Search results for '*Environment' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Banjo Roxas & Alan Coetzer (2012). Institutional Environment, Managerial Attitudes and Environmental Sustainability Orientation of Small Firms. Journal of Business Ethics 111 (4):461-476.score: 18.0
    This study examines the direct impact of three dimensions of the institutional environment on managerial attitudes toward the natural environment and the direct influence of the latter on the environmental sustainability orientation (ESO) of small firms. We contend that when the institutional environment is perceived by owner–managers as supportive of sound natural environment management practices, they are more likely to develop a positive attitude toward natural environment issues and concerns. Such owner–manager attitudes are likely to lead to a positive and (...)
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  2. David Dawson (2005). Applying Stories of the Environment to Business: What Business People Can Learn From the Virtues in Environmental Narratives. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 58 (1-3):37 - 49.score: 14.0
    . The use of narrative to communicate and convey particular points of view in society has increasingly become the focus of academic attention in recent years. In particular, MacIntyre. (1985, 1988, 1990, 1999) has paid attention to the role of narrative in the conflict between different traditions when developing his virtue approach to ethics. Whilst there has been continued debate about the application of virtue approaches, some arguing that it is incompatible with business, I disagree and have already argued for (...)
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  3. Hurng-Jyuhn Wang, Chin-Shien Wu, Yun-Yu Huang & John R. Parkins (forthcoming). Mapping the Cognitive Environment of Fifth Graders: An Empirical Analysis for Use in Environmental Planning. [REVIEW] AI and Society:1-8.score: 14.0
    This study employs an experiment investigating cognitive mapping of fifth-grade children living in a remote village environment, wherein characteristics of the landscape included paths, landmarks, nodes, edges, and districts. Two aspects of analysis were salient in this study. First, important landscape characteristics and their frequency of appearance in the cognitive maps were tabulated and illustrated as a layout map. Second, inaccurate cognitive maps were structurally analyzed to account for any incompleteness, distortions, and augmentation of actual environments found in some map (...)
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  4. Roger J. H. King (2000). Environmental Ethics and the Built Environment. Environmental Ethics 22 (2):115-131.score: 13.0
    I defend the view that the design of the built environment should be a proper part of environmental ethics. An environmentally responsible culture should be one in which citizens take responsibility for the domesticated environments in which they live, as well as for their effects on wild nature. How we build our world reveals both the possibilities in nature and our own stance toward the world. Our constructions and contrivances also objectively constrain the possibilities for the development of a human (...)
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  5. Allen Carlson (2000). Aesthetics and the Environment: The Appreciation of Nature, Art, and Architecture. Routledge.score: 12.0
    Aesthetics and the Environment presents fresh and fascinating insights into our interpretation of the environment. Traditional aesthetics is often associated with the appreciation of art, but Allen Carlson shows how much of our aesthetic experience does not encompass art but nature--in our response to sunsets, mountains or horizons or more mundane surroundings, like gardens or the view from our window. Carlson argues that knowledge of what it is we are appreciating is essential to having an appropriate aesthetic experience and that (...)
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  6. Cathy Driscoll & Mark Starik (2004). The Primordial Stakeholder: Advancing the Conceptual Consideration of Stakeholder Status for the Natural Environment. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 49 (1):55-73.score: 12.0
    This article furthers the argument for a stakeholder theory that integrates into managerial decision-making the relationship between business organizations and the natural environment. The authors review the literature on stakeholder theory and the debate over whom or what should count as a stakeholder. The authors also critique and expand the stakeholder identification and salience model developed by Mitchell and Wood (1997) by reconceptualizing the stakeholder attributes of power, legitimacy, and urgency, as well as by developing a fourth stakeholder attribute: proximity. (...)
