Search results for 'sortals' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Bert Baumgaertner (2012). Vagueness Intuitions and the Mobility of Cognitive Sortals. Minds and Machines 22 (3):213-234.score: 18.0
    One feature of vague predicates is that, as far as appearances go, they lack sharp application boundaries. I argue that we would not be able to locate boundaries even if vague predicates had sharp boundaries. I do so by developing an idealized cognitive model of a categorization faculty which has mobile and dynamic sortals (`classes', `concepts' or `categories') and formally prove that the degree of precision with which boundaries of such sortals can be located is inversely constrained by (...)
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  2. Brian Epstein (2012). Sortals and Criteria of Identity. Analysis 72 (3):474-478.score: 18.0
    In a recent article, Harold Noonan argues that application conditions and criteria of identity are not distinct from one another. This seems to threaten the standard approach to distinguishing sortals from adjectival terms. I propose that his observation, while correct, does not have this consequence. I present a simple scheme for distinguishing sortals from adjectival terms. I also propose an amended version of the standard canonical form of criteria of identity.
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  3. John E. Sarnecki (2008). Sortals for Dummies. Erkenntnis 69 (2):145 - 164.score: 18.0
    Advocates of sortal essentialism have argued that concepts like “thing” or “object” lack the unambiguous individuative criteria necessary to play the role of genuine sortals in reference. Instead, they function as “dummy sortals” which are placeholders or incomplete designations. In disqualifying apparent placeholder sortals, however, these philosophers have posed insuperable problems for accounts of childhood conceptual development. I argue that recent evidence in psychology demonstrates that children do possess simple or basic sortals of physical objects or (...)
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  4. Anne Newstead (2003). Singling Out Objects Without Sortals. In Slezak Peter (ed.), International Conference on Cognitive Science (ICCS).score: 16.0
    It is argued that there are ways of individuating the objects of perception without using sortal concepts. The result is an moderate anti-sortalist position on which one can single out objects using demonstrative expressions without knowing exactly what sort of thing those objects are.
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  5. Friederike Moltmann, Proper Names, Sortals, and the Mass-Count Distinction.score: 12.0
    This paper reviews the role of sortals in the syntax and semantics of proper names and the related question of a mass-count distinction among proper names. The paper argues that sortals play a significant role with proper names and that that role matches individuating or ‘sortal’ classifiers in languages lacking a mass-count distinction. Proper names do not themselves classify as count, but may classify as mass or rather number-neutral. This also holds for other expressions or uses of expressions (...)
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  6. Max A. Freund (2007). A Two Dimensional Tense-Modal Sortal Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (5):571 - 598.score: 12.0
    We consider a formal language whose logical syntax involves both modal and tense propositional operators, as well as sortal quantifiers, sortal identities and (second order) quantifiers over sortals. We construct an intensional semantics for the language and characterize a formal logical system which we prove to be sound and complete with respect to the semantics. Conceptualism is the philosophical background of the semantic system.
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  7. Max A. Freund (2001). A Temporal Logic for Sortals. Studia Logica 69 (3):351-380.score: 12.0
    With the past and future tense propositional operators in its syntax, a formal logical system for sortal quantifiers, sortal identity and (second order) quantification over sortal concepts is formulated. A completeness proof for the system is constructed and its absolute consistency proved. The completeness proof is given relative to a notion of logical validity provided by an intensional semantic system, which assumes an approach to sortals from a modern form of conceptualism.
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  8. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2009). Solving the Caesar Problem Without Categorical Sortals. Erkenntnis 71 (2):141 - 155.score: 12.0
    The neo-Fregean account of arithmetical knowledge is centered around the abstraction principle known as Hume’s Principle: for any concepts X and Y , the number of X ’s is the same as the number of Y ’s just in case there is a 1–1 correspondence between X and Y . The Caesar Problem, originally raised by Frege in §56 of Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik , emerges in the context of the neo-Fregean programme, because, though Hume’s Principle provides a criterion of (...)
