Search results for '*Computers' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Molisa Derk (2011). An on-Line Graduate Degree in Computers and Society. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 41 (1):19-22.score: 16.0
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  2. Randall R. Dipert (2002). The Substantive Impact of Computers on Philosophy: Prolegomena to a Computational and Information-Theoretic Metaphysics. In James Moor & Terrell Ward Bynum (eds.), Cyberphilosophy: The Intersection of Philosophy and Computing. Blackwell Pub.. 146-157.score: 14.0
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  3. Roy Rada (1991). Computers and Gradualness: The Selfish Meme. [REVIEW] AI and Society 5 (3):246-254.score: 14.0
    In making a contribution, a person's life gains meaning. A small contribution affects a few people for a short time, while a large contribution affects many people for a long time. Within the framework of an abstract, computational world, a metric on contributions is defined. Simulation of the computational model shows the critical role of gradualness. Gradualness can be supported by human-computer systems in which the computer does the copying and arithmetic, and the human applies a rich understanding of the (...)
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  4. William J. Rapaport (2012). Semiotic Systems, Computers, and the Mind: How Cognition Could Be Computing. International Journal of Signs and Semiotic Systems 2 (1):32-71.score: 12.0
    In this reply to James H. Fetzer’s “Minds and Machines: Limits to Simulations of Thought and Action”, I argue that computationalism should not be the view that (human) cognition is computation, but that it should be the view that cognition (simpliciter) is computable. It follows that computationalism can be true even if (human) cognition is not the result of computations in the brain. I also argue that, if semiotic systems are systems that interpret signs, then both humans and computers are (...)
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  5. Tim Button (2009). SAD Computers and Two Versions of the Church–Turing Thesis. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (4):765-792.score: 12.0
    Recent work on hypercomputation has raised new objections against the Church–Turing Thesis. In this paper, I focus on the challenge posed by a particular kind of hypercomputer, namely, SAD computers. I first consider deterministic and probabilistic barriers to the physical possibility of SAD computation. These suggest several ways to defend a Physical version of the Church–Turing Thesis. I then argue against Hogarth's analogy between non-Turing computability and non-Euclidean geometry, showing that it is a non-sequitur. I conclude that the Effective version (...)
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  6. Gualtiero Piccinini (2008). Computers. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 89 (1):32–73.score: 12.0
    I offer an explication of the notion of computer, grounded in the practices of computability theorists and computer scientists. I begin by explaining what distinguishes computers from calculators. Then, I offer a systematic taxonomy of kinds of computer, including hard-wired versus programmable, general-purpose versus special-purpose, analog versus digital, and serial versus parallel, giving explicit criteria for each kind. My account is mechanistic: which class a system belongs in, and which functions are computable by which system, depends on the system's mechanistic (...)
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  7. Marvin L. Minsky (1982). Why People Think Computers Can't. AI Magazine Fall 1982.score: 12.0
    Most people think computers will never be able to think. That is, really think. Not now or ever. To be sure, most people also agree that computers can do many things that a person would have to be thinking to do. Then how could a machine seem to think but not actually think? Well, setting aside the question of what thinking actually is, I think that most of us would answer that by saying that in these cases, what the computer (...)
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  8. Mary Midgley (1996). Utopias, Dolphins, and Computers: Problems in Philosophical Plumbing. Routledge.score: 12.0
    In Utopias, Dolphins and Computers Mary Midgley brings philosophy into the real world by using it to consider environmental, educational and gender issues. From "Freedom, Feminism and War" to "Artificial Intelligence and Creativity," this book searches for what is distorting our judgement and helps us to see more clearly the dramas which are unfolding in the world around us. Utopias, Dolphins and Computers aims to counter today's anti-intellectualism, not to mention philosophy's twentieth-century view of itself as futile. Mary Midgley explains (...)
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  9. Mark Hogarth (1994). Non-Turing Computers and Non-Turing Computability. Psa 1994:126--138.score: 12.0
    A true Turing machine (TM) requires an infinitely long paper tape. Thus a TM can be housed in the infinite world of Newtonian spacetime (the spacetime of common sense), but not necessarily in our world, because our world-at least according to our best spacetime theory, general relativity-may be finite. All the same, one can argue for the "existence" of a TM on the basis that there is no such housing problem in some other relativistic worlds that are similar ("close") to (...)