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  7. Arnold Berleant (2005). Aesthetics and Environment: Variations on a Theme. Ashgate Pub. Ltd..score: 12.0
    I: Environmental aesthetics -- A phenomenological aesthetics of environment -- Aesthetic dimensions of environmental design -- Down the garden path -- The wilderness city : a study of metaphorical experience -- Aesthetics of the coastal environment -- The world from the water -- Is there life in virtual space? -- Is greasy lake a place? -- Embodied music -- II: Social aesthetics -- The idea of a cultural aesthetic -- The social evaluation of art -- Subsidization of art as social (...)
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  8. Bradley Franks (2005). The Role of "the Environment" in Cognitive and Evolutionary Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 18 (1):59-82.score: 12.0
    Evolutionary psychology is widely understood as involving an integration of evolutionary theory and cognitive psychology, in which the former promises to revolutionise the latter. In this paper, I suggest some reasons to doubt that the assumptions of evolutionary theory and of cognitive psychology are as directly compatible as is widely assumed. These reasons relate to three different problems of specifying adaptive functions as the basis for characterising cognitive mechanisms: the disjunction problem, the grain problem and the environment problem. Each of (...)
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  9. J. Case (2004). Offloading Memory to the Environment: A Quantitative Example. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 14 (3):387-89.score: 12.0
    R.W. Ashby maintained that people and animals do not have to remember as much as one might think since considerable information is stored in the environment. Presented herein is an everyday, quantitative example featuring calculation of the number bits of memory that can be off-loaded to the environment. The example involves one’s storing directions to a friend’s house. It is also argued that the example works with or without acceptance of the extended mind hypothesis. Additionally, a brief supporting argument for (...)
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  10. Timo Jarvilehto (2000). Feeling as Knowing--Part I: Emotion as Reorganization of the Organism-Environment System. Consciousness and Emotion 1 (2):245-257.score: 12.0
    The theoretical approach described in a series of articles (Jarvilehto, 1998a,b,c, 1999, 2000) is developed further in relation to the problems of emotion, consciousness, and brain activity. The approach starts with the claim that many conceptual confusions in psychology are due to the postulate that the organism and the environment are two interacting systems (”Two systems theory”). The gist of the approach is the idea that the organism and environment form a unitary system which is the basis of subjective experience. (...)
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  11. David Pimentel (1991). Ethanol Fuels: Energy Security, Economics, and the Environment. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 4 (1):1-13.score: 12.0
    Problems of fuel ethanol production have been the subject of numerous reports, including this analysis. The conclusions are that ethanol: does not improve U.S. energy security; is uneconomical; is not a renewable energy source; and increases environmental degradation. Ethanol production is wasteful of energy resources and does not increase energy security. Considerably more energy, much of it high- grade fossil fuels, is required to produce ethanol than is available in the energy output. About 72% more energy is used to produce (...)
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  12. Nonna Martinov-Bennie & Gary Pflugrath (2009). The Strength of an Accounting Firm's Ethical Environment and the Quality of Auditors' Judgments. Journal of Business Ethics 87 (2):237 - 253.score: 12.0
    This study examines the impact of the strength of an accounting firm’s ethical environment (presence and reinforcement vis-à-vis the presence of a code of conduct) on the quality of auditor judgment, across different levels of audit expertise. Using a 2 × 2 full factorial ‹between subjects’ experimental design, with audit managers and audit seniors, the impact of different levels of strength of the ethical environment on auditor judgments was assessed with a realistic audit scenario, requiring participants to make judgments in (...)
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  13. Christopher P. Vogt (2005). Maximizing Human Potential: Capabilities Theory and the Professional Work Environment. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 58 (1-3):111 - 123.score: 12.0
    . Human capabilities theory has emerged as an important framework for measuring whether various social systems promote human flourishing. The premise of this theory is that human beings share some nearly universal capabilities; what makes a human life fulfilling is the opportunity to exercise these capabilities. This essay proposes that the use of human capabilities theory can be expanded to assess whether a company has organized the work environment in such a way that allows workers to develop a variety of (...)
