Search results for '*Animals' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Tania D. Signal & Nicola Taylor (2006). Attitudes to Animals in the Animal Protection Community Compared to a Normative Community Sample. Society and Animals 14 (3):265.
    Attitudes toward the treatment of nonhuman animals in the animal protection community remain largely under researched. In an attempt to begin to rectify this, this study conducted a survey of 407 members of the animal protection community using the Animal Attitude Scale . The survey also asked participants to indicate whether they identified more with animal rights or animal welfare perspectives and a direct or indirect action approach to securing animal protection. Results of the current study indicate that, regardless of (...)
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  2. George Jacobs & Arran Stibbe (2006). Guest Editors' Introduction: Animals and Language. Society and Animals 14 (1):1-7.
    The twentieth century saw what could be described as a parting of the ways between humans and other species of animal in many parts of the world. Increasing urbanization and the intensification of farming resulted in restricted opportunities to interact directly with other animals, particularly freeroaming animals in their natural habitats. At the same time, changes in technology led to greatly increased opportunities to come into contact with animals indirectly through their representation in media such as film, television, and the (...)
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  3. Roarke Pulcino & Bill Henry (2009). Individual Difference and Study-Specific Characteristics Influencing Attitudes About the Use of Animals in Medical Research. Society and Animals 17 (4):305-324.
    Research has shown that both individual difference characteristics and study-specific characteristics influence the extent to which people support or oppose the use of animals in research. The current study examined how three study-specific characteristics influenced attitudes toward the use of animals in biomedical research. Participants read one of 27 scenarios describing the use of an animal in research. Scenarios systematically varied each of the study-specific characteristics described above. Participants then completed a survey to assess their support for, or opposition to, (...)
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  4. Andrea Gaynor (2007). Animal Agendas: Conflict Over Productive Animals in Twentieth-Century Australian Cities. Society and Animals 15 (1):29-42.
    Over the course of the twentieth century, the number of productive nonhuman animals in Australian cities declined dramatically. This decline resulted—at least in part—from an imaginative geography, in which productive animals were deemed inappropriate occupants of urban spaces. A class-based prioritization of amenity, privacy, order, and the protection of real property values—as well as a gender order within which animal-keeping was not recognized as a legitimate economic activity for women—shaped this imaginative geography of animals that found its most critical expression (...)
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  5. Bill Henry & Roarke Pulcino (2009). Individual Difference and Study-Specific Characteristics Influencing Attitudes About the Use of Animals in Medical Research. Society and Animals 17 (4):305-324.
    Research has shown that both individual difference characteristics and study-specific characteristics influence the extent to which people support or oppose the use of animals in research. The current study examined how three study-specific characteristics influenced attitudes toward the use of animals in biomedical research. Participants read one of 27 scenarios describing the use of an animal in research. Scenarios systematically varied each of the study-specific characteristics described above. Participants then completed a survey to assess their support for, or opposition to, (...)
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  6. David A. H. Wilson (2009). Racial Prejudice and the Performing Animals Controversy in Early Twentieth-Century Britain. Society and Animals 17 (2):149-165.
    This paper attempts to show how racial prejudice and selective, usually inarticulate, racial discrimination influenced attempts to conduct an objective examination of charges of cruelty in the training and exhibition of performing animals in Britain in the early twentieth century. As the debate intensified, and following the appointment of a parliamentary Select Committee, one explanation often given by both sides for shortcomings in the treatment of performing animals was the alleged cruelty particularly or exclusively attributable to the “alien enemy,” “foreigners,” (...)
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  7.  53
    Nicola Taylor & Tania Signal (2006). Attitudes to Animals in the Animal Protection Community Compared to a Normative Community Sample. Society and Animals 14 (3):265-274.
