Search results for '*Dream Content' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. William Dement & Edward A. Wolpert (1958). The Relation of Eye Movements, Body Motility, and External Stimuli to Dream Content. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):543.score: 150.0
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  2. Antti Revonsuo (2000). The Reinterpretation of Dreams: An Evolutionary Hypothesis of the Function of Dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):877-901.score: 96.0
    Several theories claim that dreaming is a random by-product of REM sleep physiology and that it does not serve any natural function. Phenomenal dream content, however, is not as disorganized as such views imply. The form and content of dreams is not random but organized and selective: during dreaming, the brain constructs a complex model of the world in which certain types of elements, when compared to waking life, are underrepresented whereas others are over represented. Furthermore, dream (...) is consistently and powerfully modulated by certain types of waking experiences. On the basis of this evidence, I put forward the hypothesis that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events, and to rehearse threat perception and threat avoidance. To evaluate this hypothesis, we need to consider the original evolutionary context of dreaming and the possible traces it has left in the dream content of the present human population. In the ancestral environment human life was short and full of threats. Any behavioral advantage in dealing with highly dangerous events would have increased the probability of reproductive success. A dream-production mechanism that tends to select threatening waking events and simulate them over and over again in various combinations would have been valuable for the development and maintenance of threat-avoidance skills. Empirical evidence from normative dream content, children's dreams, recurrent dreams, nightmares, post traumatic dreams, and the dreams of hunter-gatherers indicates that our dream-production mechanisms are in fact specialized in the simulation of threatening events, and thus provides support to the threat simulation hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Key Words: dream content; dream function; evolution of consciousness; evolutionary psychology; fear; implicit learning; nightmares; rehearsal; REM; sleep; threat perception. (shrink)
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  3. G. William Domhoff (2007). Realistic Simulation and Bizarreness in Dream Content: Past Findings and Suggestions for Future Research. In D. Barrett & P. McNamara (eds.), The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers. 1--28.score: 92.0
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  4. Kelly Bulkeley (2009). Seeking Patterns in Dream Content: A Systematic Approach to Word Searches. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):905-916.score: 90.0
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  5. G. Williamdomhoff & A. Schneider (2008). Similarities and Differences in Dream Content at the Cross-Cultural, Gender, and Individual Levels. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1257-1265.score: 90.0
  6. G. Domhoff & A. Schneider (2008). Studying Dream Content Using the Archive and Search Engine on DreamBank.Net. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1238-1247.score: 90.0
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  7. A. Hobson & D. Kahn (2007). Dream Content: Individual and Generic Aspects☆. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):850-858.score: 90.0
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  8. Kenneth E. Johnson (1978). Modernity and Dream Content: A Ugandan Example. Ethos 6 (4):212-220.score: 90.0
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  9. Jennifer Michelle Windt & Thomas Metzinger (2007). The Philosophy of Dreaming and Self-Consciousness: What Happens to the Experiential Subject During the Dream State? In Deirdre Barrett & Patrick McNamara (eds.), The New Science of Dreaming Vol 3: Cultural and Theoretical Perspectives. Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group. 193-247.score: 80.0
  10. J. Allan Hobson (2002). Sleep and Dream Suppression Following a Lateral Medullary Infarct: A First-Person Account. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):377-390.score: 78.0
  11. Mark W. Mahowald (2004). Commentary on Sleep and Dream Suppression Following a Lateral Medullary Infarct: A First Person Account by J. Allan Hobson. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):134-137.score: 78.0
  12. R. L. Punämaki (2007). Trauma and Dreaming: Trauma Impact on Dream Recall, Content, and Patterns, and the Mental Health Function of Dreams. In D. Barrett & P. McNamara (eds.), The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers. 2--211.score: 74.0
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  13. Kira Lynn Casto, Stanley Krippner & Robert Tartz (1999). The Identification of Spiritual Content in Dream Reports. Anthropology of Consciousness 10 (1):43-53.score: 72.0
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  14. Antonio Zadra, Sophie Desjardins & Éric Marcotte (2006). Evolutionary Function of Dreams: A Test of the Threat Simulation Theory in Recurrent Dreams. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):450-463.score: 66.0
  15. Sophie Desjardins & Antonio Zadra (2006). Is the Threat Simulation Theory Threatened by Recurrent Dreams? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):470-474.score: 66.0
  16. Milton Kramer (2000). Dreaming has Content and Meaning Not Just Form. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):959-961.score: 66.0
    The biological theories of dreaming provide no explanation for the transduction from neuronal discharge to dreaming or waking consciousness. They cannot account for the variability in dream content between individuals or within individuals. Mind-brain isomorphism is poorly supported, as is dreaming's link to REM sleep. Biological theories of dreaming do not provide a function for dreaming nor a meaning for dreams. Evolutionary views of dreaming do not relate dream content to the current concerns of the dreamer and using (...)
