Search results for '*Cognitive Processes' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Frank van der Velde & Marc de Kamps (2002). Synchrony in the Eye of the Beholder: An Analysis of the Role of Neural Synchronization in Cognitive Processes. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):291-312.score: 126.0
    We discuss the role of synchrony of activationin higher-level cognitive processes. Inparticular, we analyze the question of whethersynchrony of activation provides a mechanismfor compositional representation in neuralsystems. We will argue that synchrony ofactivation does not provide a mechanism forcompositional representation in neural systems.At face value, one can identify a level ofcompositional representation in the models thatintroduce synchrony of activation for thispurpose. But behavior in these models isalways produced by means conjunctiverepresentations in the form of coincidencedetectors. Therefore, models that rely (...)
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  2. Robert W. Kentridge & Charles A. Heywood (2001). Attention and Alerting: Cognitive Processes Spared in Blindsight. In Beatrice De Gelder, Edward H. F. De Haan & Charles A. Heywood (eds.), Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processes. Oxford University Press. 163-181.score: 110.0
  3. Joseph M. Notterman (2000). Note on Reductionism in Cognitive Psychology: Reification of Cognitive Processes Into Mind, Mind-Brain Equivalence, and Brain-Computer Analogy. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 20 (2):116-121.score: 105.0
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  4. John J. Furedy & Karl Schiffman (1973). Concurrent Measurement of Autonomic and Cognitive Processes in a Test of the Traditional Discriminative Control Procedure for Pavlovian Electrodermal Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 100 (1):210.score: 105.0
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  5. Tobias Egner & Amir Raz (2007). Cognitive Control Processes and Hypnosis. In Graham A. Jamieson (ed.), Hypnosis and Conscious States: The Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. Oxford University Press. 29-50.score: 97.0
  6. E. A. Haggard (1943). Experimental Studies in Affective Processes: I. Some Effects of Cognitive Structure and Active Participation on Certain Autonomic Reactions During and Following Experimentally Induced Stress. Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (4):257.score: 85.0
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  7. Mark Rowlands (1999). The Body in Mind: Understanding Cognitive Processes. Cambridge University Press.score: 84.0
    In this book, Mark Rowlands challenges the Cartesian view of the mind as a self-contained monadic entity, and offers in its place a radical externalist or environmentalist model of cognitive processes. Drawing on both evolutionary theory and a detailed examination of the processes involved in perception, memory, thought and language use, Rowlands argues that cognition is, in part, a process whereby creatures manipulate and exploit relevant objects in their environment. This innovative book provides a foundation for an unorthodox (...)
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  8. James Virtel & Gualtiero Piccinini (2010). Are Prototypes and Exemplars Used in Distinct Cognitive Processes? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):226 - 227.score: 84.0
    We argue that Machery provides no convincing evidence that prototypes and exemplars are typically used in distinct cognitive processes. This partially undermines the fourth tenet of the Heterogeneity Hypothesis and thus casts doubts on Machery’s way of splitting concepts into different kinds. Although Machery may be right that concepts split into different kinds, such kinds may be different from those countenanced by the Heterogeneity Hypothesis.
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  9. Graeme S. Halford, William H. Wilson & Steven Phillips (1998). Relational Complexity Metric is Effective When Assessments Are Based on Actual Cognitive Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):848-860.score: 84.0
    The core issue of our target article concerns how relational complexity should be assessed. We propose that assessments must be based on actual cognitive processes used in performing each step of a task. Complexity comparisons are important for the orderly interpretation of research findings. The links between relational complexity theory and several other formulations, as well as its implications for neural functioning, connectionist models, the roles of knowledge, and individual and developmental differences, are considered.
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  10. Ulrich Hoffrage (2000). Why the Analyses of Cognitive Processes Matter. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):679-680.score: 84.0
    Stanovich & West analyze individual differences with respect to response output (e.g., participants' numerical estimates). They do not analyze the underlying cognitive processes that led to the outputs; they thereby probably misclassify some non-normative responses as normative. Using base rate neglect and overconfidence as examples, I demonstrate the advantages of analyzing cognitive processes further.