    Attitudes toward the treatment of nonhuman animals in the animal protection community remain largely under researched. In an attempt to begin to rectify this, this study conducted a survey of 407 members of the animal protection community using the Animal Attitude Scale . The survey also asked participants to indicate whether they identified more with animal rights or animal welfare perspectives and a direct or indirect action approach to securing animal protection. Results of the current study indicate that, regardless of (...)
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  8.  18
    Christoph Randler, Eberhard Hummel & Pavol Prokop (2012). Practical Work at School Reduces Disgust and Fear of Unpopular Animals. Society and Animals 20 (1):61-74.
    Disgust and fear are basic emotions that protect humans against pathogens and/or predators. Natural selection favored individuals who successfully escaped or avoided harmful animals; thus animals who pose a disease threat activate aversive responses in humans. However, all these animals who are generally disliked have rights to their own existence and play important roles in ecosystems. Here, we used three unpopular live animals in practical biology work with 11-13-year-old children . The control group had no opportunity to work with animals. (...)
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  9.  4
    Iztok Tomažič (2011). Seventh Graders' Direct Experience with, and Feelings Toward, Amphibians and Some Other Nonhuman Animals. Society and Animals 19 (3):225-247.
    This study investigated how seventh-grade students rate their fear of, and disgust toward, amphibians in comparison to some other nonhuman animal species. For the purpose of evaluating these variables, a questionnaire with open-ended and self-report questions was used. The study found that direct experience of animals significantly affects students’ self-reported fear and disgust ratings. Boys generally reported less fear and disgust toward animals than girls. With regard to amphibians, students expressed relatively high disgust, but low fear. There were no differences (...)
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  10.  11
    Jill Jepson (2008). A Linguistic Analysis of Discourse on the Killing of Nonhuman Animals. Society and Animals 16 (2):127-148.
    Human attitudes about killing nonhuman animals are complex, ambivalent, and contradictory. This study attempts to elucidate those attitudes through a linguistic analysis of the terms used to refer to the killing of animals. Whereas terms used for killing human beings are highly specific and differentiated on the basis of the motivation for the killing, the nature of the participants, and evaluative and emotional content, terms used for killing animals are vague and interchangeable. Terms for animal-killing often background aspects of the (...)
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  11.  25
    K. Smilla Ebeling (2011). Sexing the Rotifer: Reading Nonhuman Animals' Sex and Reproduction in 19th-Century Biology. Society and Animals 19 (3):305-315.
    This paper looks at the role nonhuman animals play in how we think about sex, gender, and sexuality in zoology and in society. In examining the history of ideas regarding a microscopic invertebrate species—rotifers—the paper explores how humans have projected aspects of their lives onto nonhuman animals and how they have extrapolated from nonhuman animals to human society. The paper emphasizes the intersections between knowledge about nonhuman animals and gender and sexuality politics.
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  12.  17
    Joel MacClellan (2013). "What the Wild Things Are: A Critique on Clare Palmer's" What Do We Owe Animals?". Between the Species: An Electronic Journal for the Study of Philosophy and Animals 16 (1):6.
    This paper critiques Clare Palmer’s “What do we owe wild animals?” on three grounds. First, it is argued that, Palmer’s opening case study notwithstanding, there are good empirical reasons to think that we should assist domesticated horses and not wild deer. Then, Palmer’s claim that “wildness is not a capacity” is brought into question, and it is argued that wildness connotes certain capacities which wild animals generally have and which domesticated animals generally lack. Lastly, the “supererogation problem” is developed against (...)
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  13.  8
    Gaëtanelle Gilquin & George Jacobs (2006). Elephants Who Marry Mice Are Very Unusual: The Use of the Relative Pronoun Who with Nonhuman Animals. Society and Animals 14 (1):79-105.
    This paper explores the use of the relative pronoun with nonhuman animals. The paper looks at what dictionaries, an encyclopedia, grammars, publication manuals, newspapers, and news agencies say and do relative to this issue. In addition to investigating the views and practices of these authoritative publications, the study also searched a 100-million-word collection of spoken and written English. The study found that while some reference works reject or ignore the use of with nonhuman animals, other works discuss the possibility, and (...)
