Search results for '*Dream Content' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. William Dement & Edward A. Wolpert (1958). The Relation of Eye Movements, Body Motility, and External Stimuli to Dream Content. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):543.score: 75.0
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  2. Antti Revonsuo (2000). The Reinterpretation of Dreams: An Evolutionary Hypothesis of the Function of Dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):877-901.score: 48.0
    Several theories claim that dreaming is a random by-product of REM sleep physiology and that it does not serve any natural function. Phenomenal dream content, however, is not as disorganized as such views imply. The form and content of dreams is not random but organized and selective: during dreaming, the brain constructs a complex model of the world in which certain types of elements, when compared to waking life, are underrepresented whereas others are over represented. Furthermore, dream (...) is consistently and powerfully modulated by certain types of waking experiences. On the basis of this evidence, I put forward the hypothesis that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events, and to rehearse threat perception and threat avoidance. To evaluate this hypothesis, we need to consider the original evolutionary context of dreaming and the possible traces it has left in the dream content of the present human population. In the ancestral environment human life was short and full of threats. Any behavioral advantage in dealing with highly dangerous events would have increased the probability of reproductive success. A dream-production mechanism that tends to select threatening waking events and simulate them over and over again in various combinations would have been valuable for the development and maintenance of threat-avoidance skills. Empirical evidence from normative dream content, children's dreams, recurrent dreams, nightmares, post traumatic dreams, and the dreams of hunter-gatherers indicates that our dream-production mechanisms are in fact specialized in the simulation of threatening events, and thus provides support to the threat simulation hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Key Words: dream content; dream function; evolution of consciousness; evolutionary psychology; fear; implicit learning; nightmares; rehearsal; REM; sleep; threat perception. (shrink)
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  3. G. William Domhoff (2007). Realistic Simulation and Bizarreness in Dream Content: Past Findings and Suggestions for Future Research. In D. Barrett & P. McNamara (eds.), The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers. 1--28.score: 46.0
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  4. Kelly Bulkeley (2009). Seeking Patterns in Dream Content: A Systematic Approach to Word Searches. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):905-916.score: 45.0
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  5. G. Williamdomhoff & A. Schneider (2008). Similarities and Differences in Dream Content at the Cross-Cultural, Gender, and Individual Levels. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1257-1265.score: 45.0
  6. A. Hobson & D. Kahn (2007). Dream Content: Individual and Generic Aspects☆. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):850-858.score: 45.0
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  7. G. Domhoff & A. Schneider (2008). Studying Dream Content Using the Archive and Search Engine on DreamBank.Net. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1238-1247.score: 45.0
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  8. Kenneth E. Johnson (1978). Modernity and Dream Content: A Ugandan Example. Ethos 6 (4):212-220.score: 45.0
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  9. Jennifer Michelle Windt & Thomas Metzinger (2007). The Philosophy of Dreaming and Self-Consciousness: What Happens to the Experiential Subject During the Dream State? In Deirdre Barrett & Patrick McNamara (eds.), The New Science of Dreaming Vol 3: Cultural and Theoretical Perspectives. Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group. 193-247.score: 40.0
  10. J. Allan Hobson (2002). Sleep and Dream Suppression Following a Lateral Medullary Infarct: A First-Person Account. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):377-390.score: 39.0
  11. Mark W. Mahowald (2004). Commentary on Sleep and Dream Suppression Following a Lateral Medullary Infarct: A First Person Account by J. Allan Hobson. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):134-137.score: 39.0
  12. R. L. Punämaki (2007). Trauma and Dreaming: Trauma Impact on Dream Recall, Content, and Patterns, and the Mental Health Function of Dreams. In D. Barrett & P. McNamara (eds.), The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers. 2--211.score: 37.0
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  13. Kira Lynn Casto, Stanley Krippner & Robert Tartz (1999). The Identification of Spiritual Content in Dream Reports. Anthropology of Consciousness 10 (1):43-53.score: 36.0
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  14. Antonio Zadra, Sophie Desjardins & Éric Marcotte (2006). Evolutionary Function of Dreams: A Test of the Threat Simulation Theory in Recurrent Dreams. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):450-463.score: 33.0
  15. Sophie Desjardins & Antonio Zadra (2006). Is the Threat Simulation Theory Threatened by Recurrent Dreams? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):470-474.score: 33.0
  16. Milton Kramer (2000). Dreaming has Content and Meaning Not Just Form. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):959-961.score: 33.0
    The biological theories of dreaming provide no explanation for the transduction from neuronal discharge to dreaming or waking consciousness. They cannot account for the variability in dream content between individuals or within individuals. Mind-brain isomorphism is poorly supported, as is dreaming's link to REM sleep. Biological theories of dreaming do not provide a function for dreaming nor a meaning for dreams. Evolutionary views of dreaming do not relate dream content to the current concerns of the dreamer and using (...)
