Search results for '*Experience Level' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Parker Crutchfield (2011). Representing High-Level Properties in Perceptual Experience. Philosophical Psychology 25 (2):279 - 294.score: 102.0
    High-level theory is the view that high-level properties?the property of being a dog, being a tiger, being an apple, being a pair of lips, etc.?can be represented in perceptual experience. Low-level theory denies this and claims that high-level properties are only represented at the level of perceptual judgment and are products of cognitive interpretation of low-level sensory information (color, shape, illumination). This paper discusses previous attempts to establish high-level theory, their weaknesses, and an (...)
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  2. Jesse J. Prinz (2003). Level-Headed Mysterianism and Artificial Experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (4-5):111-132.score: 93.0
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  3. Oren Kolodny, Arnon Lotem & Shimon Edelman (2014). Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process‐Level Model of Language Acquisition. Cognitive Science 38 (4).score: 92.0
    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this (...)
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  4. Susan M. Barnett & Barbara Koslowski (2002). Adaptive Expertise: Effects of Type of Experience and the Level of Theoretical Understanding It Generates. Thinking and Reasoning 8 (4):237 – 267.score: 89.0
    This research investigates the development of transferable - "adaptive" expertise. The study contrasts problem-solving performance of two kinds of experts (business consultants and restaurant managers) on novel problems at the intersection of their two domains, as well as a group of novices (non-business undergraduates). Despite a lack of restaurant experience, consultants performed better than restaurant managers and undergraduates, even though the problems concerned a restaurant. Process measures suggest this was due to the use of more theoretical reasoning. Analyses show this (...)
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  5. William Fish (2013). High-Level Properties and Visual Experience. Philosophical Studies 162 (1):43-55.score: 85.0
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  6. Robin Tierney (2006). "Lived Experience at the Level of the Body": Annie Ernaux's Journaux Extimes. Substance 35 (3):113-130.score: 80.0
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  7. Mark F. Bear (1991). Recent Progress Toward an Understanding of Experience-Dependent Visual Cortical Plasticity at the Molecular Level. In A. Gorea (ed.), Representations of Vision. Cambridge University Press. 73.score: 80.0
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  8. Darren Grant & Melayne Morgan McInnes (2004). Malpractice Experience and the Incidence of Cesarean Delivery: A Physician-Level Longitudinal Analysis. Inquiry 41 (2):170-188.score: 80.0
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  9. Indrek Reiland (2014). On Experiencing High-Level Properties. American Philosophical Quarterly 51:177-187.score: 76.0
    Tim Bayne and Susanna Siegel have recently offered interesting arguments in favor of the view that we can experience high-level properties like being a pine tree or being a stethoscope (Bayne 2009, Siegel 2006, 2011). We argue first that Bayne’s simpler argument fails. However, our main aim in this paper is to show that Siegel’s more sophisticated argument for her version of the high-level view can also be resisted if one adopts a view that distinguishes between perceptual experiences (...)
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  10. Nicholas Silins (2013). The Significance of High-Level Content. Philosophical Studies 162 (1):13-33.score: 52.0
    This paper is an essay in counterfactual epistemology. What if experience have high-level contents, to the effect that something is a lemon or that someone is sad? I survey the consequences for epistemology of such a scenario, and conclude that many of the striking consequences could be reached even if our experiences don't have high-level contents.
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  11. Mike Robinson (1991). Double-Level Languages and Co-Operative Working. AI and Society 5 (1):34-60.score: 52.0
    Four criteria are discussed as important conditions of successful applications in Computer Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW). They are equality, mutual influence, new competence, and double-level language. The criteria originate in the experience of the International Co-operative Movement. They are examined and illustrated withreference to eight contemporary CSCW applications: meeting scheduling and support; bargaining; co-authoring; co-ordination; planning; design support and collaborative design.