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  14.  5
    Dan Lyons (2011). Protecting Animals Versus the Pursuit of Knowledge: The Evolution of the British Animal Research Policy Process. Society and Animals 19 (4):356-367.
    Animal research in the United Kingdom is regulated by the Animals Act 1986, which requires a government minister to weigh the expected suffering of animals against the expected benefits of a proposed animal research project—the “cost-benefit assessment”—before licensing the project. Research into the implementation of this legislation has been severely constrained by statutory confidentiality. This paper overcomes this hindrance by describing a critical case study based on unprecedented primary data: pig-to-primate organ transplantation conducted between 1995 and 2000. It reveals that (...)
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  15.  6
    Ann C. Eckardt Erlanger & Sergei V. Tsytsarev (2012). The Relationship Between Empathy and Personality in Undergraduate Students’ Attitudes Toward Nonhuman Animals. Society and Animals 20 (1):21-38.
    The majority of research investigating beliefs toward nonhuman animals has focused on vivisection or utilized populations with clear views on animal issues . Minimal research has been conducted on what personality factors influence a nonclinical or nonadjudicated population’s beliefs about the treatment of animals. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of empathy and personality traits in attitudes about the treatment of animals in 241 undergraduate students. Results indicated that those with high levels of empathy held (...)
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  16.  5
    Susan Nance (2012). On Wild Animals, Hubris, and Redemption. Society and Animals 20 (4):401-407.
    This review considers three recent films that focus on the lives of captive exotic animals and the people who keep them: Water for Elephants , a fictional Hollywood feature, and the documentaries One Lucky Elephant and The Elephant in the Living Room . Despite their different motivations and target audiences, all three productions tell the stories of well-meaning people who take wild animals captive—most prominently elephants and lions—believing that only they can keep the animals safe and fulfilled. In each context, (...)
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  17.  3
    Claudine Burton-Jeangros & Annik Dubied Losa (2011). Human and Nonhuman Animals, Mutually at Risk: A Study of the Swiss Information Media. Society and Animals 19 (4):337-355.
    Nowadays, relationships between nonhuman animals and humans are debated, often in relation to issues associated with the risks they represent for each other. On the one hand, new diseases and accidents indicate that animals are not as innocuous as they were long thought; on the other hand, the now questioned human impact on the natural environment is considered a risk for animals. This research analyzed these contrasting images of animals in the Swiss information media. Of the five main animal figures (...)
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  18.  2
    Eberhard Hummel, Christoph Randler & Pavol Prokop (2012). Practical Work at School Reduces Disgust and Fear of Unpopular Animals. Society and Animals 20 (1):61-74.
    Disgust and fear are basic emotions that protect humans against pathogens and/or predators. Natural selection favored individuals who successfully escaped or avoided harmful animals; thus animals who pose a disease threat activate aversive responses in humans. However, all these animals who are generally disliked have rights to their own existence and play important roles in ecosystems. Here, we used three unpopular live animals in practical biology work with 11-13-year-old children . The control group had no opportunity to work with animals. (...)
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  19.  1
    Annik Dubied Losa & Claudine Burton-Jeangros (2011). Human and Nonhuman Animals, Mutually at Risk: A Study of the Swiss Information Media. Society and Animals 19 (4):337-355.
    Nowadays, relationships between nonhuman animals and humans are debated, often in relation to issues associated with the risks they represent for each other. On the one hand, new diseases and accidents indicate that animals are not as innocuous as they were long thought; on the other hand, the now questioned human impact on the natural environment is considered a risk for animals. This research analyzed these contrasting images of animals in the Swiss information media. Of the five main animal figures (...)
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  20.  1
    Carmen Sorge (2008). The Relationship Between Bonding with Nonhuman Animals and Students' Attitudes Toward Science. Society and Animals 16 (2):171-184.