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  17. Imants Baruss (2003). Dreams. In , Alterations of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis for Social Scientists. American Psychological Association. 79-106.score: 33.0
  18. David Kahn & J. Allan Hobson (2003). State Dependence of Character Perception: Implausibility Differences in Dreaming and Waking Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (3):57-68.score: 33.0
  19. Kalina Christoff Kieran C. R. Fox, Savannah Nijeboer, Elizaveta Solomonova, G. William Domhoff (2013). Dreaming as Mind Wandering: Evidence From Functional Neuroimaging and First-Person Content Reports. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 32.0
    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both ‘daydreaming’ and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws (...)
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  20. Kieran C. Fox, Savannah Nijeboer, Elizaveta Solomonova, G. William Domhoff & Kalina Christoff (2013). Dreaming as Mind Wandering: Evidence From Functional Neuroimaging and First-Person Content Reports. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 32.0
    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both ‘daydreaming’ and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws (...)
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  21. Eric Klinger (2013). Goal Commitments and the Content of Thoughts and Dreams: Basic Principles. Frontiers in Psychology 4 (July).score: 32.0
    A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual's commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person's own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious (...)
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  22. Douglas F. Watt (2002). Commentary on Professor Hobson's First-Person Account of a Lateral Medullary Stroke (CVA): Affirmative Action for the Brainstem in Consciousness Studies? Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):391-395.score: 30.0
  23. Sérgio Arthuro Mota-Rolim, Zé Henrique Targino, Bryan C. Souza, Wilfredo Blanco, John F. Araujo & Sidarta Ribeiro (2013). Dream Characteristics in a Brazilian Sample: An Online Survey Focusing on Lucid Dreaming. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 27.0
    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n=3,427; median age=25 years) through (...)
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  24. Michael Schredl (2000). Dream Research: Integration of Physiological and Psychological Models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1001-1003.score: 24.0
    All five target articles are of high quality and very stimulating for the field. Several factors such as dream report length and NREM/REM differences, may be affected by the waking process (transition from sleep to wakefulness) and the recall process. It is helpful to distinguish between a model for REM sleep regulation and a physiological model for dreaming. A third model accounting for cognitive activity (thought-like dreaming) can also be of value. The postulated adaptive function of dreaming in avoidance learning (...)
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  25. M. Schredl, A. T. Funkhouser, C. M. Cornu, Hirsbrunner H.-P. & M. Bahro (2001). Reliability in Dream Research: A Methodological Note. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):496-502.score: 24.0
    The coefficients of internal consistency and retest reliability had been rarely investigated within the methodology of dream content analysis. Analyzing a dream series of elderly, healthy persons obtained from weekly telephone interviews, the internal consistency of a series of 20 dreams and retests after 4 or 22 weeks, respectively, had been computed. The findings indicate that dream recall and dream length are quite stable, but dream characteristics such as bizarreness and emotional tone underlie large intraindividual fluctuations. In order to (...)
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  26. Michael Schredl (2011). Dream Research in Schizophrenia: Methodological Issues and a Dimensional Approach. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1036-1041.score: 24.0
    Dreaming in patients with schizophrenia was and is of particular interest to researchers and clinicians due to the phenomenological similarities between the dreaming state and schizophrenic daytime symptomatology such as bizarre thoughts or hallucinations. Extensive literature reviews have shown that dream studies in the field of psychopathology often do not fulfill common scientific criteria. The present paper focuses on the methodological issues like sampling methods, the dream collection method, and dream content analysis that are crucial with regard to the (...)
