Search results for '*Delayed Auditory Feedback' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Yasuki Hashimoto & Kuniyoshi L. Sakai (2003). Brain Activations During Conscious Self-Monitoring of Speech Production with Delayed Auditory Feedback: An fMRI Study. Human Brain Mapping 20 (1):22-28.score: 485.3
  2. George M. Robinson (1972). The Delayed Auditory Feedback Effect is a Function of Speech Rate. Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (1):1.score: 485.3
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  3. John L. Bradshaw, Norman C. Nettleton & Gina Geffen (1972). Ear Asymmetry and Delayed Auditory Feedback: Effects of Task Requirements and Competitive Stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (3):269.score: 485.3
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  4. John L. Bradshaw, Norman C. Nettleton & Gina Geffen (1971). Ear Differences and Delayed Auditory Feedback: Effects on a Speech and a Music Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (1):85.score: 485.3
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  5. Charles H. Williams & Gerald Frincke (1968). Effects of Delayed Auditory Feedback on Immediate and Delayed Recall and Recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (2p1):267.score: 485.3
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  6. Aubrey J. Yates (1965). Effects of Delayed Auditory Feedback on Morse Transmission by Skilled Operators. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (5):467.score: 485.3
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  7. L. D. Roberts & A. H. Gregory (1973). Ear Differences and Delayed Auditory Feedback: Effect on a Simple Verbal Repetition Task and a Nonverbal Tapping Test. Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):269.score: 481.3
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  8. Waka Fujisaki (2012). Effects of Delayed Visual Feedback on Grooved Pegboard Test Performance. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 358.0
    Using four experiments, this study investigates what amount of delay brings about maximal impairment under delayed visual feedback and whether a critical interval, such as that in audition, also exists in vision. The first experiment measured the Grooved Pegboard test performance as a function of visual feedback delays from 120 to 2120 ms in 16 steps. Performance sharply decreased until about 490 ms, then more gradually until 2120 ms, suggesting that two mechanisms were operating under delayed visual (...). Since delayed visual feedback differs from delayed auditory feedback in that the former induces not only temporal but also spatial displacements between motor and sensory feedback, this difference could also exist in the mechanism responsible for spatial displacement. The second experiment was hence conducted to provide simultaneous haptic feedback together with delayed visual feedback to inform correct spatial position. The disruption was significantly ameliorated when information about spatial position was provided from a haptic source. The sharp decrease in performance of up to approximately 300 ms was followed by an almost flat performance. This is similar to the critical interval found in audition. Accordingly, the mechanism that caused the sharp decrease in performance in experiments 1 and 2 was probably mainly responsible for temporal disparity and is common across different modality–motor combinations, while the other mechanism that caused a rather gradual decrease in performance in experiment 1 was mainly responsible for spatial displacement. In experiments 3 and 4, the reliability of spatial information from the haptic source was reduced by wearing a glove or using a tool. When the reliability of spatial information was reduced, the data lay between those of experiments 1 and 2, and that a gradual decrease in performance partially reappeared. These results further support the notion that two mechanisms operate under delayed visual feedback. (shrink)
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  9. [deleted]Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng, Michael Grossbach & Eckart Altenmüller (2013). Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: The Altered Auditory Feedback Paradigm and the Glove Effect. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:868.score: 328.7
    Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF) in musician's dystonia (MD) and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004). Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and (...)
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  10. Virginia Conde, Eckart Altenmüller, Arno Villringer & Patrick Ragert (2012). Task-Irrelevant Auditory Feedback Facilitates Motor Performance in Musicians. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 224.0
    An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a (...)
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  11. [deleted]André Brechmann Christin Kohrs, Nicole Angenstein, Henning Scheich (2012). Human Striatum is Differentially Activated by Delayed, Omitted, and Immediate Registering Feedback. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 208.0
    The temporal contingency of feedback during conversations is an essential requirement of a successful dialog. In the current study, we investigated the effects of delayed and omitted registering feedback on fMRI activation and compared both unexpected conditions to immediate feedback. In the majority of trials of an auditory task, participants received an immediate visual feedback which merely indicated that a button press was registered but not whether the response was correct or not. In a minority (...)