    This paper examines the relationship of bonding with nonhuman animals during an interactive, animal-in-the-wild science program and the science attitudes of 358 young children between the ages of 8 and 14 Talking Talons utilizes typically wild animals such as raptors, reptiles, and bats in a school-based educational science curriculum. Qualitative data from interviews with students in the program indicated that "bonding with animals" and the educators within the program were related to increased positive attitudes toward science. The program used quantitative (...)
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  21.  1
    Josephine Donovan (2013). Provincial Life with Animals. Society and Animals 21 (1):17-33.
    The relationship of peasants and villagers with their animals in the premodern era is a missing chapter in the history of human-animal relations. Works on peasant culture ignore animals, and works on animals neglect their place in rural lives. This article, based on the depiction of premodern peasant and village life in hundreds of local-color novels and stories of the early nineteenth century, begins to fill in this gap in animal studies scholarship. It reveals that many of the defining boundaries (...)
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  22. Colin McLear (forthcoming). Animals and Objectivity. In Lucy Allais & John Callanan (eds.), Kant on Animals. Oxford University Press
    Starting from the assumption that Kant allows for the possible existence of conscious sensory states in non-rational animals, I examine the textual and philosophical grounds for his acceptance of the possibility that such states are also 'objective'. I elucidate different senses of what might be meant in crediting a cognitive state as objective. I then put forward and defend an interpretation according to which the cognitive states of animals, though extremely limited on Kant's view, are nevertheless minimally objective.
     
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  23. Arran Stibbe & George Jacobs (2006). Animals and Language. Society and Animals 14 (1):1-7.
    This is the introduction to a special issue of the journal. The special issue deals with the language humans use to talk about our fellow animals. The introduction introduces each of the articles.
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  24.  14
    Mary Midgley (1983). Animals and Why They Matter. University of Georgia Press.
    Whether considering vegetarianism, women's rights, or the "humanity" of pets, this book goes to the heart of the question of why all animals matter.
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  25.  58
    Stephen Puryear (forthcoming). Schopenhauer on the Rights of Animals. European Journal of Philosophy.
    I argue that Schopenhauer’s ascription of (moral) rights to animals flows naturally from his distinctive analysis of the concept of a right. In contrast to those who regard rights as fundamental and then cast wrongdoing as a matter of violating rights, he takes wrong (Unrecht) to be the more fundamental notion and defines the concept of a right (Recht) in its terms. He then offers an account of wrongdoing which makes it plausible to suppose that at least many animals can (...)
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  26.  10
    Robert W. Lurz (2011). Mindreading Animals: The Debate Over What Animals Know About Other Minds. A Bradford Book.
    But do animals know that other creatures have minds? And how would we know if they do? In "Mindreading Animals," Robert Lurz offers a fresh approach to the hotly debated question of mental-state attribution in nonhuman animals.
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  27.  28
    Peter Singer (ed.) (2013). In Defense of Animals. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Bringing together new essays by philosophers and activists, _In Defense of Animals: The Second Wave_ highlights the new challenges facing the animal rights movement. Exciting new collection edited by controversial philosopher Peter Singer, who made animal rights into an international concern when he first published _In Defence of Animals_ and _Animal Liberation_ over thirty years ago Essays explore new ways of measuring animal suffering, reassess the question of personhood, and draw highlight tales of effective advocacy Lays out “Ten Tips for (...)
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  28.  40
    Gary Hatfield (2008). Animals. In Janet Broughton & John Carriero (eds.), Companion to Descartes. Blackwell 404–425.
    This chapter considers philosophical problems concerning non-human (and sometimes human) animals, including their metaphysical, physical, and moral status, their origin, what makes them alive, their functional organization, and the basis of their sensitive and cognitive capacities. I proceed by assuming what most of Descartes’s followers and interpreters have held: that Descartes proposed that animals lack sentience, feeling, and genuinely cognitive representations of things. (Some scholars interpret Descartes differently, denying that he excluded sentience, feeling, and representation from animals, and I consider (...)