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  12. Mario Vaneechoutte (2000). Experience, Awareness, and Consciousness: Suggestions for Definitions as Offered by an Evolutionary Approach. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 5 (4):429-456.score: 44.0
    An evolutionary point of view is proposed to make more appropriate distinctions between experience, awareness and consciousness. Experience can be defined as a characteristic linked closely to specific pattern matching, a characteristic already apparent at the molecular level at least. Awareness can be regarded as the special experience of one or more central, final modules in the animal neuronal brain. Awareness is what experience is to animals.Finally, consciousness could be defined as reflexive awareness. The ability for reflexive awareness is (...)
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  13. Josefa Toribio (2002). Perceptual Experience and its Contents. Journal Of Mind And Behavior 23 (4):375-392.score: 44.0
    The contents of perceptual experience, it has been argued, often include a characteristic “non-conceptual” component (Evans, 1982). Rejecting such views, McDowell (1994) claims that such contents are conceptual in every respect. It will be shown that this debate is compromised by the failure of both sides to mark a further, and crucial, distinction in cognitive space. This is the distinction between what is doubted here as mindful and mindless modes of perceiving: a distinction which cross-classifies the conceptual / non-conceptual divide. (...)
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  14. Kirsten Jacobson (2009). A Developed Nature: A Phenomenological Account of the Experience of Home. Continental Philosophy Review 42 (3):355-373.score: 44.0
    Though “dwelling” is more commonly associated with Heidegger’s philosophy than with that of Merleau-Ponty, “being-at-home” is in fact integral to Merleau-Ponty’s thinking. I consider the notion of home as it relates to Merleau-Ponty’s more familiar notions of the “lived body” and the “level,” and, in particular, I consider how the unique intertwining of activity and passivity that characterizes our being-at-home is essential to our nature as free beings. I argue that while being-at-home is essentially an experience of passivity—i.e., one (...)
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  15. Alva Noë (2001). Experience and the Active Mind. Synthese 61 (1):41-60.score: 44.0
    This paper investigates a new species of skeptical reasoning about visual experience that takes its start from developments in perceptual science (especially recent work on change blindness and inattentional blindness). According to this skepticism, the impression of visual awareness of the environment in full detail and high resolution is illusory. I argue that the new skepticism depends on misguided assumptions about the character of perceptual experience, about whether perceptual experiences are 'internal' states, and about how best to understand the relationship (...)
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  16. Wenjing Cai (2013). Reflection and Text: Revisiting the Relation Between Pre-Reflective and Reflective Experience. [REVIEW] Human Studies 36 (3):339-355.score: 44.0
    The paper presents the prevailing understanding of pre-reflective and reflective experience as a “data-description model”. According to this model, pre-reflective experience is the original datum, the meaning of which is fully determined in the very beginning, whereas reflection is a secondary layer that purports to recover faithfully the meaning of the pre-reflective. The paper spells out the difficulty of this model by looking into the scepticism on reflection. Despite its contribution to explicating the basic level of human consciousness, the (...)
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  17. Alon Chasid (2014). Visual Experience: Cognitive Penetrability and Indeterminacy. Acta Analytica 29 (1):119-130.score: 44.0
    This paper discusses a counterexample to the thesis that visual experience is cognitively impenetrable. My central claim is that sometimes visual experience is influenced by the perceiver’s beliefs, rendering her experience’s representational content indeterminate. After discussing other examples of cognitive penetrability, I focus on a certain kind of visual experience— that is, an experience that occurs under radically nonstandard conditions—and show that it may have indeterminate content, particularly with respect to low-level properties such as colors and shapes. I then (...)
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  18. Sabine Vollmer, Hans Spada, Franz Caspar & Salome Burri (2013). Expertise in Clinical Psychology. The Effects of University Training and Practical Experience on Expertise in Clinical Psychology. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 44.0
    How do university training and subsequent practical experience affect expertise in clinical psychology? To answer this question we developed methods to assess psychological knowledge and the competences to diagnose, construct case conceptualizations, and plan psychotherapeutic treatment: a knowledge test and short case studies in a first study, and a complex, dynamically evolving case study in the second study. In our cross-sectional studies, psychology students, trainees in a certified postgraduate psychotherapist curriculum, and behavior therapists with more than ten years of experience (...)