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  12. Michiteru Kitazaki Takeshi Tamura, Atsuko Gunji, Hiroshige Takeichi, Hiroaki Shigemasu, Masumi Inagaki, Makiko Kaga (2012). Audio-Vocal Monitoring System Revealed by Mu-Rhythm Activity. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 208.0
    Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying speech production has a number of potential practical applications. Speech production involves multiple feedback loops. An audio-vocal monitoring system plays an important role in speech production, based on auditory feedback about the speaker’s own voice. Here we investigated mu-rhythm activity associated with speech production by examining event-related desynchronization and synchronization in conditions of delayed auditory feedback (DAF) and noise feedback (Lombard). In Experiment 1, we confirmed that mu-rhythms were detectable (...)
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  13. Jean Vroomen Yoshimori Sugano, Mirjam Keetels (2012). The Build-Up and Transfer of Sensorimotor Temporal Recalibration Measured Via a Synchronization Task. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 200.7
    The timing relation between a motor action and the sensory consequences of that action can be adapted by exposing participants to artificially delayed feedback (temporal recalibration). Here, we demonstrate that a sensorimotor synchronization task (i.e., tapping the index finger in synchrony with a pacing signal) can be used as a measure of temporal recalibration. Participants were first exposed to a constant delay (~150 ms) between a voluntary action (a finger tap) and an external feedback stimulus of that action (...)
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  14. [deleted]Jessie Chen, Marjorie Woollacott, Steve Pologe & George P. Moore (2013). Stochastic Aspects of Motor Behavior and Their Dependence on Auditory Feedback in Experienced Cellists. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 140.0
  15. [deleted]Bekinschtein Tristan, Canales-Johnson Andrés, Silva Carolina, Huepe David, Rivera-Rei Alvaro, Noreika Valdas, Del Carmen Garcia Maria, Silva Walter, Sedeño Lucas, Kargieman Lucila, Baglivo Fabricio, Chennu Srivas, Ibanez Agustin & Rodriguez Eugenio (2013). Learn From Your Heart: Dissociable Neural Markers for Objective Interoceptive Performance and Metacognitive Awareness in Auditory Feedback. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 140.0
  16. Robert G. Eason & Roberta Sadler (1977). Relationship Between Voluntary Control of Alpha Activity Level Through Auditory Feedback and Degree of Eye Convergence. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9 (1):21-24.score: 140.0
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  17. Justin J. Couchman, Robertson Beasley & Peter Q. Pfordresher (2012). The Experience of Agency in Sequence Production with Altered Auditory Feedback. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):186-203.score: 140.0
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  18. Lawrence Brancazio & Carol A. Fowler (2000). Merging Auditory and Visual Phonetic Information: A Critical Test for Feedback? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (3):327-328.score: 126.0
    The present description of the Merge model addresses only auditory, not audiovisual, speech perception. However, recent findings in the audiovisual domain are relevant to the model. We outline a test that we are conducting of the adequacy of Merge, modified to accept visual information about articulation.
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  19. [deleted]Monica Gori, Tiziana Vercillo, Giulio Sandini & David Burr (2014). Tactile Feedback Improves Auditory Spatial Localization. Frontiers in Psychology 5.score: 120.0
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  20. [deleted]Bertram Opitz, Nicola K. Ferdinand & Axel Mecklinger (2011). Timing Matters: The Impact of Immediate and Delayed Feedback on Artificial Language Learning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 119.0
  21. Richard Held, Aglaia Efstathiou & Martha Greene (1966). Adaptation to Displaced and Delayed Visual Feedback From the Hand. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (6):887.score: 108.3
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  22. Dorothee Kremers, Margarita Briseño Jaramillo, Martin Böye, Alban Lemasson & Martine Hausberger (2011). Do Dolphins Rehearse Show-Stimuli When at Rest? Delayed Matching of Auditory Memory. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 100.0
    The mechanisms underlying vocal mimicry in animals remain an open question. Delphinidae are able to copy sounds from their environment that are not produced by conspecifics. Usually, these mimicries occur associated with the context in which they were learned. No reports address the question of separation between auditory memory formation and spontaneous vocal copying although the sensory and motor phases of vocal learning are separated in a variety of songbirds. Here we show that captive bottlenose dolphins produce, during their (...)