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  9. Max A. Freund (2000). A Complete and Consistent Formal System for Sortals. Studia Logica 65 (3):367-381.score: 12.0
    A formal logical system for sortal quantifiers, sortal identity and (second order) quantification over sortal concepts is formulated. The absolute consistency of the system is proved. A completeness proof for the system is also constructed. This proof is relative to a concept of logical validity provided by a semantics, which assumes as its philosophical background an approach to sortals from a modern form of conceptualism.
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  10. E. J. Lowe (2007). Sortals and the Individuation of Objects. Mind and Language 22 (5):514–533.score: 10.0
    It has long been debated whether objects are ‘sortally’ individuated. This paper begins by clarifying some of the key terms in play—in particular, ‘sortal’, ‘individuation’, and ‘object’. The term ‘individuation’ is taken to have both a cognitive and a metaphysical sense, in the former denoting the singling out of an object in thought and in the latter a determination relation between entities. ‘Sortalism’ is defined as the doctrine that only as falling under some specific sortal concept can an object be (...)
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  11. Tuomas E. Tahko (2013). More Kinds of Being: A Further Study of Individuation, Identity, and the Logic of Sortal Terms, by E. J. Lowe. [REVIEW] Mind 122 (485):302-305.score: 10.0
    Book review of 'More Kinds of Being: A Further Study of Individuation, Identity, and the Logic of Sortal Terms' (2009, Wiley-Blackwell). By E. J. LOWE.
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  12. Eric Marcus (2006). Events, Sortals, and the Mind-Body Problem. Synthese 150 (1):99-129.score: 10.0
    In recent decades, a view of identity I call Sortalism has gained popularity. According to this view, if a is identical to b, then there is some sortal S such that a is the same S as b. Sortalism has typically been discussed with respect to the identity of objects. I argue that the motivations for Sortalism about object-identity apply equally well to event-identity. But Sortalism about event-identity poses a serious threat to the view that mental events are token identical (...)
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  13. Troy T. Catterson (forthcoming). Sorting Out the Sortals: A Fregean Argument for Essentialism. Erkenntnis:1-21.score: 10.0
    In his paper, “Identity Statements and Essentialism,” Loux (New Scholast 44:431–439, 1971) seeks to demonstrate sortal essentialism based on Frege’s thesis that all statements of number concerning a collection require that the members fall under the same sortal concept. I shall attempt to argue that a detailed analysis of Loux’s argument reveals it as failing to imply the type of sortal dependency thesis necessary for the justification of sortal essentialism. However, if one construes the transworld identity relation as no different (...)
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  14. Michael B. Burke (1994). Preserving the Principle of One Object to a Place: A Novel Account of the Relations Among Objects, Sorts, Sortals, and Persistence Conditions. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (3):591-624.score: 9.0
  15. Michael R. Ayers (1974). Individuals Without Sortals. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 4 (1):113 - 148.score: 9.0
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  16. Marta Campdelacreu (2010). Naturalness, Vagueness, and Sortals. Metaphysica 11 (1):79-91.score: 9.0
    In the past few years, deflationary positions in the debate on the nature of composite material objects have become prominent. According to Ted Sider these include the thesis of quantifier variance, against which he has defended ontological realism. Recently, Sider has considered the possibility of rejecting his arguments against the vagueness of the unrestricted quantifiers in terms of translation functions. Against this strategy, he has presented an intuitive complaint and has argued that it can only be resisted if quantifier variance (...)
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  17. Richard E. Grandy, Sortals. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 9.0
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  18. Elias E. Savellos (1988). Contingent Metamorphosis and Substance Sortals. Philosophical Quarterly 38 (152):339-342.score: 9.0
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  19. Alex Blum (1971). Sortals and Paradox. Philosophical Studies 22 (3):33 - 34.score: 9.0
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  20. John Campbell (2006). Sortals and the Binding Problem. In Fraser MacBride (ed.), Identity and Modality. Oxford University Press. 203--18.score: 9.0
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  21. Adele Mercier (1998). On Communication-Based De Re Thought, Commitments De Dicto and Word Individuation. In R. Stainton & Murasagi (eds.), Philosophy and Linguistics. Westview Press. 85--111.score: 6.0
    Provides an account of how necessary subjective syntactic investments on the part of speakers affect the semantic contents of their words and the possibilities for their thought-contents.