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  17. David Kahn & J. Allan Hobson (2003). State Dependence of Character Perception: Implausibility Differences in Dreaming and Waking Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (3):57-68.score: 66.0
  18. Imants Baruss (2003). Dreams. In , Alterations of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis for Social Scientists. American Psychological Association. 79-106.score: 66.0
  19. Eric Klinger (2013). Goal Commitments and the Content of Thoughts and Dreams: Basic Principles. Frontiers in Psychology 4 (July).score: 64.0
    A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual's commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person's own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious (...)
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  20. Kieran C. Fox, Savannah Nijeboer, Elizaveta Solomonova, G. William Domhoff & Kalina Christoff (2013). Dreaming as Mind Wandering: Evidence From Functional Neuroimaging and First-Person Content Reports. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 64.0
    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both ‘daydreaming’ and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws (...)
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  21. Kalina Christoff Kieran C. R. Fox, Savannah Nijeboer, Elizaveta Solomonova, G. William Domhoff (2013). Dreaming as Mind Wandering: Evidence From Functional Neuroimaging and First-Person Content Reports. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 64.0
    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both ‘daydreaming’ and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws (...)
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  22. Douglas F. Watt (2002). Commentary on Professor Hobson's First-Person Account of a Lateral Medullary Stroke (CVA): Affirmative Action for the Brainstem in Consciousness Studies? Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):391-395.score: 60.0
  23. Sérgio Arthuro Mota-Rolim, Zé Henrique Targino, Bryan C. Souza, Wilfredo Blanco, John F. Araujo & Sidarta Ribeiro (2013). Dream Characteristics in a Brazilian Sample: An Online Survey Focusing on Lucid Dreaming. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 54.0
    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n=3,427; median age=25 years) through (...)
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  24. Michael Schredl (2000). Dream Research: Integration of Physiological and Psychological Models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1001-1003.score: 48.0
    All five target articles are of high quality and very stimulating for the field. Several factors such as dream report length and NREM/REM differences, may be affected by the waking process (transition from sleep to wakefulness) and the recall process. It is helpful to distinguish between a model for REM sleep regulation and a physiological model for dreaming. A third model accounting for cognitive activity (thought-like dreaming) can also be of value. The postulated adaptive function of dreaming in avoidance learning (...)
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  25. M. Schredl, A. T. Funkhouser, C. M. Cornu, Hirsbrunner H.-P. & M. Bahro (2001). Reliability in Dream Research: A Methodological Note. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):496-502.score: 48.0
    The coefficients of internal consistency and retest reliability had been rarely investigated within the methodology of dream content analysis. Analyzing a dream series of elderly, healthy persons obtained from weekly telephone interviews, the internal consistency of a series of 20 dreams and retests after 4 or 22 weeks, respectively, had been computed. The findings indicate that dream recall and dream length are quite stable, but dream characteristics such as bizarreness and emotional tone underlie large intraindividual fluctuations. In order to (...)
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  26. Michael Schredl (2011). Dream Research in Schizophrenia: Methodological Issues and a Dimensional Approach. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1036-1041.score: 48.0
    Dreaming in patients with schizophrenia was and is of particular interest to researchers and clinicians due to the phenomenological similarities between the dreaming state and schizophrenic daytime symptomatology such as bizarre thoughts or hallucinations. Extensive literature reviews have shown that dream studies in the field of psychopathology often do not fulfill common scientific criteria. The present paper focuses on the methodological issues like sampling methods, the dream collection method, and dream content analysis that are crucial with regard to the (...)