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  19. Stuart R. Hameroff (1998). "Funda-Mentality": Is the Conscious Mind Subtly Linked to a Basic Level of the Universe? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (4):119-124.score: 42.0
    Age-old battle lines over the puzzling nature of mental experience are shaping a modern resurgence in the study of consciousness. On one side are the long-dominant "physicalists" who view consciousness as an emergent property of the brain's neural networks. On the alternative, rebellious side are those who see a necessary added ingredient: proto-conscious experience intrinsic to reality, perhaps understandable through modern physics (panpsychists, pan-experientialists, "funda-mentalists"). It is argued here that the physicalist premise alone is unable to solve completely the difficult (...)
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  20. S. Kay Toombs (1990). The Temporality of Illness: Four Levels of Experience. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 11 (3).score: 42.0
    This essay argues that, while much has been gained by medicine's focus on the spatial aspects of disease in light of developments in modern pathology, too little attention has been given to the temporal experience of illness at the subjective level of the patient. In particular, it is noted that there is a radical distinction between subjective and objective time. Whereas the patient experiences his immediate illness in terms of the ongoing flux of subjective time, the physician conceptualizes the (...)
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  21. Thomas Metzinger (2006). Reply to Ghin: Self-Sustainment on the Level of Global Availability. Psyche 12 (4).score: 42.0
    Of all the current philosophical attempts to rescue the concept of “self” by working out a weaker version, one that does not imply an ontological substance or an individual in the metaphysical sense, Marcello Ghin’s is clearly my favorite. His reconstruction of the original theory is absolutely accurate and without any major misunderstandings. Enriching the concept of a “SMT-system” with the notions of “autocatalysis” and “self- sustainment,” and adding the intriguing idea that we are systems reflecting these processes on a (...)
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  22. Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni, Antonino Sant'Angelo, Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Giuseppe Galardi (2013). Emerging From an Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome: Brain Plasticity has to Cross a Threshold Level. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 37 (10):2721-2736.score: 42.0
    Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, previously known as vegetative state) occurs after patients survive a severe brain injury. Patients suffering from UWS have lost awareness of themselves and of the external environment and do not retain any trace of their subjective experience. Current data demonstrate that neuronal functions subtending consciousness are not completely reset in UWS; however, they are reduced below the threshold required to experience consciousness. The critical factor that determines whether patients will recover consciousness is the distance of their (...)
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  23. Inri K. Almesa, Maria T. Widyastuti & Mardiana (2010). Kompetensi Interpersonal Pada Manajer Level Operasional (Ditinjau Dari Teori Trait Kepribadian Big-Five). Phronesis 9 (1).score: 42.0
    The aim of this research is to find the operating level manager’s interpersonal competence (based on big-five personality trait theory). The total subjects of this research are 139 operating level managers. The subjects of this research are divided by the big-five personality trait, such as openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Researcher used questionnaire which is based on Likert scale to collect the data of this research. The data was analyzed by descriptive statistics with SPSS program (...)
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  24. L. I. Aftanas & S. A. Golosheikin (2003). Changes in Cortical Activity in Altered States of Consciousness: The Study of Meditation by High-Resolution EEG. Human Physiology 29 (2):143-151.score: 40.0
  25. Matt J. Rossano (2003). Expertise and the Evolution of Consciousness. Cognition 89 (3):207-236.score: 40.0
  26. William S. Helton (2005). Animal Expertise, Conscious or Not. Animal Cognition 8 (2):67-74.score: 40.0
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  27. Susanna Siegel (2013). Can Selection Effects on Experience Influence its Rational Role? In Tamar Gendler (ed.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology volume 4. Oxford. 240.score: 36.0
    I distinguish between two kinds of selection effects on experience: selection of objects or features for experience, and anti-selection of experiences for cognitive uptake. I discuss the idea that both kinds of selection effects can lead to a form of confirmation bias at the level of perception, and argue that when this happens, selection effects can influence the rational role of experience.