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  22. Penelope Mackie (1994). Sortal Concepts and Essential Properties. Philosophical Quarterly 44 (176):311-333.score: 6.0
    The paper discusses sortal essentialism': the view that some sortal concepts represent essential properties of the things that fall under them. Although sortal essentialism is widely accepted, there is a dearth of theories purporting to explain why some sortals should have this characteristic. The paper examines two theories that do attempt this explanatory task, theories proposed by Baruch Brody and David Wiggins. It is argued that Brody's theory rests on an untenable principle about "de re" modality, while Wiggins' theory (...)
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  23. Edmund Runggaldier (1998). Sortal Continuity of Material Things. Erkenntnis 48 (2-3):359-369.score: 6.0
    Spatiotemporal and qualitative continuity are not sufficient to trace the career or path of one and the same object through its history. One needs sortal continuity, guaranteed by the form-token of the object. In this paper I concentrate on the question of sortal continuity linked to the problem of the cohabitation of objects. I intend to test whether it is possible to stick to the belief in continuants or endurers as well as the sortal dependence of identity and at the (...)
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  24. Max A. Freund (2004). A Modal Sortal Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 33 (3):237-260.score: 6.0
    An intensional semantic system for languages containing, in their logical syntax, sortal quantifiers, sortal identities, (second-order) quantifiers over sortals and the necessity operator is constructed. This semantics provides non-standard assignments to predicate expressions, which diverge in kind from the entities assigned to sortal terms by the same semantic system. The nature of the entities assigned to predicate expressions shows, at the same time, that there is an internal semantic connection between those expressions and sortal terms. A formal logical system (...)
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  25. Décio Krause & Steven French (2007). Quantum Sortal Predicates. Synthese 154 (3):417 - 430.score: 6.0
    Sortal predicates have been associated with a counting process, which acts as a criterion of identity for the individuals they correctly apply to. We discuss in what sense certain types of predicates suggested by quantum physics deserve the title of ‘sortal’ as well, although they do not characterize either a process of counting or a criterion of identity for the entities that fall under them. We call such predicates ‘quantum-sortal predicates’ and, instead of a process of counting, to them is (...)
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  26. Max Freund Carvajal (2011). Lógica, matemáticas y conceptualismo. Signos Filosóficos 13 (25):9-45.score: 6.0
    En este artículo muestro cómo el conceptualismo, como enfoque filosófico, podría ofrecer una motivación para el desarrollo de teorías lógicas y matemáticas. Así, estas teorías encontrarían su justificación filosófica en el conceptualismo.
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  27. Austen Clark (2006). Attention and Inscrutability: A Commentary on John Campbell, Reference and Consciousness. Philosophical Studies 127:167-193.score: 6.0
  28. John Campbell (2006). Does Visual Reference Depend on Sortal Classification? Reply to Clark. Philosophical Studies 127 (2):221-237.score: 5.0
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  29. Nuel Belnap & Thomas Müller (2013). BH-CIFOL: Case-Intensional First Order Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic (2-3):1-32.score: 5.0
    This paper follows Part I of our essay on case-intensional first-order logic (CIFOL; Belnap and Müller (2013)). We introduce a framework of branching histories to take account of indeterminism. Our system BH-CIFOL adds structure to the cases, which in Part I formed just a set: a case in BH-CIFOL is a moment/history pair, specifying both an element of a partial ordering of moments and one of the total courses of events (extending all the way into the future) that that moment (...)