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  27. Christopher L. Edwards, Perrine Marie Ruby, Josie E. Malinowski, Paul D. Bennett & Mark T. Blagrove (2013). Dreaming and Insight. Frontiers in Psychology 4:979.score: 24.0
    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can (...)
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  28. Siamak Movahedi (2012). Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Reported Dreams and the Problem of Double Hermeneutics in Clinical Research. Journal of Research Practice 8 (2):Article - M12.score: 24.0
    The aim of this article is to show that statistical analysis and hermeneutics are not mutually exclusive. Although statistical analysis may capture some patterns and regularities, statistical methods may themselves generate different types of interpretation and, in turn, give rise to even more interpretations. The discussion is lodged within the context of a quantitative analysis of dream content. I attempted to examine the dialogical texts of reported dreams monologically, but soon found myself returning to dialogic contexts to make sense (...)
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  29. Mohan Matthen (forthcoming). Image Content. In Berit Brogaard (ed.), Does Perception Have Content? Oxford University Press.score: 21.0
    The senses present their content in the form of images, three-dimensional arrays of located sense features. Peacocke’s “scenario content” is one attempt to capture image content; here, a richer notion is presented, sensory images include located objects and features predicated of them. It is argued that our grasp of the meaning of these images implies that they have propositional content. Two problems concerning image content are explored. The first is that even on an enriched conception, (...)
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  30. Sara McClintock (forthcoming). Kamalaśīla on the Nature of Phenomenal Content (Ākāra) in Cognition: A Close Reading of TSP Ad TS 3626 and Related Passages. Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-11.score: 21.0
    Traditional as well as contemporary interpreters of Indian Yogācāra divide that tradition into a variety of doxographical camps depending on whether awareness is understood tobe endowed with phenomenal content (ākāra) and, if so, whether that content is understood to be real or true. Kamalaśīla’s extensive commentary on his teacher Śāntarakṣita’s Tattvasaṃgraha contains passages that throw into question certain doxographical equivalencies, especially the equivalencies sometimes proposed betweenthe doctrine that awareness is endowed with phenomenal content (sākāravāda) and the doctrine (...)
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  31. Drew Morgan (2005). Awakening The Dream of Gerontius. Newman Studies Journal 2 (2):36-51.score: 21.0
    The publication of his Apologia pro Vita Sua (1864) brought Newman back into contact with many of his Anglican friends—two of whom gifted him with a violin. In his letter of appreciation, Newman mused: “Perhaps thought is music.” Such would seem to be the case with his poem, The Dream of Gerontius (1865), which was set to music by Sir Edward Elgar (1900). This essay explores the relationship between Newman’s Apologia and The Dream of Gerontius and then analyzes the latter’s (...)
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  32. Anjali Prabhu (2011). To Dream of Fanon: Reconstructing a Method for Thought by a Revolutionary Intellectual. Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy 19 (1):57-70.score: 21.0
    The half-century, which is the time that has elapsed since the publication of Wretched of the Earth , seems such a short period when one imagines its author in all his intellectual magnificence, his anguish, and the many details we all know of his short-lived reality. Dare one say, after the concept has long been declared “dead” that we imagine him as having been a live “author”? As I write this, the idea of various notable intellectuals and revolutionary movements could (...)
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  33. Melanie G. Rosen (2013). What I Make Up When I Wake Up: Anti-Experience Views and Narrative Fabrication of Dreams. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 20.0
    I propose a narrative fabrication thesis of dream reports, according to which dream reports are often not accurate representations of experiences that occur during sleep. I begin with an overview of anti-experience theses of Norman Malcolm and Daniel Dennett who reject the received view of dreams, that dreams are experiences we have during sleep which are reported upon waking. Although rejection of the first claim of the received view, that dreams are experiences that occur during sleep, is implausible, I evaluate (...)