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  28. Robert Briscoe (forthcoming). Cognitive Penetration and the Reach of Phenomenal Content. In Athanassios Raftopoulos & John Zeimbekis (eds.), Cognitive Penetrability. Oxford University Press.score: 36.0
    This chapter critically assesses recent arguments that acquiring the ability to categorize an object as belonging to a certain high-level kind can cause the relevant kind property to be represented in visual phenomenal content. The first two arguments, developed respectively by Susanna Siegel (2010) and Tim Bayne (2009), employ an essentially phenomenological methodology. The third argument, developed by William Fish (2013), by contrast, is supported by an array of psychophysical and neuroscientific findings. I argue that while none of these (...)
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  29. Vittorio Gallese (2005). Embodied Simulation: From Neurons to Phenomenal Experience. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4 (1):23-48.score: 36.0
    The same neural structures involved in the unconscious modeling of our acting body in space also contribute to our awareness of the lived body and of the objects that the world contains. Neuroscientific research also shows that there are neural mechanisms mediating between the multi-level personal experience we entertain of our lived body, and the implicit certainties we simultaneously hold about others. Such personal and body-related experiential knowledge enables us to understand the actions performed by others, and to directly (...)
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  30. Crispin Wright, The Disjunctive Conception of Experience.score: 36.0
    §1 The Disjunctive Conception of Experience Descartes was surely right that while normal waking experience, dreams and hallucinations are characteristically distinguished at a purely phenomenological level, — by contrasts of spatial perspective, coherence, clarity of image, etc., — it is not essential that they be so.1 What is it like for someone who dreams that he is sitting, clothed in his dressing gown, in front of his fire can in principle be subjectively indistinguishable from what it is like to (...)
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  31. Steven Lehar (2003). Gestalt Isomorphism and the Primacy of Subjective Conscious Experience: A Gestalt Bubble Model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):357-408.score: 36.0
    A serious crisis is identified in theories of neurocomputation, marked by a persistent disparity between the phenomenological or experiential account of visual perception and the neurophysiological level of description of the visual system. In particular, conventional concepts of neural processing offer no explanation for the holistic global aspects of perception identified by Gestalt theory. The problem is paradigmatic and can be traced to contemporary concepts of the functional role of the neural cell, known as the Neuron Doctrine. In the (...)
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  32. David J. Bennett (2011). How the World Is Measured Up in Size Experience. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 83 (2):345-365.score: 36.0
    I develop a Russellian representationalist account of size experience that draws importantly from contemporary vision science research on size perception. The core view is that size is experienced in ‘body-scaled’ units. So, an object might, say, be experienced as two eye-level units high. The view is sharpened in response to Thompson’s (forthcoming) Doubled Earth example. This example is presented by Thompson as part of an argument for a Fregean view of size experience. But I argue that the Russellian view (...)
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  33. Timothy Lane (2015). Self, Belonging, and Conscious Experience: A Critique of Subjectivity Theories of Consciousness. In Rocco Gennaro (ed.), Disturbed consciousness: New essays on psychopathology and theories of consciousness. MIT Press.score: 36.0
    Subjectivity theories of consciousness take self-reference, somehow construed, as essential to having conscious experience. These theories differ with respect to how many levels they posit and to whether self-reference is conscious or not. But all treat self-referencing as a process that transpires at the personal level, rather than at the subpersonal level, the level of mechanism. -/- Working with conceptual resources afforded by pre-existing theories of consciousness that take self-reference to be essential, several attempts have been made (...)
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  34. Elizabeth Irvine (2011). Rich Experience and Sensory Memory. Philosophical Psychology 24 (2):159-176.score: 36.0
    One of the possible ways to explain the experience of visual richness is to posit a level of nonconceptual or phenomenal experience. The contents of this level of experience have recently been equated with the contents of sensory memory. It will be argued that sensory memory cannot provide these contents along two broad points. First, the conception of sensory memory relied on by these authors conflates the phenomena of visible and informational persistence, and makes use of an outdated (...)