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  11. Luca Pezzullo (2002). Cheating Neuropsychologists: A Study of Cognitive Processes Involved in Scientific Anomalies Resolution. Mind and Society 3 (1):43-50.score: 84.0
    This research was carried out to explore some of the cognitive processes involved in scientific anomalies resolution. 40 subjects with a good neuropsychology expertise were asked to explain two (invented) anomalous neuropsychological cases. The subjects' efforts to give a meaningful structure to the data were recorded, and the resulting reasoning blocks were analysed to extract and compute the inferential (deductive, inductive and abductive) and analogical processes used. The processes were intercorrelated to experimentally verify the co-occurrence of different (...)
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  12. Luis Emilio Bruni (2008). Hierarchical Categorical Perception in Sensing and Cognitive Processes. Biosemiotics 1 (1):113-130.score: 84.0
    This article considers categorical perception (CP) as a crucial process involved in all sort of communication throughout the biological hierarchy, i.e. in all of biosemiosis. Until now, there has been consideration of CP exclusively within the functional cycle of perception–cognition–action and it has not been considered the possibility to extend this kind of phenomena to the mere physiological level. To generalise the notion of CP in this sense, I have proposed to distinguish between categorical perception (CP) and categorical sensing (CS) (...)
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  13. Ralph L. Holloway (2012). Language and Tool Making Are Similar Cognitive Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):226-226.score: 80.0
    Design features for language and stone toolmaking (not tool use) involve similar if not homologous cognitive processes. Both are arbitrary transformations of internal symbolization, whereas non-human tool using is mostly an iconic transformation. The major discontinuity between humans and non-humans (chimpanzees) is language. The presence of stone tools made to standardized patterns suggests communicative and social control skills that involved language.
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  14. Lin Xiao, Gilly Koritzky, C. Anderson Johnson & Antoine Bechara (2013). The Cognitive Processes Underlying Affective Decision-Making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 80.0
    This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used (...)
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  15. Daniel Strüber Christoph S. Herrmann, Stefan Rach, Toralf Neuling (2013). Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation: A Review of the Underlying Mechanisms and Modulation of Cognitive Processes. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 80.0
    Brain oscillations of different frequencies have been associated with a variety of cognitive functions. Convincing evidence supporting those associations has been provided by studies using intracranial stimulation, pharmacological interventions and lesion studies. The emergence of novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) now allows to modulate brain oscillations directly. Particularly, tACS offers the unique opportunity to causally link brain oscillations of a specific frequency range to cognitive processes, because it (...)
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  16. Peter Fazekas, Tagging the World : Descrying Consciousness in Cognitive Processes.score: 76.0
    Although having conscious experiences is a fundamental feature of our everyday life, our understanding of what consciousness is is very limited. According to one of the main conclusions of contemporary philosophy of mind, the qualitative aspect of consciousness seems to resist functionalisation, i.e. it cannot be adequately defined solely in terms of functional or causal roles, which leads to an epistemic gap between phenomenal and scientific knowledge. Phenomenal qualities, then, seem to be, in principle, unexplainable in scientific terms. As a (...)
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  17. Andrea Pozzali (2007). Can Tacit Knowledge Fit Into a Computer Model of Scientific Cognitive Processes? The Case of Biotechnology. Mind and Society 6 (2):211-224.score: 72.0
    This paper tries to express a critical point of view on the computational turn in philosophy by looking at a specific field of study: philosophy of science. The paper starts by briefly discussing the main contributions that information and communication technologies have given to the rising of computational philosophy of science, and in particular to the cognitive modelling approach. The main question then arises, concerning how computational models can cope with the presence of tacit knowledge in science. Would it be (...)
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  18. Tiago V. Maia Guillermo Horga (2012). Conscious and Unconscious Processes in Cognitive Control: A Theoretical Perspective and a Novel Empirical Approach. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 72.0
    Controlled processing is often referred to as “voluntary” or “willful” and therefore assumed to depend entirely on conscious processes. Recent studies using subliminal-priming paradigms, however, have started to question this assumption. Specifically, these studies have shown that subliminally presented stimuli can induce adjustments in control. Such findings are not immediately reconcilable with the view that conscious and unconscious processes are separate, with each having its own neural substrates and modus operandi. We propose a different theoretical perspective that suggests (...)