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  10. Lynne Rudder Baker (1981). Why Computers Can't Act. American Philosophical Quarterly 18 (April):157-163.score: 12.0
    To be an agent, one must be able to formulate intentions. To be able to formulate intentions, one must have a first-person perspective. Computers lack a first-person perspective. So, computers are not agents.
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  11. Terrell Ward Bynum & James Moor (eds.) (1998). The Digital Phoenix: How Computers Are Changing Philosophy. Blackwell Publishers.score: 12.0
    This important book, which results from a series of presentations at American Philosophical Association conferences, explores the major ways in which computers ...
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  12. Bernd Carsten Stahl (2006). Responsible Computers? A Case for Ascribing Quasi-Responsibility to Computers Independent of Personhood or Agency. Ethics and Information Technology 8 (4):205-213.score: 12.0
    There has been much debate whether computers can be responsible. This question is usually discussed in terms of personhood and personal characteristics, which a computer may or may not possess. If a computer fulfils the conditions required for agency or personhood, then it can be responsible; otherwise not. This paper suggests a different approach. An analysis of the concept of responsibility shows that it is a social construct of ascription which is only viable in certain social contexts and which serves (...)
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  13. James H. Fetzer (1997). Thinking and Computing: Computers as Special Kinds of Signs. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 7 (3):345-364.score: 12.0
    Cognitive science has been dominated by the computational conception that cognition is computation across representations. To the extent to which cognition as computation across representations is supposed to be a purposive, meaningful, algorithmic, problem-solving activity, however, computers appear to be incapable of cognition. They are devices that can facilitate computations on the basis of semantic grounding relations as special kinds of signs. Even their algorithmic, problem-solving character arises from their interpretation by human users. Strictly speaking, computers as such — apart (...)
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  14. Bernd Carsten Stahl (2004). Information, Ethics, and Computers: The Problem of Autonomous Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 14 (1):67-83.score: 12.0
    In modern technical societies computers interact with human beings in ways that can affect moral rights and obligations. This has given rise to the question whether computers can act as autonomous moral agents. The answer to this question depends on many explicit and implicit definitions that touch on different philosophical areas such as anthropology and metaphysics. The approach chosen in this paper centres on the concept of information. Information is a multi-facetted notion which is hard to define comprehensively. However, the (...)
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  15. Mark Hogarth (2004). Deciding Arithmetic Using SAD Computers. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):681-691.score: 12.0
    Presented here is a new result concerning the computational power of so-called SADn computers, a class of Turing-machine-based computers that can perform some non-Turing computable feats by utilising the geometry of a particular kind of general relativistic spacetime. It is shown that SADn can decide n-quantifier arithmetic but not (n+1)-quantifier arithmetic, a result that reveals how neatly the SADn family maps into the Kleene arithmetical hierarchy. Introduction Axiomatising computers The power of SAD computers Remarks regarding the concept of computability.
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  16. Konstantine Arkoudas & Selmer Bringsjord (2007). Computers, Justification, and Mathematical Knowledge. Minds and Machines 17 (2):185-202.score: 12.0
    The original proof of the four-color theorem by Appel and Haken sparked a controversy when Tymoczko used it to argue that the justification provided by unsurveyable proofs carried out by computers cannot be a priori. It also created a lingering impression to the effect that such proofs depend heavily for their soundness on large amounts of computation-intensive custom-built software. Contra Tymoczko, we argue that the justification provided by certain computerized mathematical proofs is not fundamentally different from that provided by surveyable (...)
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  17. Jeremy Avigad, Computers in Mathematical Inquiry.score: 12.0
    In Section 2, I survey some of the ways that computers are used in mathematics. These raise questions that seem to have a generally epistemological character, although they do not fall squarely under a traditional philosophical purview. The goal of this article is to try to articulate some of these questions more clearly, and assess the philosophical methods that may be brought to bear. In Section 3, I note that most of the issues can be classified under two headings: some (...)
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  18. Selmer Bringsjord (2001). Are We Evolved Computers?: A Critical Review of Steven Pinker's How the Mind Works. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 14 (2):227 – 243.score: 12.0
    Steven Pinker's How the mind works (HTMW) marks in my opinion an historic point in the history of humankind's attempt to understand itself. Socrates delivered his "know thyself" imperative rather long ago, and now, finally, in this behemoth of a book, published at the dawn of a new millennium, Pinker steps up to have psychology tell us what we are: computers crafted by evolution - end of story; mystery solved; and the poor philosophers, having never managed to obey Socrates' command, (...)