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  30. Enrique Romerales (1999). Multiposibilismo. Una alternativa entre el actualismo y el realismo modal extremo. Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 21 (1):5.score: 5.0
    Can two objects occupy completely the same space for all of their careers? Yes, according to the standard theory, as long as they fall under different sortals; this happens when an object constitutes another. Nevertheless, to avoid spatio-temporally coincident objects many hypothesis have been proposed, none of which has reached consensus. An unexplored way of answering that question in the negative is to claim that if one object constitutes another only the constituted exists. This commits one to intermittent existence, (...)
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  31. Imogen Dickie (2014). The Sortal Dependence of Demonstrative Reference. European Journal of Philosophy 22 (1):34-60.score: 4.0
    : ‘Sortalism about demonstrative reference’ is the view that the capacity to refer to things demonstratively rests on the capacity to classify them according to their kinds. This paper argues for one form of sortalism. Section 1 distinguishes two sortalist views. Section 2 argues that one of them is false. Section 3 argues that the other is true. Section 4 uses the argument from Section 3 to develop a new response to the objection to sortalism from examples where we seem (...)
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  32. Shalom Lappin (1981). Sorts, Ontology, and Metaphor: The Semantics of Sortal Structure. W. De Gruyter.score: 4.0
    Sortally incorrect sentences have traditionally been referred to as "category mistakes" (Ryle ()) or "type crossings" (Drange ()). Sortal incorrectness is a ...
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  33. Edward L. Keenan (1993). Natural Language, Sortal Reducibility and Generalized Quantifiers. Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (1):314-325.score: 4.0
    Recent work in natural language semantics leads to some new observations on generalized quantifiers. In § 1 we show that English quantifiers of type $ $ are booleanly generated by their generalized universal and generalized existential members. These two classes also constitute the sortally reducible members of this type. Section 2 presents our main result--the Generalized Prefix Theorem (GPT). This theorem characterizes the conditions under which formulas of the form Q1x 1⋯ Qnx nRx 1⋯ xn and q1x 1⋯ qnx nRx (...)
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  34. Ed Keenan (1999). Quantification in English is Inherently Sortal. History and Philosophy of Logic 20 (3-4):251-265.score: 4.0
    Within Linguistics the semantic analysis of natural languages (English, Swahili, for example) has drawn extensively on semantical concepts first formulated and studied within classical logic, principally first order logic. Nowhere has this contribution been more substantive than in the domain of quantification and variable binding. As studies of these notions in natural language have developed they have taken on a life of their own, resulting in refinements and generalizations of the classical quantifiers as well as the discovery of new types (...)
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  35. D.\'ecio Krause & Steven French (2007). Quantum Sortal Predicates. Synthese 154 (3):417 - 430.score: 4.0
    Sortal predicates have been associated with a counting process, which acts as a criterion of identity for the individuals they correctly apply to. We discuss in what sense certain types of predicates suggested by quantum physics deserve the title of 'sortal' as well, although they do not characterize either a process of counting or a criterion of identity for the entities that fall under them. We call such predicates 'quantum-sortal predicates' and, instead of a process of counting, to them is (...)
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  36. Karen Bennett (2004). Spatio-Temporal Coincidence and the Grounding Problem. Philosophical Studies 118 (3):339-371.score: 3.0
    A lot of people believe that distinct objectscan occupy precisely the same place for theentire time during which they exist. Suchpeople have to provide an answer to the`grounding problem' – they have to explain howsuch things, alike in so many ways, nonethelessmanage to fall under different sortals, or havedifferent modal properties. I argue in detailthat they cannot say that there is anything invirtue of which spatio-temporally coincidentthings have those properties. However, I alsoargue that this may not be as bad (...)
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  37. Delia Graff Fara (2012). Possibility Relative to a Sortal. In Karen Bennett & Dean W. Zimmerman (eds.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics, volume 7. Oxford University Press.score: 3.0
    This paper is an informal presentation of the ideas presented formally in (”Relative-Sameness Counterpart Theory”. Relative-sameness relations -- such as being the same person as -- are like David Lewis’s “counterpart” relations in the following respects: (i) they may hold over time or across worlds between objects that aren’t cross-time or cross-world identical (I propose), and (ii) there are a multiplicity of them, different ones of which may be variously invoked in different contexts. They differ from his counterpart relations, however, (...)