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  19. Frini Karayanidis, Lisa Rebecca Whitson, Andrew Heathcote & Patricia T. Michie (2011). Variability in Proactive and Reactive Cognitive Control Processes Across the Adult Lifespan. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 72.0
    Task-switching paradigms produce a highly consistent age-related increase in mixing cost (longer RT on repeat trials in mixed-task than single task blocks) but a less consistent age effect on switch cost (longer RT on switch than repeat trials in mixed-task blocks). We use two approaches to examine the adult lifespan trajectory of control processes contributing to mixing cost and switch cost: latent variables derived from an evidence accumulation model of choice, and event-related potentials (ERP) that temporally differentiate proactive (cue-driven) (...)
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  20. Georges Vignaux (1992). From Negation to ?Notion?: Cognitive Processes and Argumentative Strategies. [REVIEW] Argumentation 6 (1):29-39.score: 72.0
    This article deals with the role of negation as a language and cognitive operation. Such a topic is treated here within the framework of the argumentative strategies which consist in making certain cognitive landmarks of the discourse ‘flip over’ with the intent of imposing the necessity to choose between two types of ‘notions’, aiming at the transformation of this choice into an ‘implication’. The reference here to the Aristotelian logic of Prior Analytics appears to be more efficient than any other (...)
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  21. Frederic Laville (2000). Foundations of Procedural Rationality: Cognitive Limits and Decision Processes. Economics and Philosophy 16 (1):117-138.score: 68.0
    Many criticisms have been made of optimization theory (Laville, 1999a). These objections may be explained by the fact that human rationality is bounded – that decisions are constrained by cognitive limitations (Simon, 1982). In the present paper, I will show that if rationality is bounded, then we must study the processes of decision. My thesis is that cognitive limitations lead to procedural rationality. Although this assertion has already been sustained implicitly by Simon (1959) and explicitly by Mongin (1986), it (...)
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  22. Aaron V. Cicourel (2006). Cognitive/Affective Processes, Social Interaction, and Social Structure as Representational Re-Descriptions: Their Contrastive Bandwidths and Spatio-Temporal Foci. Mind and Society 5 (1):39-70.score: 68.0
    Research on brain or cognitive/affective processes, culture, social interaction, and structural analysis are overlapping but often independent ways humans have attempted to understand the origins of their evolution, historical, and contemporary development. Each level seeks to employ its own theoretical concepts and methods for depicting human nature and categorizing objects and events in the world, and often relies on different sources of evidence to support theoretical claims. Each level makes reference to different temporal bandwidths (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, (...)
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  23. Teresa Bajo Carolina Yudes, Pedro Macizo (2011). The Influence of Expertise in Simultaneous Interpreting on Non-Verbal Executive Processes. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 66.0
    This study aimed to explore non-verbal executive processes in simultaneous interpreters. Simultaneous interpreters, bilinguals without any training in simultaneous interpreting and control monolinguals performed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST, Experiment 1) and the Simon task (Experiment 2). Performance on WCST was thought to index cognitive flexibility while Simon task performance was considered an index of inhibitory processes. Simultaneous interpreters outperformed bilinguals and monolinguals on the WCST by showing reduced number of attempts to infer the rule, few errors (...)
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  24. Leo R. Ward (2003). Synchronous Neural Oscillations and Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7:553-559.score: 64.0
  25. Eddy J. Davelaar (2011). Processes Versus Representations: Cognitive Control as Emergent, Yet Componential. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):247-252.score: 64.0
    In this commentary, I focus on the difference between processes and representations and how this distinction relates to the question of what is controlled. Despite some views that task switching is a prototypical control process, the analysis concludes that task switching depends on the task goal representation and that control processes are there to prevent goal representations from disintegrating. Over time, these processes become obsolete, leaving behind a representation that automatically controls task performance. The distinction between (...) and representations relates to practice effects and automaticity and sheds light on what is meant by the phrase “automatic control.”. (shrink)
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  26. John A. Smith (2006). Qualitative Complexity: Ecology, Cognitive Processes and the Re-Emergence of Structures in Post-Humanist Social Theory. Routledge.score: 64.0
    Qualitative Complexity offers a critique of the humanist paradigm in contemporary social theory. Drawing from sources in sociology, philosophy, complexity theory, 'fuzzy logic', systems theory, cognitive science and evolutionary biology, the authors present a new series of interdisciplinary perspectives on the sociology of complex, self-organizing structures.