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  27. Christopher L. Edwards, Perrine Marie Ruby, Josie E. Malinowski, Paul D. Bennett & Mark T. Blagrove (2013). Dreaming and Insight. Frontiers in Psychology 4:979.score: 48.0
    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can (...)
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  28. Siamak Movahedi (2012). Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Reported Dreams and the Problem of Double Hermeneutics in Clinical Research. Journal of Research Practice 8 (2):Article - M12.score: 48.0
    The aim of this article is to show that statistical analysis and hermeneutics are not mutually exclusive. Although statistical analysis may capture some patterns and regularities, statistical methods may themselves generate different types of interpretation and, in turn, give rise to even more interpretations. The discussion is lodged within the context of a quantitative analysis of dream content. I attempted to examine the dialogical texts of reported dreams monologically, but soon found myself returning to dialogic contexts to make sense (...)
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  29. Sara McClintock (2014). Kamalaśīla on the Nature of Phenomenal Content (Ākāra) in Cognition: A Close Reading of TSP Ad TS 3626 and Related Passages. Journal of Indian Philosophy 42 (2-3):327-337.score: 42.0
    Traditional as well as contemporary interpreters of Indian Yogācāra divide that tradition into a variety of doxographical camps depending on whether awareness is understood tobe endowed with phenomenal content (ākāra) and, if so, whether that content is understood to be real or true. Kamalaśīla’s extensive commentary on his teacher Śāntarakṣita’s Tattvasaṃgraha contains passages that throw into question certain doxographical equivalencies, especially the equivalencies sometimes proposed betweenthe doctrine that awareness is endowed with phenomenal content (sākāravāda) and the doctrine (...)
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  30. Drew Morgan (2005). Awakening The Dream of Gerontius. Newman Studies Journal 2 (2):36-51.score: 42.0
    The publication of his Apologia pro Vita Sua (1864) brought Newman back into contact with many of his Anglican friends—two of whom gifted him with a violin. In his letter of appreciation, Newman mused: “Perhaps thought is music.” Such would seem to be the case with his poem, The Dream of Gerontius (1865), which was set to music by Sir Edward Elgar (1900). This essay explores the relationship between Newman’s Apologia and The Dream of Gerontius and then analyzes the latter’s (...)
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  31. Anjali Prabhu (2011). To Dream of Fanon: Reconstructing a Method for Thought by a Revolutionary Intellectual. Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy 19 (1):57-70.score: 42.0
    The half-century, which is the time that has elapsed since the publication of Wretched of the Earth , seems such a short period when one imagines its author in all his intellectual magnificence, his anguish, and the many details we all know of his short-lived reality. Dare one say, after the concept has long been declared “dead” that we imagine him as having been a live “author”? As I write this, the idea of various notable intellectuals and revolutionary movements could (...)
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  32. Melanie G. Rosen (2013). What I Make Up When I Wake Up: Anti-Experience Views and Narrative Fabrication of Dreams. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 40.0
    I propose a narrative fabrication thesis of dream reports, according to which dream reports are often not accurate representations of experiences that occur during sleep. I begin with an overview of anti-experience theses of Norman Malcolm and Daniel Dennett who reject the received view of dreams, that dreams are experiences we have during sleep which are reported upon waking. Although rejection of the first claim of the received view, that dreams are experiences that occur during sleep, is implausible, I evaluate (...)
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  33. Linda Mealey (2000). The Illusory Function of Dreams: Another Example of Cognitive Bias. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):971-972.score: 36.0
    Patterns of dream content indicating a predominance of themes relating to threat are likely to reflect biases in dream recall and dream scoring techniques. Even if this pattern is not artifactual, it is yet reflective of threat-related biases in our conscious and nonconscious waking cognition, and is not special to dreams. [Revonsuo].