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  19. Arthur Kuflik (1999). Computers in Control: Rational Transfer of Authority or Irresponsible Abdication of Autonomy? [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 1 (3):173-184.score: 12.0
    To what extent should humans transfer, or abdicate, responsibility to computers? In this paper, I distinguish six different senses of responsible and then consider in which of these senses computers can, and in which they cannot, be said to be responsible for deciding various outcomes. I sort out and explore two different kinds of complaint against putting computers in greater control of our lives: (i) as finite and fallible human beings, there is a limit to how far we can acheive (...)
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  20. Hans Moravec (1979). Today's Computers, Intelligent Machines and Our Future. Analog 99 (2):59-84.score: 12.0
    The unprecedented opportunities for experiments in complexity presented by the first modern computers in the late 1940's raised hopes in early computer scientists (eg. John von Neumann and Alan Turing) that the ability to think, our greatest asset in our dealings with the world, might soon be understood well enough to be duplicated. Success in such an endeavor would extend mankind's mind in the same way that the development of energy machinery extended his muscles.
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  21. Tim van Gelder (1998). Computers and Computation in Cognitive Science. In T.M. Michalewicz (ed.), Advances in Computational Life Sciences Vol.2: Humans to Proteins. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.score: 12.0
    Digital computers play a special role in cognitive science—they may actually be instances of the phenomenon they are being used to model. This paper surveys some of the main issues involved in understanding the relationship between digital computers and cognition. It sketches the role of digital computers within orthodox computational cognitive science, in the light of a recently emerging alternative approach based around dynamical systems.
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  22. Wendy S. Parker (2010). An Instrument for What? Digital Computers, Simulation and Scientific Practice. Spontaneous Generations 4 (1):39-44.score: 12.0
    As a device used by scientists in the course of performing research, the digital computer might be considered a scientific instrument. But if so, what is it an instrument for? This paper explores a number of answers to this question, focusing on the use of computers in a simulating mode.
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  23. Bernd Carsten Stahl (2004). Information, Ethics, and Computers: The Problem of Autonomous Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 14 (1):67-83.score: 12.0
    In modern technical societies computers interact with human beings in ways that can affect moral rights and obligations. This has given rise to the question whether computers can act as autonomous moral agents. The answer to this question depends on many explicit and implicit definitions that touch on different philosophical areas such as anthropology and metaphysics. The approach chosen in this paper centres on the concept of information. Information is a multi-facetted notion which is hard to define comprehensively. However, the (...)
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  24. Cristiano Castelfranchi (2000). Artificial Liars: Why Computers Will (Necessarily) Deceive Us and Each Other. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 2 (2):113-119.score: 12.0
    In H-C interaction, computer supported cooperation andorganisation, computer mediated commerce, intelligentdata bases, teams of robots. etc. there will bepurposively deceiving computers. In particular, withinthe Agent-based paradigm we will have ``deceivingagents''''. Several kinds of deception will be present ininteraction with the user, or among people viacomputer, or among artificial agents not only formalicious reasons (war, commerce, fraud, etc.) butalso for goodwill and in our interest. Social control,trust, and moral aspects in artificial societies willbe the focus of theoretical worm as well as (...)
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  25. Carl Mitcham & Alois Huning (eds.) (1985). Philosophy and Technology II: Information Technology and Computers in Theory and Practice. Reidel.score: 12.0
    INTRODUCTION: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMPUTERS AS THEMES IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF TECHNOLOGY Philosophical interest in computers and information technology ...
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  26. Gerard O.’Brien (1998). Digital Computers Versus Dynamical Systems: A Conflation of Distinctions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):648-649.score: 12.0
    The distinction at the heart of van Gelder’s target article is one between digital computers and dynamical systems. But this distinction conflates two more fundamental distinctions in cognitive science that should be keep apart. When this conflation is undone, it becomes apparent that the “computational hypothesis” (CH) is not as dominant in contemporary cognitive science as van Gelder contends; nor has the “dynamical hypothesis” (DH) been neglected.
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  27. Roger Penrose (1999). The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics. OUP Oxford.score: 12.0
    For many decades, the proponents of `artificial intelligence' have maintained that computers will soon be able to do everything that a human can do. In his bestselling work of popular science, Sir Roger Penrose takes us on a fascinating roller-coaster ride through the basic principles of physics, cosmology, mathematics, and philosophy to show that human thinking can never be emulated by a machine.