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  14. James Tabery (2008). R. A. Fisher, Lancelot Hogben, and the Origin(s) of Genotype-Environment Interaction. Journal of the History of Biology 41 (4):717 - 761.score: 12.0
    This essay examines the origin(s) of genotype-environment interaction, or G×E. "Origin(s)" and not "the origin" because the thesis is that there were actually two distinct concepts of G×E at this beginning: a biometric concept, or \[G \times E_B\] , and a developmental concept, or \[G \times E_D \] . R. A. Fisher, one of the founders of population genetics and the creator of the statistical analysis of variance, introduced the biometric concept as he attempted to resolve one of the main (...)
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  15. Marshall Abrams (2009). What Determines Biological Fitness? The Problem of the Reference Environment. Synthese 166 (1):21 - 40.score: 12.0
    Organisms' environments are thought to play a fundamental role in determining their fitness and hence in natural selection. Existing intuitive conceptions of environment are sufficient for biological practice. I argue, however, that attempts to produce a general characterization of fitness and natural selection are incomplete without the help of general conceptions of what conditions are included in the environment. Thus there is a "problem of the reference environment"—more particularly, problems of specifying principles which pick out those environmental conditions which determine (...)
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  16. Pratima Bansal & Geoffrey Kistruck (2006). Seeing is (Not) Believing: Managing the Impressions of the Firm's Commitment to the Natural Environment. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 67 (2):165 - 180.score: 12.0
    This paper examines stakeholder responses to impression management tactics used by firms that express environmental commitment. We inductively analyzed data from 98 open-ended questionnaires and identified two impression management tactics that led respondents to believe that a firm was credible in its commitment to the natural environment. Approximately, half of the respondents responded to illustrative impression management tactics that provide images of, and/or broad-brush comments about, the firm’s commitment to the natural environment. The other half responded to demonstrative impression management (...)
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  17. Jenny Bergqvist & Stefan Gunnarsson (2013). Finfish Aquaculture: Animal Welfare, the Environment, and Ethical Implications. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (1):75-99.score: 12.0
    The aim of this review is to assess the ethical implications of finfish aquaculture, regarding fish welfare and environmental aspects. The finfish aquaculture industry has grown substantially the last decades, both as a result of the over-fishing of wild fish populations, and because of the increasing consumer demand for fish meat. As the industry is growing, a significant amount of research on the subject is being conducted, monitoring the effects of aquaculture on the environment and on animal welfare. The areas (...)
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  18. Timo Busch & Volker H. Hoffmann (2009). Ecology-Driven Real Options: An Investment Framework for Incorporating Uncertainties in the Context of the Natural Environment. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):295 - 310.score: 12.0
    The role of uncertainty within an organization’s environment features prominently in the business ethics and management literature, but how corporate investment decisions should proceed in the face of uncertainties relating to the natural environment is less discussed. From the perspective of ecological economics, the salience of ecology-induced issues challenges management to address new types of uncertainties. These pertain to constraints within the natural environment as well as to institutional action aimed at conserving the natural environment. We derive six areas of (...)
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  19. John Barry (2007). Environment and Social Theory. Routledge.score: 12.0
    Environment and Social Theory provides a concise introduction to the relationship between the environment and social theory, both historically and within contemporary social theory.
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  20. Gerald E. Fryxell & Carlos W. H. Lo (2003). The Influence of Environmental Knowledge and Values on Managerial Behaviours on Behalf of the Environment: An Empirical Examination of Managers in China. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 46 (1):45 - 69.score: 12.0
    This study explores linkages between what Chinese managers generally know about environmental issues, how strongly they value environmental protection, and different types of behaviours/actions they may take within their organizations on behalf of the environment. From a sample of 305 managers in Guangzhou and Beijing, it was found that both environmental knowledge and values are more predictive of more personal managerial behaviours, such as keeping informed of relevant company issues and working within the system to minimize environmental impacts, than more (...)