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  34. Tamara Fischmann, Michael O. Russ & Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber (2013). Trauma, Dream and Psychic Change in Psychoanalyses: A Dialogue Between Psychoanalysis and the Neurosciences. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:877.score: 34.0
    How can a fruitful dialogue with neuroscientists add knowledge to the unconscious – the specific research object of psychoanalysis? Apparently a growing number of worldwide research groups have begun to realize that the neurosciences and psychoanalysis can benefit from each other in interesting ways. Sometimes empirical studies evoke challenging research questions for both research fields. In the on-going LAC-Depressionstudy, for example, one interesting and unexpected finding for both research fields is that a large majority of chronically depressed in long-term psychoanalytic (...)
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  35. G. William Domhoff (2000). Needed: A New Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):928-930.score: 30.0
    Dream content is more coherent, consistent over time, and continuous with waking emotional concerns than most brainstem-driven theories of dreaming allow, but dreaming probably has no adaptive function. A new neurocognitive perspective focusing on the forebrain system of dream generation should begin with the findings on dream content in adults and the developmental nature of dreaming in children. [Hobson et al.; Nielsen; Revonsuo; Solms; Vertes & Eastman].
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  36. Owen Flanagan (2001). Dreaming Souls: Sleep, Dreams, and the Evolution of the Conscious Mind: Sleep, Dreams, and the Evolution of the Conscious Mind. OUP USA.score: 30.0
    What, if anything do dreams tell us about ourselves? What is the relationship between types of sleep and types of dreams? Does dreaming serve any purpose? Or are dreams simply meaningless mental noise--'unmusical fingers wandering over the piano keys'? With expertise in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience, Owen Flanagan is uniquely qualified to answer those questions. And in Dreaming Souls he provides both an accessible survey of the latest research on sleep and dreams and a compelling new theory about the nature (...)
     
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  37. Richard Scheer (2009). Was Wittgenstein an Anti-Realist? Philosophical Investigations 32 (4):319-328.score: 24.0
    William Child has said that Wittgenstein is an anti-realist with respect to a person's dreams, recent thoughts that he has consciously entertained and other things. I discuss Wittgenstein's comments about these matters in order to show that they do not commit him to an anti-realist view or a realist view. He wished to discredit the idea that when a person reports his dream or his thoughts, or past intentions, the person is reading off the contents of his mind or memory. (...)
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  38. Xunwu Chen (2010). Fate and Humanity. Asian Philosophy 20 (1):67 – 77.score: 24.0
    This essay examines the concept of fate, exploring the causal-normative constraint problem in the existential phenomenology of humanity in _A Dream of Red Mansions_. It studies the structure, content, and origin of the consciousness and experience of fate, as it is illustrated in the phenomenology in the novel, exploring the causal and normative challenges that fate poses to the reality, value, authenticity, happiness, and freedom of a person. Doing so, the essay also demonstrates both the difference and affinity between (...)
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  39. Paul McNamara (1993). Comments on Can Intelligence Be Artificial? Philosophical Studies 71 (2):217-222.score: 24.0
    Doubts are raised about Dretske’s assumption that an entity can't have a representational state that governs its behavior in virtue of its content unless that internal state has been acquired via appropriate interaction with its environment. The doubts hinge on a subtle distinction between a system's acquiring an internal representational state and a system's internal state acquiring the property of being representational. Employing this distinction, it is suggested that we can pre-load machines with states "destined" to acquire specific, predictable (...)
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  40. F. S. Perotto (2013). A Computational Constructivist Model as an Anticipatory Learning Mechanism for Coupled Agent–Environment Systems. Constructivist Foundations 9 (1):46-56.score: 24.0
    Context: The advent of a general artificial intelligence mechanism that learns like humans do would represent the realization of an old and major dream of science. It could be achieved by an artifact able to develop its own cognitive structures following constructivist principles. However, there is a large distance between the descriptions of the intelligence made by constructivist theories and the mechanisms that currently exist. Problem: The constructivist conception of intelligence is very powerful for explaining how cognitive development takes place. (...)
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  41. Peter P. Kirschenmann (1991). Local and Normative Rationality of Science: The 'Content of Discovery' Rehabilitated. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 22 (1):61-72.score: 24.0
    Summary The recent turn to the ‘context of discovery’ and other ‘postmodernist’ developments in the philosophy of science have undermined the idea of a universal rationality of science. This parallels the fate of the classical dream of a logic of discovery. Still, justificational questions have remained as a distinct perspective, though comprising both consequential and generative justification — an insight delayed by certain confusions about the (original) context distinction. An examination of one particular heuristic strategy shows its local rationality; even (...)