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  28. Colin Beardon (1994). Computers, Postmodernism and the Culture of the Artificial. AI and Society 8 (1):1-16.score: 12.0
    The term ‘the artificial’ can only be given a precise meaning in the context of the evolution of computational technology and this in turn can only be fully understood within a cultural setting that includes an epistemological perspective. The argument is illustrated in two case studies from the history of computational machinery: the first calculating machines and the first programmable computers. In the early years of electronic computers, the dominant form of computing was data processing which was a reflection of (...)
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  29. Douglas Kellner, Computers, Surveillance and Privacy: Book Review. [REVIEW]score: 12.0
    Computers and new information technologies have greatly increased the power of surveillance by government and large corporate entities. The state is a repository of a growing array of data bases that provide it with information on its citizens. Corporations also now possess increasing power to accumulate information on potential consumers. This power to collect information is significant and can be instrumental in securing loans, insurance, and credit; increases the power of law enforcement agencies; makes possible surveillance of workers and the (...)
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  30. Thomas M. Powers (2013). On the Moral Agency of Computers. Topoi 32 (2):227-236.score: 12.0
    Can computer systems ever be considered moral agents? This paper considers two factors that are explored in the recent philosophical literature. First, there are the important domains in which computers are allowed to act, made possible by their greater functional capacities. Second, there is the claim that these functional capacities appear to embody relevant human abilities, such as autonomy and responsibility. I argue that neither the first (Doman-Function) factor nor the second (Simulacrum) factor gets at the central issue in the (...)
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  31. Alexander R. Galloway (2012). Computers and the Superfold. Deleuze Studies 6 (4):513-528.score: 12.0
    Could it be that Deleuze's most lasting legacy will lie in his ‘Postscript on Control Societies’, a mere 2,300-word essay from 1990? While he discussed computers and new media infrequently, Deleuze admittedly made contributions to the contemporary discourse on computing, cybernetics and networks, particularly in his late work. From the concepts of the rhizome and the virtual, to his occasional interjections on the digital versus the analogue, there is a case to be made that the late Deleuze has not only (...)
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  32. David Gamez (2012). Empirically Grounded Claims About Consciousness in Computers. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 4 (02):421-438.score: 12.0
    Research is starting to identify correlations between consciousness and some of the spatiotemporal patterns in the physical brain. For theoretical and practical reasons, the results of experiments on the correlates of consciousness have ambiguous interpretations. At any point in time a number of hypotheses co-exist about and the correlates of consciousness in the brain, which are all compatible with the current experimental results. This paper argues that consciousness should be attributed to any system that exhibits spatiotemporal physical patterns that match (...)
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  33. L.�szl� Ropolyi (1999). Life-Worlds and Social Relations in Computers. AI and Society 13 (1-2):69-87.score: 12.0
    How are social relations appearing in computers? How are social relations realised in a different kind of medium, in the hardware and software of computers? How are the organising principles of computer building related to those of the life-worlds in a social system? Following a partly social constructivist and partly hermeneutic line a more general answer will be presented. The basic conclusion of this approach is simple: computers are constructed under the influence of the ideas of modernity and represent its (...)
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  34. Gerard O'Brien (1998). Digital Computers Versus Dynamical Systems: A Conflation of Distinctions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):648-649.score: 12.0
    The distinction at the heart of van Gelder's target article is one between digital computers and dynamical systems, but this distinction conflates two more fundamental distinctions in cognitive science that should be kept apart. When this conflation is undone, it becomes apparent that the computational hypothesis is not as dominant in contemporary cognitive science as van Gelder contends; nor has the dynamical hypothesis been neglected.
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  35. Jonathan P. Allen (1998). Who Shapes the Future?: Problem Framings and the Development of Handheld Computers. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 28 (2):3-8.score: 12.0
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  36. Herman T. Tavani (1997). Journals and Periodicals on Computers, Ethics & Society. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 27 (2):20-26.score: 12.0
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  37. Joseph F. Coates (1982). Computers and Business — a Case of Ethical Overload. Journal of Business Ethics 1 (3):239 - 248.score: 12.0
    A technological revolution with first order implications is undeniable and underway. That is the permeation of society by computers and telecommunications technology. For western society, committed to a social, economic, and value structure premised upon an industrial society, the move to an information society is more than disruptive; it is transformational. Current changes are so rapidly paced in relation to business planning that it creates major challenges and opportunities to reach out, influence, and guide the change.The telematics revolution will affect (...)