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  21. Randi L. Sims & Thomas L. Keon (1999). Determinants of Ethical Decision Making: The Relationship of the Perceived Organizational Environment. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 19 (4):393 - 401.score: 12.0
    This study attempts to help explain the ethical decision making of individual employees by determining how the perceived organizational environment is related to that decision. A self- administered questionnaire design was used for gathering data in this study with a sample size of 245 full-time employees. Perceived supervisor expectation, formal policies, and informal policies were used to assess the expressed ethical decision of the respondents. The findings indicate that the perceived organizational environment is significantly related to the ethical decision of (...)
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  22. Yen-Ko Lin, Wei-Che Lee, Liang-Chi Kuo, Yuan-Chia Cheng, Chia-Ju Lin, Hsing-Lin Lin, Chao-Wen Chen & Tsung-Ying Lin (2013). Building an Ethical Environment Improves Patient Privacy and Satisfaction in the Crowded Emergency Department: A Quasi-Experimental Study. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):8-.score: 12.0
    Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention in improving emergency department (ED) patient privacy and satisfaction in the crowded ED setting. Methods: A pre- and post-intervention study was conducted. A multifaceted intervention was implemented in a university-affiliated hospital ED. The intervention developed strategies to improve ED patient privacy and satisfaction, including redesigning the ED environment, process management, access control, and staff education and training, and encouraging ethics consultation. The effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated using patient surveys. Eligibility (...)
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  23. Constança Marcondes Cesar & José Trasferetti (2007). Ethics and Environment. Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana 12 (37):79-89.score: 12.0
    This essay deals with the energy crisis in the context of a philosophical reflection about the environment. The text presents a general view of the subject of energy and delves into the concepts of responsibility and care expressed by thinkers Hans Jonas and Martin Heidegger.
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  24. David B. Morris (2002). Light as Environment: Medicine, Health, and Values. Journal of Medical Humanities 23 (1):7-29.score: 12.0
    Light is strangely absent from most accounts of the environment. From photosynthesis to vitamin D, however, light is central to human well-being. Human circadian rhythms are keyed the alternation of dark and light. Erosion of the ozone layer makes skin cancer a growing threat from excess ultraviolet radiation. Light plays a significant role in health and illness. In changing historical circumstances, light continues to evoke and to express significant issues of value.
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  25. Jack A. Raisner (1997). Using the "Ethical Environment" Paradigm to Teach Business Ethics: The Case of the Maquiladoras. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1331-1346.score: 12.0
    The "ethical environment of business" provides a constructive frame of reference for business ethics instruction. As illustrated by a suggested role play about foreign sweatshops, it provides a realistic, problem-solving context for the study of moral and ethical ideas. Once ethical behavior is viewed through this paradigm, students can better see how business policies are shaped by ethics and prepare themselves to react to their own ethical environment.
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  26. I. Ground (2004). Review of Environment and the Arts: Perspectives on Environmental Aesthetics By Arnold Berleant (Ed.). [REVIEW] British Journal of Aesthetics 44:311--313.score: 12.0
    Environment and the Arts: Perspectives on Environ- mental Aesthetics. Edited by ARNOLD BERLEANT . Ashgate. 2002. pp. 192. C ONSISTING of twelve chapters, and an extended introduction, this volume provides a leading-edge anthology of reflections on environmental aesthetics.
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  27. Shaomin Li, Kiran Karande & Dongsheng Zhou (2009). The Effect of the Governance Environment on Marketing Channel Behaviors: The Diamond Industries in the U.S., China, and Hong Kong. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (3):453 - 471.score: 12.0
    International differences in how market exchanges are conducted (e.g., the mode of entry, level of ownership, and conflict resolution) have been attributed mainly to national culture and cultural distance. However, the cultural arguments cannot explain why economies/countries with similar cultural backgrounds (e.g., Hong Kong and China) exhibit differences in exchange arrangements. Thus, the cultural arguments provide little strategic guidance to multinational corporations (MNCs) in international marketing. We propose that in addition to culture, the governance environment in a country, namely, the (...)