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  42. Alan Gilbert (1992). Must Global Politics Constrain Democracy? Realism, Regimes, and Democratic Internationalism. Political Theory 20 (1):8-37.score: 24.0
    The government itself, which is the only mode which the people have chosen to execute their will, is equally liable [with the standing army] to be abused and perverted before the people can act through it. Witness the present Mexican war, the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool; for, in the outset, the people would not have consented to this measure. Henry Thoreau, in “Civil Disobedience”It is easy to say — and often is (...)
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  43. Kjell S. Johannessen (1988). Rule Following and Tacit Knowledge. AI and Society 2 (4):287-301.score: 24.0
    This paper discusses the interrelationship between wisdom, science and craft from the perspective of the Wittgenstein concept of tacit knowledge. It challenges the notion of the ‘rules-model’ as put forward by Logical Positivists, and shows the limitation of this model for describing the tacit dimension of knowledge. The paper demonstrates the crucial role of practice in ‘rule-following’ in the real world. It is held that ‘to follow a rule’ is to practice a custom, a usage or an institutional practice. Hence, (...)
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  44. Jack DuVall (2014). Dream Things True: Nonviolent Movements as Applied Consciousness. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 10 (1):106-117.score: 24.0
    Nonviolent movements have become a new form of human agency. Between 1900 and 2006, more than 100 such movements appeared, and more than half were successful in dissolving oppression or achieving people's rights. Movements self-organize to summon mass participation, develop cognitive unity in the midst of dissension, and build resilient force on the content of shared beliefs. Some movements may even be a new venue for consciousness that "grows to something of great constancy" as Shakespeare said about "minds transfigured (...)
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  45. B. Waters (2005). What is Christian About Christian Bioethics? Christian Bioethics 11 (3):281-295.score: 24.0
    What is Christian about Christian bioethics? The short answer to this question is that the Incarnation should shape the form and content of Christian bioethics. In explicating this answer it is argued that contemporary medicine is unwittingly embracing and implementing the transhumanist dream of transforming humans into posthumans. Contemporary medicine does not admit that there are any limits in principle to the extent to which it should intervene to improve the quality of human life. This largely inarticulate, yet ambitious, (...)
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  46. Thomas Gregor (1981). A Content Analysis of Mehinaku Dreams. Ethos 9 (4):353-390.score: 24.0
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  47. David Hills (2008). Problems of Paraphrase: Bottom's Dream. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 3 (1):9.score: 24.0
    Philosophers and critics alike often contend that metaphors cannot or should not be paraphrased, ever. Yet a simple and decisive empirical argument — The Horse’s Mouth Argument—suffices to show that many metaphors can be paraphrased without violating the spirit in which they were put forward in the first place. This argument leaves us with urgent unanswered questions about the role of paraphrase in a more inclusive division of exegetical labor, about the tension between its notorious openendedness and its claim to (...)
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  48. Zihu Liu (2008). 人类精神的结构体系和层面性发展解析. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 42:255-271.score: 24.0
    Whenever we analyze the issue of spiritual activities, we can never lay aside of the macro-background of “spirit service to life”. Spirit is” software” of life. It is essentially to carry out determination of self life and a nervous system which make the information processing and feedback between self life and outside world. It has reasonable structure system and systematical work mechanism. The basic structure system of the spirit of human beings is like this: self is the core and leading (...)
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  49. Peter Beilharz & Sian Supski (2011). 'To Love and to Be Loved': Janina Bauman's Ordinary Life. Thesis Eleven 107 (1):101-105.score: 24.0
    Janina Bauman was a sociologist of everyday life. Her autobiographical texts, Winter in the Morning (1986), A Dream of Belonging (1988), and the synthetic volume Beyond These Walls (2006), manage a kind of personal poignancy combined with world-historic content and attention to the detail of everyday life that sets her work apart. This essay responds to these attributes and offers a contribution to her remembrance as a writer, an actor in and observer of everyday life in Warsaw and Leeds (...)
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