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  34. Tim Crane (1992). The Nonconceptual Content of Experience. In , The Contents of Experience. Cambridge University Press.score: 19.0
    Some have claimed that people with very different beliefs literally see the world differently. Thus Thomas Kuhn: ‘what a man sees depends both upon what he looks at and also upon what his previous visual—conceptual experience has taught him to see’ (Kuhn 1970, p. ll3). This view — call it ‘Perceptual Relativism’ — entails that a scientist and a child may look at a cathode ray tube and, in a sense, the first will see it while the second won’t. The (...)
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  35. Susanna Schellenberg (2011). Perceptual Content Defended. Noûs 45 (4):714 - 750.score: 18.0
    Recently, the thesis that experience is fundamentally a matter of representing the world as being a certain way has been questioned by austere relationalists. I defend this thesis by developing a view of perceptual content that avoids their objections. I will argue that on a relational understanding of perceptual content, the fundamental insights of austere relationalism do not compete with perceptual experience being representational. As it will show that most objections to the thesis that experience has content (...)
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  36. Mark Greenberg (2005). A New Map of Theories of Mental Content: Constitutive Accounts and Normative Theories. Philosophical Issues 15 (1):299-320.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I propose a new way of understanding the space of possibilities in the field of mental content. The resulting map assigns separate locations to theories of content that have generally been lumped together on the more traditional map. Conversely, it clusters together some theories of content that have typically been regarded as occupying opposite poles. I make my points concrete by developing a taxonomy of theories of mental content, but the main points of (...)
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  37. Bill Brewer (2006). Perception and Content. European Journal of Philosophy 14 (2):165-181.score: 18.0
    It is close to current orthodoxy that perceptual experience is to be characterized, at least in part, by its representational content, roughly, by the way it represents things as being in the world around the perceiver. Call this basic idea the content view (CV).
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  38. Katalin Balog (2009). Jerry Fodor on Non-Conceptual Content. Synthese 167 (3):311 - 320.score: 18.0
    Proponents of non-conceptual content have recruited it for various philosophical jobs. Some epistemologists have suggested that it may play the role of “the given” that Sellars is supposed to have exorcised from philosophy. Some philosophers of mind (e.g., Dretske) have suggested that it plays an important role in the project of naturalizing semantics as a kind of halfway between merely information bearing and possessing conceptual content. Here I will focus on a recent proposal by Jerry Fodor. In a (...)
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  39. Anders Nes (2006). Content in Thought and Perception. Dissertation, Oxford Universityscore: 18.0
    The dissertation addresses a debate in the philosophy of perception between conceptualists and nonconceptualists. Its principal thesis is that the intentional content of a perceptual experience is the content of a thought that a reflective subject is in a position to think if she has the experience. I call this claim, endorsed by conceptualists, the thesis of content congruence. Two principal lines of argument are put forward for it. The first, ‘simple’ argument contends that a perceptual experience (...)
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  40. Mark Jago (2012). The Content of Deduction. Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (2):317-334.score: 18.0
    For deductive reasoning to be justified, it must be guaranteed to preserve truth from premises to conclusion; and for it to be useful to us, it must be capable of informing us of something. How can we capture this notion of information content, whilst respecting the fact that the content of the premises, if true, already secures the truth of the conclusion? This is the problem I address here. I begin by considering and rejecting several accounts of informational (...)
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  41. Boyd Millar (2011). Sensory Phenomenology and Perceptual Content. Philosophical Quarterly 61 (244):558-576.score: 18.0
    The consensus in contemporary philosophy of mind is that how a perceptual experience represents the world to be is built into its sensory phenomenology. I defend an opposing view which I call ‘moderate separatism’, that an experience's sensory phenomenology does not determine how it represents the world to be. I argue for moderate separatism by pointing to two ordinary experiences which instantiate the same sensory phenomenology but differ with regard to their intentional content. Two experiences of an object reflected (...)
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  42. David J. Chalmers (2003). The Nature of Narrow Content. Philosophical Issues 13 (1):46-66.score: 18.0
    A content of a subject's mental state is narrow when it is determined by the subject's intrinsic properties: that is, when any possible intrinsic duplicate of the subject has a corresponding mental state with the same content. A content of a subject's mental state is..