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  27. Victoria F. Shaw (1996). The Cognitive Processes in Informal Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 2 (1):51 – 80.score: 64.0
    Two experiments investigated the factors that people consider when evaluating informal arguments in newspaper and magazine editorials. Experiment 1 showed that subjects were more likely to object to the truth of the premises and the conclusions of an argument than to the strength of the link between them. Experiment 1 also revealed two manipulations that helped subjects object to the link between premises and conclusions: rating how well the premises support the conclusions and rating the believability of the premises and (...)
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  28. Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater (2012). Dual Processes, Probabilities, and Cognitive Architecture. Mind and Society 11 (1):15-26.score: 64.0
    It has been argued that dual process theories are not consistent with Oaksford and Chater’s probabilistic approach to human reasoning (Oaksford and Chater in Psychol Rev 101:608–631, 1994 , 2007 ; Oaksford et al. 2000 ), which has been characterised as a “single-level probabilistic treatment[s]” (Evans 2007 ). In this paper, it is argued that this characterisation conflates levels of computational explanation. The probabilistic approach is a computational level theory which is consistent with theories of general cognitive architecture that invoke (...)
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  29. Rosanna K. Olsen, Sandra N. Moses, Lily Riggs & Jennifer D. Ryan (2012). The Hippocampus Supports Multiple Cognitive Processes Through Relational Binding and Comparison. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 64.0
    It has been well established that the hippocampus plays a pivotal role in explicit long-term recognition memory. However, findings from amnesia, lesion and recording studies with non-human animals, eye-movement recording studies, and functional neuroimaging have recently converged upon a similar message: the functional reach of the hippocampus extends far beyond explicit recognition memory. Damage to the hippocampus affects performance on a number of cognitive tasks including recognition memory after short and long delays and visual discrimination. Additionally, with the advent of (...)
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  30. James P. Crutchfield (1998). Dynamical Embodiments of Computation in Cognitive Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):635-635.score: 64.0
    Dynamics is not enough for cognition, nor it is a substitute for information-processing aspects of brain behavior. Moreover, dynamics and computation are not at odds, but are quite compatible. They can be synthesized so that any dynamical system can be analyzed in terms of its intrinsic computational components.
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  31. Guy Barry & John S. Mattick (2012). The Role of Regulatory RNA in Cognitive Evolution. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (10):497-503.score: 64.0
    The evolution of the human brain has resulted in the emergence of higher-order cognitive abilities, such as reasoning, planning and social awareness. Although there has been a concomitant increase in brain size and complexity, and component diversification, we argue that RNA regulation of epigenetic processes, RNA editing, and the controlled mobilization of transposable elements have provided the major substrates for cognitive advance. We also suggest that these expanded capacities and flexibilities have led to the collateral emergence of psychiatric fragilities (...)
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  32. Russell A. Poldrack (2006). Can Cognitive Processes Be Inferred From Neuroimaging Data? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (2):59-63.score: 64.0
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  33. John A. Bargh, Kay L. Schwader, Sarah E. Hailey, Rebecca L. Dyer & Erica J. Boothby (2012). Automaticity in Social-Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (12):593-605.score: 64.0
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  34. Terry E. Goldberg & Daniel R. Weinberger (2004). Genes and the Parsing of Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (7):325-335.score: 64.0
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  35. Robert Kozma (2001). Fragmented Attractor Boundaries in the KIII Model of Sensory Information Processing: A Potential Evidence of Cantor Encoding in Cognitive Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):820-821.score: 64.0
    Spatio-temporal neuro-dynamics is a quickly developing field of brain research and Tsuda's work is a significant contribution toward establishing theoretical foundations in this area. It is conceivable that the fragmented attractor landscapes and dynamical memory patterns identified earlier in various K-sets are biologically plausible manifestations of attractor ruins, chaotic itinerancy, and Cantor encoding as applied to sensory information processing.