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  28. Bulent Menguc, Seigyoung Auh & Lucie Ozanne (2010). The Interactive Effect of Internal and External Factors on a Proactive Environmental Strategy and its Influence on a Firm's Performance. Journal of Business Ethics 94 (2):279 - 298.score: 12.0
    While the literature on the effective management of business and natural environment interfaces is rich and growing, there are still two questions regarding which the literature has yet to reach a definitive conclusion: (1) what is the interactive effect between internal and external drivers on a proactive environmental strategy (PES)? and (2) does a PES influence firm's performance? Drawing on the resource-based view for the internal drivers' perspective and institutional and legitimacy theories for the external drivers' perspective, this study suggests (...)
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  29. Kathleen Wilburn (2009). A Model for Partnering with Not-for-Profìts to Develop Socially Responsible Businesses in a Global Environment. Journal of Business Ethics 85 (1):111 - 120.score: 12.0
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is increasingly important in the global environment. Businesses that want to be socially responsible, but do not have the resources of multinational corporations, can partner with non-governmental (NGO), not-for-profit (NFP), and religious organizations to access information about the culture, customs, and needs of the people in areas where they wish to do business. Without such information, CSR projects can have unintended consequences that are not beneficial for the community. Suggesting that local farmers sell corn to ethanol (...)
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  30. Steven Vogel (2014). On Alienation From the Built Environment. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (1):87-96.score: 12.0
    If “environment” means “that which environs us,” it isn’t clear why environmentalist thinkers so often identify it with nature and not with the built environment that a quick glance around would reveal is what we’re actually environed by. It’s a familiar claim that we’re “alienated from nature,” but I argue that what we’re really alienated from is the built environment itself. Typically talk of alienation from nature involves the claim that we fail to acknowledge nature’s otherness, but the built environment (...)
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  31. Carmen Bain & Theresa Selfa (2013). Framing and Reframing the Environmental Risks and Economic Benefits of Ethanol Production in Iowa. Agriculture and Human Values 30 (3):351-364.score: 12.0
    Recent research exposing environmental and social externalities of biofuels has undermined the earlier national consensus that they would provide climate mitigation and rural development benefits, but support for ethanol remains strong in Iowa. The objective of this paper is to understand how stakeholder groups in Iowa have framed the benefits and risks associated with ethanol’s impact on the local economy and environment. Our case study draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with key informants from agricultural organizations, environmental organizations, and government (...)
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  32. Derek Dalton & Robin R. Radtke (2013). The Joint Effects of Machiavellianism and Ethical Environment on Whistle-Blowing. Journal of Business Ethics 117 (1):153-172.score: 12.0
    Given the importance of the Machiavellianism construct on informing a wide range of ethics research, we focus on gaining a better understanding of Machiavellianism within the whistle-blower context. In this regard, we examine the effect of Machiavellianism on whistle-blowing, focusing on the underlying mechanisms through which Machiavellianism affects whistle-blowing. Further, because individuals who are higher in Machiavellianism (high Machs) are expected to be less likely to report wrongdoing, we examine the ability of an organization’s ethical environment to increase whistle-blowing intentions (...)
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  33. R. Rende (2011). Behavioral Resilience in the Post-Genomic Era: Emerging Models Linking Genes with Environment. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:50-50.score: 12.0
    One of the most important deliverables of the post-genomic era has been a new and nuanced appreciation of how the environment shapes – and holds potential to alter – the expression of susceptibility genes for behavioral dimensions and disorders. This paper will consider three themes that have emerged from cutting-edge research studies that utilize newer molecular genetic approaches as well as tried-and-true genetic epidemiological methodologies, with particular reference to evolving perspectives on resilience and plasticity. These themes are: 1) evidence for (...)
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  34. David B. Resnik (2009). Human Health and the Environment: In Harmony or in Conflict? [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 17 (3):261-276.score: 12.0
    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political leaders, citizens, and government officials need (...)