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  38. Athanasios Raftopoulos (2009). Reference, Perception, and Attention. Philosophical Studies 144 (3):339 - 360.score: 3.0
    I examine John Campbell’s claim that the determination of the reference of a perceptual demonstrative requires conscious visual object-based selective attention. I argue that although Campbell’s claim to the effect that, first, a complex binding parameter is needed to establish the referent of a perceptual demonstrative, and, second, that this referent is determined independently of, and before, the application of sortals is correct, this binding parameter does not require object-based attention for its construction. If object-based attention were indeed required (...)
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  39. E. J. Lowe (2009). More Kinds of Being: A Further Study of Individuation, Identity, and the Logic of Sortal Terms. Wiley-Blackwell.score: 3.0
    Taking into account significant developments in the metaphysical thinking of E. J. Lowe over the past 20 years, More Kinds of Being:A Further Study of ...
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  40. Theodore Sider (2000). Recent Work on Identity Over Time. Philosophical Books 41 (2):81–89.score: 3.0
    I am now typing on a computer I bought two years ago. The computer I bought is identical to the computer on which I type. My computer persists over time. Let us divide our subject matter in two. There is first the question of criteria of identity, the conditions governing when an object of a certain kind, a computer for instance, persists until some later time. There are secondly very general questions about the nature of persistence itself. Here I include (...)
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  41. Mohan P. Matthen (2006). On Visual Experience of Objects: Comments on John Campbell's Reference and Consciousness. Philosophical Studies 127 (2):195-220.score: 3.0
    John Campbell argues that visual attention to objects is the means by which we can refer to objects, and that this is so because conscious visual attention enables us to retrieve information about a location. It is argued here that while Campbell is right to think that we visually attend to objects, he does not give us sufficient ground for thinking that consciousness is involved, and is wrong to assign an intermediary role to location. Campbell’s view on sortals is (...)
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  42. David Wiggins (1997). Sortal Concepts: A Reply to Xu. Mind and Language 12 (3&4):413–421.score: 3.0
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  43. E. J. Lowe (1986). Sortal Terms and Absolute Identity. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (1):64 – 71.score: 3.0
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  44. Michael Ayers (1997). Is Physical Object a Sortal Concept? A Reply to Xu. Mind and Language 12 (3&4):393–405.score: 3.0
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  45. Jim Stone (2002). Why Sortal Essentialism Cannot Solve Chrysippus’s Puzzle. Analysis 62 (275):216–223.score: 3.0
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  46. Alfonso Gómez-Lobo (2005). On Potentiality and Respect for Embryos: A Reply to Mary Mahowald. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (2):105-110.score: 3.0
    In order to understand the nature of human embryos I first distinguish between active and passive potentiality, and then argue that the former is found in human gametes and embryos (even in embryos in vitro that may fail to be implanted) because they all have an indwelling power or capacity to initiate certain changes. Implantation provides necessary conditions for the actualization of that prior, active potentiality. This does not imply that embryos are potential persons that do not deserve the same (...)
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  47. James A. McGilvray (1994). Constant Colors in the Head. Synthese 100 (2):197-239.score: 3.0
    I defend a version of color subjectivism — that colors are sortals for certain neural events — by arguing against a sophisticated form of color objectivism and by showing how a subjectivist can legitimately explain the phenomenal fact that colors seem to be properties of external objects.
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  48. Harold W. Noonan (1978). Sortal Concepts and Identity. Mind 87 (346):267-269.score: 3.0
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  49. Gary S. Rosenkrantz (2010). Review of E. J. Lowe, More Kinds of Being: A Further Study of Individuation, Identity, and the Logic of Sortal Terms. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (8).score: 3.0
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