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  35. Susan Bredlau (2010). A Respectful World: Merleau-Ponty and the Experience of Depth. [REVIEW] Human Studies 33 (4):411-423.score: 36.0
    The everyday experience of someone, or something, getting in one’s face reveals a depth that is the difference between a world that is intrusive and a world that is respectful. This depth, I argue, should be conceived, not in feet and inches, but in terms of violation and honor. I explore three factors that contribute to this depth’s emergence. First, I examine our body’s capacity, at the level of sense experience, for giving the world a figure/ground structure; this structure (...)
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  36. Masako N. Darrough (2010). The Fcpa and the Oecd Convention: Some Lessons From the U.S. Experience. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 93 (2):255 - 276.score: 36.0
    Although corruption is ubiquitous, attitudes toward it differ among countries. Until the 1997 OECD Convention, the U.S. had been one of the only two countries with an explicit extraterritorial anti-bribery law, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of 1977. The FCPA employs a two-pronged approach to control the supply side of corruption: (1) anti-bribery provisions; and (2) accounting (books and record and internal controls) provisions. I offer evidence, albeit indirect, to show that the FCPA had limited success. The OECD Convention (...)
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  37. Michael Apter (2008). Reversal Theory, Victor Turner and the Experience of Ritual. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (s 10-11):184-203.score: 36.0
    The extraordinary parallel between the psychological theory of reversals (Apter, 1982) and the anthropological theory of anti-structure (Turner, 1982)-- both derived independently and almost simultaneously from entirely different kinds of evidence and research-- would seem to point to something profound and universal in human experience which has been curiously neglected in the behavioural sciences and entirely ignored in consciousness studies. What I will do here is to introduce reversal theory, show how it applies to ritual, and then compare it with (...)
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  38. E. Sharon Mason & Peter E. Mudrack (1997). Do Complex Moral Reasoners Experience Greater Ethical Work Conflict? Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1311-1318.score: 36.0
    Individuals who disagree that organizational interests legitimately supersede those of the wider society may experience conflict between their personal standards of ethics and those demanded by an employing organization, a conflict that is well documented. An additional question is whether or not individuals capable of complex moral reasoning experience greater conflict than those reasoning at a less developed level. This question was first positioned in a theoretical framework and then investigated using 115 survey responses from a student sample. Correlational (...)
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  39. David Nitkin & Leonard J. Brooks (1998). Sustainability Auditing and Reporting: The Canadian Experience. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 17 (13):1499-1507.score: 36.0
    This paper reviews the experience of 174 of Canada's largest 1500 public and private sector corporations which have begun to incorporate sustainable development management and reporting as part of their operations. Answers are provided to three main questions: Why have they implemented this initiative? What progress has been made in terms of sustainability audit practice – frequency, focus, organization of the audit team –, internal communication, and external reporting? And where has, and will the leadership for the sustainability audit movement (...)
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  40. Mary Hartog & Philip Frame (2005). Business Ethics in the Curriculum: Integrating Ethics Through Work Experience. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 54 (4):399 - 409.score: 36.0
    In this paper we seek to make the case for a teaching and learning strategy that integrates business ethics in the curriculum, whilst not precluding a disciplines based approach to this subject. We do this in the context of specific work experience modules at undergraduate level which are offered by Middlesex University Business School, part of a modern university based in North West London. We firstly outline our educative values and then the modules that form the basis of our (...)
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  41. Ethan P. Waples, Jason H. Hill, Alison L. Antes, Lynn D. Devenport, Stephen T. Murphy, Shane Connelly, Michael D. Mumford & Ryan P. Brown (2009). Field and Experience Influences on Ethical Decision Making in the Sciences. Ethics and Behavior 19 (4):263-289.score: 36.0
    Differences across fields and experience levels are frequently considered in discussions of ethical decision making and ethical behavior. In the present study, doctoral students in the health, biological, and social sciences completed measures of ethical decision making. The effects of field and level of experience with respect to ethical decision making, metacognitive reasoning strategies, social-behavioral responses, and exposure to unethical events were examined. Social and biological scientists performed better than health scientists with respect to ethical decision making. Furthermore, the (...)