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  23. [deleted]Feng Rong, Tom Holroyd, Fatima T. Husain, Jose L. Contreras-Vidal & Barry Horwitz (2011). Task-Specific Modulation of Human Auditory Evoked Response in a Delayed-Match-To-Sample Task. Frontiers in Psychology 2:85-85.score: 95.0
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  24. [deleted]J. Christopher Edgar, Matthew R. Lanza, Aleksandra B. Daina, Justin F. Monroe, Sarah Y. Khan, Lisa Blaskey, Katelyn M. Cannon, Julian Jenkins, Saba Qasmieh, Susan E. Levy & Timothy P. L. Roberts (2014). Missing and Delayed Auditory Responses in Young and Older Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.score: 93.3
  25. Dorothee Kremers, Margarita Briseño Jaramillo, Martin Böye, Alban Lemasson & Martine Hausberger (2010). Do Dolphins Rehearse Show-Stimuli When at Rest? Delayed Matching of Auditory Memory. Frontiers in Psychology 2:386-386.score: 85.0
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  26. Andreas Thiel, Helmut Schwegler & Christian W. Eurich (2003). Complex Dynamics is Abolished in Delayed Recurrent Systems with Distributed Feedback Times. Complexity 8 (4):102-108.score: 85.0
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  27. [deleted]El-Deredy Wael (2011). It?S Worse Than You Thought: The Feedback Negativity and Responses to Delayed Rewards. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 85.0
  28. Mairéad MacSweeney Cathy J. Price, Jenny T. Crinion (2011). A Generative Model of Speech Production in Broca's and Wernicke's Areas. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 84.0
    Speech production involves the generation of an auditory signal from the articulators and vocal tract. When the intended auditory signal does not match the produced sounds, subsequent articulatory commands can be adjusted to reduce the difference between the intended and produced sounds. This requires an internal model of the intended speech output that can be compared to the produced speech. The aim of this functional imaging study was to identify brain activation related to the internal model of speech (...)
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  29. [deleted]Tina Weis, Sebastian Puschmann, André Brechmann & Christiane M. Thiel (2013). Positive and Negative Reinforcement Activate Human Auditory Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:842.score: 84.0
    Prior studies suggest that reward modulates neural activity in sensory cortices, but less is known about punishment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an auditory discrimination task, where participants had to judge the duration of frequency modulated tones. In one session correct performance resulted in financial gains at the end of the trial, in a second session incorrect performance resulted in financial loss. Incorrect performance in the rewarded as well as correct performance in the punishment condition resulted in (...)
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  30. Jack A. Adams, Ernest T. Goetz & Phillip H. Marshall (1972). Response Feedback and Motor Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (3):391.score: 78.0
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  31. Jack A. Adams, Philip H. Marshall & Ernest T. Goetz (1972). Response Feedback and Short-Term Motor Retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (1):92.score: 78.0
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  32. [deleted]Caroline Palmer Rachel M. Brown (2013). Auditory and Motor Imagery Modulate Learning in Music Performance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 70.0
    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians’ encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies (...)
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  33. [deleted]Davide Rigoni, Marcel Brass & Giuseppe Sartori (2010). Post-Action Determinants of the Reported Time of Conscious Intentions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 67.3
    The question of whether our behaviour is guided by our conscious intentions is gaining momentum within the field of cognitive neuroscience. It has been demonstrated that the subjective experience that conscious intentions are the driving force of our actions, is built partially on a post hoc reconstruction. Our hypothesis was that this reconstructive process is mediated by an action-monitoring system that compares the predicted and the actual sensory consequences of an action. We applied Event Related Potentials (ERP) to a variant (...)
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  34. Jean Mary Zarate Robert J. Zatorre, Karine Delhommeau (2012). Modulation of Auditory Cortex Response to Pitch Variation Following Training with Microtonal Melodies. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 66.0
    We tested changes in cortical functional response to auditory configural learning by training ten human listeners to discriminate micromelodies (consisting of smaller pitch intervals than normally used in Western music). We measured covariation in blood oxygenation signal to increasing pitch-interval size in order to dissociate global changes in activity from those specifically associated with the stimulus feature of interest. A psychophysical staircase procedure with feedback was used for training over a two-week period. Behavioral tests of discrimination ability performed (...)
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  35. [deleted]Stefan Heim Cornelia Eckers, Bernd J. Kröger, Katharina Sass (2013). Neural Representation of the Sensorimotor Speech–Action-Repository. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 62.0
    A speech-action-repository (SAR) or “mental syllabary” has been proposed as a central module for sensorimotor processing of syllables. In this approach, syllables occurring frequently within language are assumed to be stored as holistic sensorimotor patterns, while non-frequent syllables need to be assembled from sub-syllabic units. Thus, frequent syllables are processed efficiently and quickly during production or perception by a direct activation of their sensorimotor patterns. Whereas several behavioral psycholinguistic studies provided evidence in support of the existence of a syllabary, fMRI (...)