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  43. James Baillie (1997). Personal Identity and Mental Content. Philosophical Psychology 10 (3):323-33.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I attempt to map out the 'logical geography' of the territory in which issues of mental content and of personal identity meet. In particular, I investigate the possibility of combining a psychological criterion of personal identity with an externalist theory of content. I argue that this can be done, but only by accepting an assumption that has been widely accepted but barely argued for, namely that when someone switches linguistic communities, the contents of their thoughts (...)
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  44. Paul A. Boghossian (1990). The Status of Content. Philosophical Review 99 (2):157-84.score: 18.0
    A n irrealist conception of a given region of discourse is the view that no real properties answer to the central predicates of the region in question. Any such conception emerges, invariably, as the result of the interaction of two forces. An account of the meaning of the central predicates, along with a conception of the sorts of property the world may contain, conspire to show that, if the predicates of the region are taken to express properties, their extensions would (...)
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  45. Alex Byrne (2005). Perception and Conceptual Content. In Ernest Sosa & Matthias Steup (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Epistemology. Blackwell. 231--250.score: 18.0
    Perceptual experiences justify beliefs—that much seems obvious. As Brewer puts it, “sense experiential states provide reasons for empirical beliefs” (this volume, xx). In Mind and World McDowell argues that we can get from this apparent platitude to the controversial claim that perceptual experiences have conceptual content: [W]e can coherently credit experiences with rational relations to judgement and belief, but only if we take it that spontaneity is already implicated in receptivity; that is, only if we take it that experiences (...)
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  46. Sergeiy Sandler, Is There Such a Thing as “Semantic Content”?score: 18.0
    The distinction between the semantic content of a sentence or utterance and its use is widely employed in formal semantics. Semantic minimalism in particular understands this distinction as a sharp dichotomy. I argue that if we accept such a dichotomy, there would be no reason to posit the existence of semantic contents at all. I examine and reject several arguments raised in the literature that might provide a rationale for assuming semantic contents, in this sense, exist, and conclude that (...)
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  47. Uriah Kriegel (2004). Perceptual Experience, Conscious Content, and Nonconceptual Content. Essays in Philosophy 5 (1):1-14.score: 18.0
    One of the promising approaches to the problem of perceptual consciousness has been the representational theory, or representationalism. The idea is to reduce the phenomenal character of conscious perceptual experiences to the representational content of those experiences. Most representationalists appeal specifically to non-conceptual content in reducing phenomenal character to representational content. In this paper, I discuss a series of issues involved in this representationalist appeal to non-conceptual content. The overall argument is the following. On the face (...)
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  48. Brad J. Thompson (2010). The Spatial Content of Experience. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (1):146-184.score: 18.0
    To what extent is the external world the way that it appears to us in perceptual experience? This perennial question in philosophy is no doubt ambiguous in many ways. For example, it might be taken as equivalent to the question of whether or not the external world is the way that it appears to be? This is a question about the epistemology of perception: Are our perceptual experiences by and large veridical representations of the external world? Alternatively, the question might (...)
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  49. Fiona Macpherson (2006). Ambiguous Figures and the Content of Experience. Noûs 40 (1):82-117.score: 18.0
    Representationalism is the position that the phenomenal character of an experience is either identical with, or supervenes on, the content of that experience. Many representationalists hold that the relevant content of experience is nonconceptual. I propose a counter-example to this form of representationalism that arises from the phenomenon of Gestalt switching, which occurs when viewing ambiguous figures. First, I argue that one does not need to appeal to the conceptual content of experience or to judge- ments to (...)
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  50. Jeff Speaks (2005). Is There a Problem About Nonconceptual Content? Philosophical Review 114 (3):359-98.score: 18.0
    In the past twenty years, issues about the relationship between perception and thought have largely been framed in terms of the question of whether the contents of perception are nonconceptual. I argue that this debate has rested on an ambiguity in `nonconceptual content' and some false presuppositions about what is required for concept possession. Once these are cleared away, I argue that none of the arguments which have been advanced about nonconceptual content do much to threaten the natural (...)
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