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  29. Dan Demetriou (2015). Fighting Fair: The Ecology of Honor in Humans and Animals. In Jonathan Crane (ed.), Beastly Morality. Columbia University Press 123-154.
    This essay distinguishes between honor-typical and authoritarian behavior in humans and animals. Whereas authoritarianism concerns hierarchies coordinated by control and obedience, honor concerns rankings of prestige determined by fair contests. Honor-typical behavior is identifiable in non-human species, and is to be expected in polygynous species with non-resource-based mating systems. This picture lends further support to an increasingly popular psychological theory that sees morality as constituted by a variety of moral systems. If moral cognition is pluralistic in this way, then the (...)
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  30. Mariska Leunissen & Allan Gotthelf (2010). What's Teleology Got to Do with It? A Reinterpretation of Aristotle's Generation of Animals V. Phronesis 55 (4):325-356.
    Despite the renewed interest in Aristotle’s Generation of Animals in recent years, the subject matter of GA V, its preferred mode(s) of explanation, and its place in the treatise as a whole remain misunderstood. Scholars focus on GA I-IV, which explain animal generation in terms of efficient-final causation, but dismiss GA V as a mere appendix, thinking it to concern (a) individual, accidental differences among animals, which are (b) purely materially necessitated, and (c) are only tangentially related to the topics (...)
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  31.  3
    Charles Darwin (1883). The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    The publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species in 1859 ignited a public storm he neither wanted nor enjoyed. Having offered his book as a contribution to science, Darwin discovered to his dismay that it was received as an affront by many scientists and as a sacrilege by clergy and Christian citizens. To answer the criticism that his theory was a theory only, and a wild one at that, he published two volumes in 1868 to demonstrate that evolution was (...)
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  32.  10
    Trevor Hedberg (2016). Animals, Relations, and the Laissez-Faire Intuition. Environmental Values 25 (4):427-442.
    In Animal Ethics in Context, Clare Palmer tries to harmonise two competing approaches to animal ethics. One focuses on the morally relevant capacities that animals possess. The other is the Laissez-Faire Intuition (LFI): the claim that we have duties to assist domesticated animals but should (at least generally) leave wild animals alone. In this paper, I critique the arguments that Palmer offers in favour of the No-Contact LFI - the view that we have (prima facie) duties not to harm wild (...)
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  33. Michael Cholbi (2014). A Direct Kantian Duty to Animals. Southern Journal of Philosophy 52 (3):338-358.
    Kant's view that we have only indirect duties to animals fails to capture the intuitive notion that wronging animals transgresses duties we owe to those animals. Here I argue that a suitably modified Kantianism can allow for direct duties to animals and, in particular, an imperfect duty to promote animal welfare without unduly compromising its core theoretical commitments, especially its commitments concerning the source and nature of our duties toward rational beings. The basis for such duties is that animal welfare, (...)
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  34.  53
    Rainer Ebert & Tibor R. Machan (2012). Innocent Threats and the Moral Problem of Carnivorous Animals. Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (2):146-159.
    The existence of predatory animals is a problem in animal ethics that is often not taken as seriously as it should be. We show that it reveals a weakness in Tom Regan's theory of animal rights that also becomes apparent in his treatment of innocent human threats. We show that there are cases in which Regan's justice-prevails-approach to morality implies a duty not to assist the jeopardized, contrary to his own moral beliefs. While a modified account of animal rights that (...)
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  35. Devin Henry (2009). Aristotle’s Generation of Animals. In Georgios Anagnostopoulos (ed.), A Companion to Aristotle. Blackwell-Wiley
    A general article discussing philosophical issues arising in connection with Aristotle's "Generation of Animals" (Chapter from Blackwell's Companion to Aristotle).
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  36. Paul Shapiro (2006). Moral Agency in Other Animals. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (4):357-373.