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  36. E. Vlainic, R. Liepelt, L. S. Colzato, W. Prinz & B. Hommel (2009). The Virtual Co-Actor: The Social Simon Effect Does Not Rely on Online Feedback From the Other. Frontiers in Psychology 1:208-208.score: 54.0
    The Social Simon effect (SSE) occurs if two participants share a Simon task by making a Go/No-Go response to one of two stimulus features. If the two participants perform this version of the Simon task together, a Simon effect occurs (i.e., performance is better with spatial stimulus-response correspondence), but no effect is observed if participants perform the task separately. The SSE has been attributed to the automatic co-representation of the co-actor’s actions, which suggests that it relies on online information about (...)
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  37. Daichi Nozaki Takuya Honda, Masaya Hirashima (2012). Habituation to Feedback Delay Restores Degraded Visuomotor Adaptation by Altering Both Sensory Prediction Error and the Sensitivity of Adaptation to the Error. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 52.0
    Sensory prediction error, which is the difference between actual and predicted sensory consequences, is a driving force of motor learning. Thus, appropriate temporal associations between the actual sensory feedback signals and motor commands for predicting sensory consequences are crucial for the brain to calculate the sensory prediction error accurately. Indeed, it has been shown that artificially introduced delays in visual feedback degrade motor learning. However, our previous study has showed that degraded adaptation is alleviated by prior habituation to (...)
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  38. [deleted]Yuan Zhang, Xiang Li, Xing Qian & Xiaolin Zhou (2012). Brain Responses in Evaluating Feedback Stimuli with a Social Dimension. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:29-29.score: 42.0
    Previous studies on outcome evaluation and performance monitoring using gambling or simple cognitive tasks have identified two components of event-related potentials (ERPs) that are particularly relevant to the neural responses to decision outcome. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), typically occurring 200-300 ms post-onset of feedback stimuli, encodes mainly the valence of outcome while the P300, which is the most positive peak between 200-600 ms, is found to be related to various aspects of outcome evaluation. This study investigated the extent (...)
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  39. Gabriele Wulf, Suzete Chiviacowsky, Eduardo Schiller & Luciana Toaldo Gentilini Ávila (2010). Frequent External Focus Feedback Enhances Motor Learning. Frontiers in Psychology 1:190.score: 42.0
    The present study examined the hypothesis that feedback inducing an external focus of attention enhances motor learning if it is provided frequently (i.e., 100%) rather than less frequently. Children (10-12 year olds) practiced a soccer throw-in task and were provided feedback about movement form. The feedback statements, provided either after every (100%) or every third (33%) practice trial, were similar in content but induced either an internal focus (body-movement related) or external focus (movement-effect related). The results demonstrated (...)
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  40. PhD Okamoto, Hidehiko M. D., Henning PhD Teismann, Ryusuke Kakigi & Christo PhD Pantev (2012). Auditory Evoked Fields Elicited by Spectral, Temporal, and Spectral-Temporal Changes in Human Cerebral Cortex. Frontiers in Psychology 3 (2012).score: 42.0
    Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral-temporal change were very (...)
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  41. [deleted]Jean Mary Zarate (2013). The Neural Control of Singing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 40.0
    Singing provides a unique opportunity to examine music performance—the musical instrument is contained wholly within the body, thus eliminating the need for creating artificial instruments or tasks in neuroimaging experiments. Here, more than two decades of voice and singing research will be reviewed to give an overview of the sensory-motor control of the singing voice, starting from the vocal tract and leading up to the brain regions involved in singing. Additionally, to demonstrate how sensory feedback is integrated with vocal (...)
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  42. Eckart Altenmüller Floris Tijmen Van Vugt, Hans-Christian Jabusch (2013). Individuality That is Unheard Of: Systematic Temporal Deviations in Scale Playing Leave an Inaudible Pianistic Fingerprint. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 28.0
    Whatever we do, we do it in our own way, and we recognise master artists by small samples of their work. This study investigates individuality of temporal deviations in musical scales in pianists in the absence of deliberate expressive intention. Note-by-note timing deviations away from regularity form a remarkably consistent "pianistic fingerprint". First, 8 professional pianists played C-major scales in two sessions, separated by fifteen minutes. Euclidian distances between deviation traces originating from different pianists were reliably larger than traces originating (...)