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  38. Camille Dickson-Deane (2010). Computers in Developing Nations. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 40 (2):28-30.score: 12.0
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  39. Robert D. Heslep (2012). Education for Computers. Studies in Philosophy and Education 31 (4):357-364.score: 12.0
    The computer engineers who refer to the education of computers do not have a definite idea of education and do not bother to justify the fuzzy ones to which they allude. Hence, they logically cannot specify the features a computer must have in order to be educable. This paper puts forth a non-standard, but not arbitrary, concept of education that determines such traits. The proposed concept is derived from the idea of education embedded in modern standard-English discourse. Because the standard (...)
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  40. Bruce J. MacLennan, Grounding Analog Computers Commentary on Harnad on Symbolism- Connectionism.score: 12.0
    The issue of symbol grounding is not essentially different in analog and digital computation. The principal difference between the two is that in analog computers continuous variables change continuously, whereas in digital computers discrete variables change in discrete steps (at the relevant level of analysis). Interpretations are imposed on analog computations just as on digital computations: by attaching meanings to the variables and the processes defined over them. As Harnad (2001) claims, states acquire intrinsic meaning through their relation to the (...)
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  41. Ana Viseu (2003). Simulation and Augmentation: Issues of Wearable Computers. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 5 (1):17-26.score: 12.0
    As the physical and digital worlds interact,some fields of technoscience have started toshift from an approach emphasizing simulation –in which the physical is replicated in thedigital – to one focusing on augmentation, inwhich the digital is utilized to enhance thephysical. A good place to study theimplications this shift has on the individualis the field of personal wearable technologies.Here, the body is not simply extended byinformation and communication technologies(ICTs), but also becomes their intimate host.This represents a new step in theconceptualization of (...)
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  42. Douglas M. Allred, Jill Morgan & Betty Ashbaker (2000). Computers in Education Receive a Mixed Review: A Case Study of a High School Computer Lab Manager. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 30 (3):10-12.score: 12.0
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  43. Adam Drozdek (1995). What If Computers Could Think? AI and Society 9 (4):389-395.score: 12.0
    The question whether or not computers can think was first asked in print by Alan Turing in his seminal 1950 article. In order to avoid defining what a computer is or what thinking is, Turing resorts to “the imitation game” which is a test that allows us to determine whether or not a machine can think. That is, if an interrogator is unable to tell whether responses to his questions come from a human being or from a machine, the machine (...)
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  44. Richard P. Feynman (1986). Quantum Mechanical Computers. Foundations of Physics 16 (6):507-531.score: 12.0
    The physical limitations, due to quantum mechanics, on the functioning of computers are analyzed.
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  45. Joseph S. Fulda (1998). Giving Computers Emotions-Why and How. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 28 (4):30-31.score: 12.0
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  46. Alice Peters (1973). Computers and Society. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 4 (1):30-38.score: 12.0
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  47. David Bellin, Sara Baase & Chuck Huff (1995). Some (Provocative) Thoughts on “Teaching Computers and Society”. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 25 (2):4-7.score: 12.0
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  48. David Harel (2003). Computers Ltd: What They REALLY Can't Do. OUP Oxford.score: 12.0
    Computers are incredible. They are one of the most important inventions of the 20th century, dramatically and irrevocably changing the way we live. That is the good news. The bad news is that there are still major limitations to computers, serious problems that not even the most powerful computers can solve. The consequences of such limitations can be serious. Too often these limits get overlooked, in the quest for bigger, better, and more powerful computers. In Computers Ltd., David Harel, best-selling (...)
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  49. Joseph Henrich (2001). Challenges for Everyone: Real People, Deception, One-Shot Games, Social Learning, and Computers. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):414-415.score: 12.0
    This commentary suggests: (1) experimentalists must expand their subject pools beyond university students; (2) the pollution created by deception would not be a problem if experimentalists fully used non-student subjects; (3) one-shot games remain important and repeated games should not ignore social learning; (4) economists need to take better control of context; and (5) using computers in experiments creates potential problems.
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  50. Gerald J. Johnson (1992). Talking About Computers: From Metaphor to Jargon. [REVIEW] AI and Society 6 (3):263-270.score: 12.0
    The language used to talk about computers is uniquely colorful and sometimes extraordinarily difficult. This paper examines ‘computer discourse’ and points out its highly metaphorical nature. While the use of metaphor is unavoidable, it often leads, especially in informal settings, to the mannered use of words we call jargon. Metaphor becomes jargon when it is used too literally in a self-conscious manner. Experts often use their metaphors as though they were literally true. Technical details fall away and the metaphor is (...)
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