    Some philosophers have argued that moral agency is characteristic of humans alone and that its absence from other animals justifies granting higher moral status to humans. However, human beings do not have a monopoly on moral agency, which admits of varying degrees and does not require mastery of moral principles. The view that all and only humans possess moral agency indicates our underestimation of the mental lives of other animals. Since many other animals are moral agents (to varying degrees), they (...)
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  37. Christiane Bailey (2011). Kinds of Life. On the Phenomenological Basis of the Distinction Between Higher and Lower Animals. Journal of Environmental Philosophy 8 (2):47-68.
    Drawing upon Husserl and Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological constitution of the Other through Einfülhung, I argue that the hierarchical distinction between higher and lower animals – which has been dismissed by Heidegger for being anthropocentric – must not be conceived as an objective distinction between “primitive” animals and “more evolved” ones, but rather corresponds to a phenomenological distinction between familiar and unfamiliar animals.
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  38.  21
    Roger Scruton (2013). Our Love for Animals. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):479-484.
    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.
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  39.  79
    Rob De Vries (2006). Genetic Engineering and the Integrity of Animals. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (5):469-493.
    Genetic engineering evokes a number of objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. The concept of animal integrity is often invoked to articulate these kind of objections. Moreover, in reaction to the advent of genetic engineering, the concept has been extended from the level of the individual animal to the level of the genome and of the species. However, the concept of animal integrity was not (...)
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  40.  57
    Rocco J. Gennaro (2009). Animals, Consciousness, and I-Thoughts. In Robert W. Lurz (ed.), The Philosophy of Animal Minds. Cambridge University Press 184--200.
    I argue that recent developments in animal cognition support the conclusion that HOT theory is consistent with animal consciousness. There seems to be growing evidence that many animals are indeed capable of having I-thoughts, including episodic memory, as well as have the ability to understand the mental states of others.
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  41.  60
    Robert Garner (2012). Rawls, Animals and Justice: New Literature, Same Response. [REVIEW] Res Publica 18 (2):159-172.
    This article seeks to revisit the relationship between Rawls’s contractarianism and the moral status of animals, paying particular attention to the recent literature. Despite Rawls’s own reluctance to include animals as recipients of justice, and my own initial scepticism, a number of scholars have argued that his theory does provide resources that are useful for the animal advocate. The first type takes Rawls’s exclusion of animals from his theory of justice at face value but argues that animals can still be (...)
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  42.  8
    Margaret B. Adam (2014). The Particularity of Animals and of Jesus Christ. Zygon 49 (3):746-751.
    Clough's theological account of animals critiques the familiar negative identification of animals as not-human. Instead, Clough highlights both the distinctive particularity of each animal as created by God and the shared fleshly creatureliness of human and nonhuman animals. He encourages Christians to recognize Jesus Christ as God enfleshed more than divinely human, and consequently to care for nonhuman animals as those who share with human animals in the redemption of all flesh. This move risks downplaying the possibilities for creaturely specific (...)
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  43.  8
    David Fergusson (2014). God, Christ, and Animals. Zygon 49 (3):741-745.
    One of the most significant contributions to the field in recent times, David Clough's work On Animals: Volume 1, Systematic Theology, should ensure that theologies of creation, redemption, and eschatological fulfillment give proper attention to animals. In a landmark study, he draws upon resources in Scripture and tradition to present a systematic theology that is alert to the place of animals in the divine economy. Amidst his relentless criticism of all forms of anthropocentrism, however, it is asked whether some unresolved (...)
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  44.  4
    William David Hart (2014). Slaves, Fetuses, and Animals. Journal of Religious Ethics 42 (4):661-690.
    This essay is an exploration in ethical rhetoric, specifically, the ethics of comparing the status of fetuses and animals to enslaved Africans. On the view of those who make such comparisons, the fetus is treated as a slave through abortion, reproductive technologies, and stem cell research, while animals are enslaved through factory farming, experimentation, and as laborers, circus performers, and the like. I explore how the apotheosis of the fetus and the humanization of animals represent the flipside of the subjugation (...)
