killing Symmetries of Generalized Minkowski Spaces, 3: Spacetime Translations in Four Dimensions. Foundations of Physics 34 (9):1407-1429.score: 21.0
  42. Jakub Szymanik (2010). Computational Complexity of Polyadic Lifts of Generalized Quantifiers in Natural Language. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (3):215-250.score: 21.0
    We study the computational complexity of polyadic quantifiers in natural language. This type of quantification is widely used in formal semantics to model the meaning of multi-quantifier sentences. First, we show that the standard constructions that turn simple determiners into complex quantifiers, namely Boolean operations, iteration, cumulation, and resumption, are tractable. Then, we provide an insight into branching operation yielding intractable natural language multi-quantifier expressions. Next, we focus on a linguistic case study. We use computational complexity results to investigate semantic (...)
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  43. Werner Callebaut (2011). Beyond Generalized Darwinism. I. Evolutionary Economics From the Perspective of Naturalistic Philosophy of Biology. Biological Theory 6 (4):338-350.score: 21.0
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  44. Roger L. Mellgren & Dennis G. Dyck (1972). Partial Reinforcement Effect, Reverse Partial Reinforcement Effect, and Generalized Partial Reinforcement Effect Within Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (3):339.score: 21.0
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  45. G. Robert Grice & Herbert M. Goldman (1955). Generalized Extinction and Secondary Reinforcement in Visual Discrimination Learning with Delayed Reward. Journal of Experimental Psychology 50 (3):197.score: 21.0
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  46. John L. Moran, Patricia J. Solomon, Aaron R. Peisach & Jeffrey Martin (2007). New Models for Old Questions: Generalized Linear Models for Cost Prediction. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (3):381-389.score: 21.0
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  47. Arthur L. Rubin & Jean E. Rubin (1993). Weak Forms of the Axiom of Choice and the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 39 (1):7-22.score: 21.0
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  48. Joseph F. Rychlak (1958). Task-Influence and the Stability of Generalized Expectancies. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (5):459.score: 21.0
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  49. Edward A. Bilodeau, Judson S. Brown & John J. Meryman (1956). The Summation of Generalized Reactive Tendencies. Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (5):293.score: 21.0
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  50. Werner Callebaut (2011). Beyond Generalized Darwinism. II. More Things in Heaven and Earth. Biological Theory 6 (4):351-365.score: 21.0
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