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  35. Peter Geoffrey Sainsbury (2013). Ethical Considerations Involved in Constructing the Built Environment to Promote Health. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (1):39-48.score: 12.0
    The prevalence of chronic diseases has increased in recent decades. Some forms of the built environment adopted during the 20th century—e.g., urban sprawl, car dependency, and dysfunctional streetscapes—have contributed to this. In this article, I summarise ways in which the built environment influences health and how it can be constructed differently to promote health. I argue that urban planning is inevitably a social and political activity with many ethical dimensions, and I illustrate this with two examples: the construction of a (...)
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  36. Donna D. Bobek, Amy M. Hageman & Robin R. Radtke (2010). The Ethical Environment of Tax Professionals: Partner and Non-Partner Perceptions and Experiences. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (4):637 - 654.score: 12.0
    This article examines perceptions of tax partners and non-partner tax practitioners regarding their CPA firms' ethical environment, as well as experiences with ethical dilemmas. Prior research emphasizes the importance of executive leadership in creating an ethical climate (e.g., Weaver et al., Acad Manage Rev 42(1): 41-57, 1999; Trevino et al., Hum Relat 56(1): 5-37, 2003; Schminke et al., Organ Dyn 36(2): 171-186, 2007). Thus, it is important to consider whether firm partners and other employees have congruent perceptions and experiences. Based (...)
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  37. J. Baird Callicott & Clare Palmer (eds.) (2005). Environmental Philosophy: Critical Concepts in the Environment. Routledge.score: 12.0
    This collection gathers classic, influential, and important papers in environmental philosophy ranging from the late 1960s and early 1970s to the present. The volumes explore environmental ethics, epistemological, metaphysical, and comparative worldview questions raised by environmental concerns. The set also represents a genuinely global and international focus, and includes a full index and new introductions by the editors.
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  38. Judith Holler Dermot Lynott, Louise Connell (2013). The Role of Body and Environment in Cognition. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 12.0
    The role of body and environment in cognition.
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  39. Erja Kettunen (forthcoming). China's Policy Environment Toward Foreign Companies: Implications to High-Tech Sectors. AI and Society:1-11.score: 12.0
    The paper discusses the Chinese policy environment as regards the experiences of foreign firms in China. In particular, the study focuses on the changes in China’s policies toward foreign-invested firms and the companies’ perceptions of protectionism of the Chinese regulatory environment. Theoretically, the paper reflects approaches in international political economy and business studies on the bargaining relations between host states and firms, and institutional perspective on business strategy that focuses on the dynamic interaction between organizations and their institutional environment. Hence, (...)
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  40. Hermann Lion, Jerome D. Donovan & Rowan E. Bedggood (2013). Environmental Impact Assessments From a Business Perspective: Extending Knowledge and Guiding Business Practice. Journal of Business Ethics 117 (4):789-805.score: 12.0
    Economic growth and development remain embedded in the very core of our current international economic system and the so called “material economy”. However, depleting natural resources and environmental degradation, which now threaten the well-being of future generations, has challenged this premise, and placed sustainable development as a necessary objective of business activity and expansion. Environmental impact assessments (EIAs) have emerged as a key tool for governments, businesses, and NGOs to manage the negative impact of their activities on the environment. Businesses (...)
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  41. Gediminas Merkys, Algimantas Urmonas & Daiva Bubelienė (2011). Security Assessment of Teachers' Right to Healthy and Safe Working Environment: Data from a Mass Written Survey (article in Lithuanian). Jurisprudence 18 (2):575-594.score: 12.0
    This paper presents the results of an empirical study that reflects monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of some legal acts on the labour of the Republic of Lithuania. The analysis of legal documents at the national and international level is provided. A review of cognate studies conducted by foreign and Lithuanian researchers is presented and the professional situation of a Lithuanian teacher from the employee rights perspective is highlighted. The professional activities contexts and sectors, wherein systematic violations of teachers’ (...)