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  45.  35
    Nina E. Cohen, Frans W. A. Brom & Elsbeth N. Stassen (2009). Fundamental Moral Attitudes to Animals and Their Role in Judgment: An Empirical Model to Describe Fundamental Moral Attitudes to Animals and Their Role in Judgment on the Culling of Healthy Animals During an Animal Disease Epidemic. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (4):341-359.
    In this paper, we present and defend the theoretical framework of an empirical model to describe people’s fundamental moral attitudes (FMAs) to animals, the stratification of FMAs in society and the role of FMAs in judgment on the culling of healthy animals in an animal disease epidemic. We used philosophical animal ethics theories to understand the moral basis of FMA convictions. Moreover, these theories provide us with a moral language for communication between animal ethics, FMAs, and public debates. We defend (...)
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  46.  61
    Michael Naas (2010). Derridas Flair (For the Animals to Follow...). Research in Phenomenology 40 (2):219-242.
    This essay traces the history of Jacques Derrida's engagement with the question of the animal and the methodology Derrida follows in his 2008 The Animal That Therefore I Am . As Derrida demonstrates, the history of philosophy is marked from its inception by an attempt to draw a single, indivisible line between humans and all other animals by attributing some capacity to humans (e.g., language, culture, mourning, a relationship to death) and denying it to animals. Derrida thus begins by questioning (...)
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  47. Elizabeth Cripps (2010). Saving the Polar Bear, Saving the World: Can the Capabilities Approach Do Justice to Humans, Animals and Ecosystems? [REVIEW] Res Publica 16 (1):1-22.
    Martha Nussbaum has expanded the capabilities approach to defend positive duties of justice to individuals who fall below Rawls’ standard for fully cooperating members of society, including sentient nonhuman animals. Building on this, David Schlosberg has defended the extension of capabilities justice not only to individual animals but also to entire species and ecosystems. This is an attractive vision: a happy marriage of social, environmental and ecological justice, which also respects the claims of individual animals. This paper asks whether it (...)
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  48. Randy Malamud (1998). Reading Zoos: Representations of Animals and Captivity. New York University Press.
    A caged animal in the heart of the city, thousands of miles from its natural habitat, neurotically pacing in its confinement . . . Zoos offer a convenient way to indulge a cultural appetite for novelty and diversion, and to teach us, albeit superficially, about animals. Yet what, conversely, do they tell us about the people who create, maintain, and patronize them, and about animal captivity in general? Rather than foster an appreciation for the lives and attributes of animals, zoos, (...)
     
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  49.  96
    Lara Denis (2000). Kant's Conception of Duties Regarding Animals: Reconstruction and Reconsideration. History of Philosophy Quarterly 17 (4):405-23.
    In Kant’s moral theory, we do not have duties to animals, though we have duties with regard to them. I reconstruct Kant’s arguments for several types of duties with regard to animals and show that Kant’s theory imposes far more robust requirements on our treatment of animals than one would expect. Kant’s duties regarding animals are perfect and imperfect; they are primarily but not exclusively duties to oneself; and they condemn not merely cruelty to animals for its own sake, but (...)
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    Mark Rowlands & Susana Monsó (forthcoming). Animals as Reflexive Thinkers: The Aponoian Paradigm. In Linda Kalof (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Animal Studies. Oxford University Press
    The ability to engage in reflexive thought—in thought about thought or about other mental states more generally—is regarded as a complex intellectual achievement that is beyond the capacities of most nonhuman animals. To the extent that reflexive thought capacities are believed necessary for the possession of many other psychological states or capacities, including consciousness, belief, emotion, and empathy, the inability of animals to engage in reflexive thought calls into question their other psychological abilities. This chapter attacks the idea that reflexive (...)
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