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  42. Justin Tan & Anna E. Tan (2012). Business Under Threat, Technology Under Attack, Ethics Under Fire: The Experience of Google in China. Journal of Business Ethics 110 (4):469-479.score: 36.0
    Although not frequently regarded as controversial, digital communications industries continue to be sites of CSR conflicts, particularly internationally. Investigating CSR issues in the digital communications industry is pertinent because in addition to being one of the fastest growing industries, it has created a host of new CSR issues that require further attention. This case study examines an incident in early 2010, when Google Inc. China and the Chinese government reached an impasse that produced a large-scale, transnational conflict that reached a (...)
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  43. N. Guessous (2012). Women's Rights in Muslim Societies: Lessons From the Moroccan Experience. Philosophy and Social Criticism 38 (4-5):525-533.score: 36.0
    Major changes have taken place in Muslim societies in general during the last decades. Traditional family and social organizational structures have come into conflict with the perceptions and needs of development and modern state-building. Moreover, the international context of globalization, as well as changes in intercommunity relations through immigration, have also deeply affected social and cultural mutations by facilitating contact between different cultures and civilizations. Of the dilemmas arising from these changes, those concerning women’s and men’s roles were the most (...)
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  44. Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly, Stephen T. Murphy, Lynn D. Devenport, Alison L. Antes, Ryan P. Brown, Jason H. Hill & Ethan P. Waples (2009). Field and Experience Influences on Ethical Decision Making in the Sciences. Ethics and Behavior 19 (4):263 – 289.score: 36.0
    Differences across fields and experience levels are frequently considered in discussions of ethical decision making and ethical behavior. In the present study, doctoral students in the health, biological, and social sciences completed measures of ethical decision making. The effects of field and level of experience with respect to ethical decision making, metacognitive reasoning strategies, social-behavioral responses, and exposure to unethical events were examined. Social and biological scientists performed better than health scientists with respect to ethical decision making. Furthermore, the (...)
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  45. Rachel Cooper (2012). Psychiatric Classification and Subjective Experience. Emotion Review 4 (2):197-202.score: 36.0
    This article does not directly consider the feelings and emotions that occur in mental illness. Rather, it concerns a higher level methodological question: To what extent is an analysis of feelings and felt emotions of importance for psychiatric classification? Some claim that producing a phenomenologically informed descriptive psychopathology is a prerequisite for serious taxonomic endeavor. Others think that classifications of mental disorders may ignore subjective experience. A middle view holds that classification should at least map the contours of the (...)
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  46. Maizura Binti Musa, Md Harun-Or-Rashid & Junichi Sakamoto (2011). Nurse Managers' Experience with Ethical Issues in Six Government Hospitals in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):23-.score: 36.0
    Background: Nurse managers have the burden of experiencing frequent ethical issues related to both their managerial and nursing care duties, according to previous international studies. However, no such study was published in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia including learning about the way they dealt with the issues. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in August-September, 2010 involving 417 (69.2%) of total 603 nurse managers in (...)
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  47. W. W. Meissner (1966). The Implications of Experience for Psychological Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 26 (4):503-528.score: 36.0
    The question is raised whether the methods of psychology are adequate to provide an account of human behavior in terms meaningful for human existence. Also, The relationship between psychological theory and the evidence upon which it rests is discussed. "correlationism" and "constructuralism" are presented as two opposite orientations to theory in psychology. The author questions whether experience should be accepted as legitimate evidence and concludes that there should be acceptability of inner experience as legitimate scientific evidence in its own right. (...)
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  48. Ann M. DuPont & Jane S. Craig (1996). Does Management Experience Change the Ethical Perceptions of Retail Professionals: A Comparison of the Ethical Perceptions of Current Students with Those of Recent Graduates? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 15 (8):815 - 826.score: 36.0
    The purpose of this study was to extend the previous research on ethics in retailing. Prior research of Dornoff and Tankersley (1985–1976), Gifford and Norris (1987), Norris and Gifford (1988), and Burns and Rayman (1989) examined the ethics orientation of retail sales persons, sales managers, and business school students. These studies found the college students less ethically-oriented than retail sales people and retail managers. The present study attempts to extend the research on ethics formation to a geographically and academically diverse (...)
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