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  42. Pascal Paillé, Yang Chen, Olivier Boiral & Jiafei Jin (2013). The Impact of Human Resource Management on Environmental Performance: An Employee-Level Study. Journal of Business Ethics 121 (3):1-16.score: 12.0
    This field study investigated the relationship between strategic human resource management, internal environmental concern, organizational citizenship behavior for the environment, and environmental performance. The originality of the present research was to link human resource management and environmental management in the Chinese context. Data consisted of 151 matched questionnaires from top management team members, chief executive officers, and frontline workers. The main results indicate that organizational citizenship behavior for the environment fully mediates the relationship between strategic human resource management and environmental (...)
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  43. Richard N. Aslin Ting Qian, T. Florian Jaeger (2012). Learning to Represent a Multi-Context Environment: More Than Detecting Changes. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 12.0
    Learning an accurate representation of the environment is a difficult task for both animals and humans, because the causal structures of the environment are unobservable and must be inferred from the observable input. In this article, we argue that this difficulty is further increased by the multi-context nature of realistic learning environments. When the environment undergoes a change in context without explicit cueing, the learner must detect the change and employ a new causal model to predict upcoming observations correctly. We (...)
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  44. Alexander Toet & Martin van Schaik (2013). Visual Attention for a Desktop Virtual Environment with Ambient Scent. Frontiers in Psychology 4:883.score: 12.0
    In the current study participants explored a desktop virtual environment (VE) representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism and crime), while being exposed to either room air (control group), or subliminal levels of tar (unpleasant; typically associated with burned or waste material) or freshly cut grass (pleasant; typically associated with natural or fresh material) ambient odor. They reported all signs of disorder they noticed during their walk together with their associated emotional response. Based on recent evidence (...)
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  45. Karl S. Zimmerer (2007). Agriculture, Livelihoods, and Globalization: The Analysis of New Trajectories (and Avoidance of Just-so Stories) of Human-Environment Change and Conservation. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 24 (1):9-16.score: 12.0
    Globalization offers a mix of new trajectories for agriculture, livelihoods, resource use, and environmental conservation. The papers in this issue share elements that advance our understanding of these new trajectories. The shared elements suggest an approach that places stress on: (i) the common ground of theoretical concepts (local-global interactions), methodologies (case study design), and analytical frameworks (spatio-temporal emphasis); (ii) farm-level economic diversification and the dynamics of agricultural intensification-disintensification; (iii) the pervasive role of agricultural as well as environmental institutions, organizations, and (...)
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  46. Maurizio G. Paoletti & David Pimentel (2000). Environmental Risks of Pesticides Versus Genetic Engineering for Agricultural Pest Control. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (3):279-303.score: 11.0
    Despite the application of 2.5 million tons ofpesticides worldwide, more than 40% of all potentialfood production is lost to insect, weed, and plantpathogen pests prior to harvest. After harvest, anadditional 20% of food is lost to another group ofpests. The use of pesticides for pest control resultsin an estimated 26 million human poisonings, with220,000 fatalities, annually worldwide. In the UnitedStates, the environmental and public health costs forthe recommended use of pesticides total approximately$9 billion/yr. Thus, there is a need for alternativenon-chemical (...)
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  47. Melania Salazar-Ordóñez & Samir Sayadi (2011). Environmental Care in Agriculture: A Social Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (3):243-258.score: 11.0
    At its beginning, the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) did not include measures to guide farmers in preserving ecosystems. At the same time, the social context on the 1960s and 1970s did not encourage environmental care to become a priority. Since the 1980s, new social concern expressed alarm over ecology, recognizing that agriculture can pollute. These social changes moved the CAP to add measures that linked agriculture and environment. In order to study if the EU decision-makers have designed a (...)
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  48. Ned Hettinger (2005). Allen Carlson's Environmental Aesthetics and the Protection of the Environment. Environmental Ethics 27 (1):57-76.score: 11.0
    Evaluation of the contribution that Allen Carlson’s environmental aesthetics can make to environmental protection shows that Carlson’s positive aesthetics, his focus on the functionality of human environments for their proper aesthetic appreciation, and his integration of ethical concern with aesthetic appreciation all provide fruitful, though not unproblematic, avenues for an aesthetic defense of theenvironment.
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