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  36. Lawrence M. Ward (2003). Synchronous Neural Oscillations and Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (12):553-559.score: 64.0
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  37. Gordon M. Burghardt (2002). Genetics, Plasticity, and the Evolution of Cognitive Processes. In Marc Bekoff, Colin Allen & Gordon M. Burghardt (eds.), The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. Mit Press. 115--122.score: 64.0
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  38. Ken Manktelow (2001). Representing High-Level Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (9):405.score: 64.0
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  39. J. Fossella & M. I. Posner (2004). Genes and the Development of Neural Networks Underlying Cognitive Processes. In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences Iii. Mit Press. 1255--66.score: 64.0
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  40. H. Gash (2010). Nativist Constraints on Cognitive Processes Called Into Question. Review of “Neoconstructivism. The New Science of Cognitive Development' Edited by Scott Johnson. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009. [REVIEW] Constructivist Foundations 5 (2):104--105.score: 64.0
    Upshot: Recent research on young children’s cognitive development supports the viability of a neoconstructivist model of learning. These new approaches support a bottom-up account of knowledge acquisition that incorporates many constructivist principles and does not support top-down nativist models.
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  41. Wolfgang Klimesch (1999). Books Etcetera-Brain Function and Oscillations II: Integrative Brain Function. Neurophysiology and Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (6):207-215.score: 64.0
     
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  42. Wolfgang Klimesch (1999). Brain Function and Oscillations, Vol. II: Integrative Brain Function. Neurophysiology and Cognitive Processes, Edited by Erol Basar. [REVIEW] Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (6):244-244.score: 64.0
     
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  43. S. P. Liversedge & J. M. Findlay (2000). Eye Movements Reflect Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4:6-14.score: 64.0
     
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  44. Stephen P. Turner (1989). Tacit Knowledg and the Problem of Computer Modelling Cognitive Processes in Science. In Steve Fuller (ed.), The Cognitive Turn: Sociological and Psychological Perspectives on Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers.score: 64.0
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  45. Daniel M. Wegner (2005). Who is the Controller of Controlled Processes? In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. 19-36.score: 62.0
    Are we the robots? This question surfaces often in current psychological re- search, as various kinds of robot parts-automatic actions, mental mechanisms, even neural circuits-keep appearing in our explanations of human behavior. Automatic processes seem responsible for a wide range of the things we do, a fact that may leave us feeling, if not fully robotic, at least a bit nonhuman. The complement of the automatic process in contemporary psychology, of course, is the controlled process (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; (...)
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  46. M. Oswald & Volker Gadenne (2000). Are Controlled Processes Conscious? In Walter J. Perrig & Alexander Grob (eds.), Control of Human Behavior, Mental Processes, and Consciousness: Essays in Honor of the 60th Birthday of August Flammer. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 87--101.score: 62.0
     
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  47. Warren Mansell (2000). Conscious Appraisal and the Modification of Automatic Processes in Anxiety. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 28 (2):99-120.score: 61.0
  48. Markus Kiefer & Doreen Brendel (2006). Attentional Modulation of Unconscious "Automatic" Processes: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials in a Masked Priming Paradigm. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18 (2):184-198.score: 61.0
  49. Liliana Albertazzi (2007). At the Roots of Consciousness: Intentional Presentations. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (1):94-114.score: 60.0
    The Author argues for a non-semantic theory of intentionality, i.e. a theory of intentional reference rooted in the perceptive world. Specifically, the paper concerns two aspects of the original theory of intentionality: the structure of intentional objects as appearance (an unfolding spatio-temporal structure endowed with a direction), and the cognitive processes involved in a psychic act at the primary level of cognition. Examples are given from the experimental psychology of vision, with a particular emphasis on the relation between phenomenal (...)
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  50. William R. Uttal (2002). Précis of the New Phrenology: The Limits of Localizing Cognitive Processes in the Brain. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (2):221-228.score: 60.0
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