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  43. [deleted]Yael Adini Yoram S. Bonneh, Yoram Levanon, Omrit Dean-Pardo, Lan Lossos (2010). Abnormal Speech Spectrum and Increased Pitch Variability in Young Autistic Children. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 28.0
    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who can speak often exhibit abnormal voice quality and speech prosody, but the exact nature and underlying mechanisms of these abnormalities, as well as their diagnostic power are currently unknown. Here we quantified speech abnormalities in terms of the properties of the long-term average spectrum (LTAS) and pitch variability in speech samples of 83 children (41 with ASD, 42 controls) ages 4-6.5 years, recorded while they named a sequence of daily-life pictures for 60 sec. (...)
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  44. [deleted]Clemens Maidhof (2013). Error Monitoring in Musicians. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 28.0
    To err is human, and hence even professional musicians make errors occasionally during their performances. This paper summarizes recent work investigating error monitoring in musicians, i.e. the processes and their neural correlates associated with the monitoring of ongoing actions and the detection of deviations from intended sounds. EEG Studies reported an early component of the event-related potential (ERP) occurring before the onsets of pitch errors. This component, which can be altered in musicians with focal dystonia, likely reflects processes of error (...)
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  45. [deleted]Stephanie K. Riès, Kira Xie, Kathleen Y. Haaland, Nina F. Dronkers & Robert T. Knight (2013). Role of the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in Speech Monitoring. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 28.0
    The role of lateral prefrontal cortex in speech monitoring has not been delineated. Recent work suggests that medial frontal cortex (MFC) is involved in overt speech monitoring initiated before auditory feedback. This mechanism is reflected in an event-related potential (ERP), the error negativity (Ne), peaking within 100 ms after vocal-onset. Critically, in healthy individuals the Ne is sensitive to the accuracy of the response; it is larger for error than correct trials. By contrast, patients with lateral prefrontal cortex (...)
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  46. Peter Langland-Hassan (2008). Fractured Phenomenologies: Thought Insertion, Inner Speech, and the Puzzle of Extraneity. Mind and Language 23 (4):369-401.score: 24.0
    Abstract: How it is that one's own thoughts can seem to be someone else's? After noting some common missteps of other approaches to this puzzle, I develop a novel cognitive solution, drawing on and critiquing theories that understand inserted thoughts and auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia as stemming from mismatches between predicted and actual sensory feedback. Considerable attention is paid to forging links between the first-person phenomenology of thought insertion and the posits (e.g. efference copy, corollary discharge) of (...)
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  47. Wayne Wu & Raymond Cho (2013). Mechanisms of Auditory Verbal Hallucination in Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Schizophrenia 4.score: 24.0
    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two models of AVH can generate sharper questions that (...)
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  48. R. H. Phaf & G. Wolters (1997). A Constructivist and Connectionist View on Conscious and Nonconscious Processes. Philosophical Psychology 10 (3):287-307.score: 24.0
    Recent experimental findings reveal dissociations of conscious and nonconscious performance in many fields of psychological research, suggesting that conscious and nonconscious effects result from qualitatively different processes. A connectionist view of these processes is put forward in which consciousness is the consequence of construction processes taking place in three types of working memory in a specific type of recurrent neural network. The recurrences arise by feeding back output to the input of a central (representational) network. They are assumed to be (...)
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  49. Dennis Norris, James M. McQueen & Anne Cutler (2000). Merging Information in Speech Recognition: Feedback is Never Necessary. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (3):299-325.score: 24.0
    Top-down feedback does not benefit speech recognition; on the contrary, it can hinder it. No experimental data imply that feedback loops are required for speech recognition. Feedback is accordingly unnecessary and spoken word recognition is modular. To defend this thesis, we analyse lexical involvement in phonemic decision making. TRACE (McClelland & Elman 1986), a model with feedback from the lexicon to prelexical processes, is unable to account for all the available data on phonemic decision making. The (...)
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  50. Simon R. Jones, Charles Fernyhough & Frank Larøi (2010). A Phenomenological Survey of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in the Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic States. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (2):213-224.score: 24.0
    The phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) occurring in hypnagogic and hypnopompic (H&H) states has received little attention. In a sample of healthy participants ( N = 325), 108 participants reported H&H AVHs and answered subsequent questions on their phenomenology. AVHs in the H&H state were found (1) to be more likely to only feature the occasional clear word than to be clear, (2) to be more (...)
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