Search results for '*Human Machine Systems Design' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Mike Cooley (1987). Human Centred Systems: An Urgent Problem for Systems Designers. [REVIEW] AI and Society 1 (1):37-46.score: 204.0
    Systems, machines and organisation of forms developed in the Engineering and Manufacturing sectors frequently lay the basis for systems design philosophy at a general level. An analysis of technological change in these sectors reveals that the resultant deskilling is not limited to the shop floor and is now spreading to intellectual work. The impact of ‘machine based systems’ on designers is explored in some detail and suggests the need for alternatives which are based on ‘human (...)
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  2. Nils O. Larsson (2000). Decision Settings Analysis €“ a Tool for Analysis and Design of Human Activity Systems. Theory and Decision 49 (4):339-360.score: 171.0
    The paper describes a methodology to be used for analysis and design of human activity systems. The methodology is based on an analysis of the decision settings whereas most other decision analysis methodologies are analysing the process. The decision concept is analysed and discussed. A distinction between programmed and programmable as well as non-programmed and non-programmable decisions is proposed. A classification of different information types for decision making is presented. A methodology based on a systemic and systematic analysis (...)
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  3. Jon Young (1989). Human-Centred Knowledge Based Systems Design. AI and Society 3 (2):80-87.score: 170.0
    It is held that the quality of the working environment afforded to an individual critically affects the health and well-being of that individual. This has consequences for both the quality of work which that individual can actually perform, and for the quality of the society in which that individual has a place. Conceptions of a fit working environment have led to the idea of a human-centred system, and this idea is applicable to the area of knowledge-based systems (KBS). A (...)
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  4. Evans E. Woherem (1991). Human Factors in Information Technology: The Socio-Organisational Aspects of Expert Systems Design. [REVIEW] AI and Society 5 (1):18-33.score: 151.5
    This paper looks beyond the mostly technical and business issues that currently inform the design of knowledge-based systems (e.g., expert systems) to point out that there is also a social and organisational (a socio-organisational) dimension to the issues affecting the design decisions of expert systems and other information technologies. It argues that whilst technical and business issues are considered before the design of Expert Systems, that socio-organisational issues determine the acceptance and long-run utility (...)
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  5. D. Alexander Varakin, Daniel T. Levin & Roger Fidler (2004). Unseen and Unaware: Implications of Recent Research on Failures of Visual Awareness for Human-Computer Interface Design. Human-Computer Interaction 19 (4):389-422.score: 145.5
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  6. Takao Nuki (1990). The 'Transfer of Skill' and the 'Transfer of Human Relations' to Machine Systems. AI and Society 4 (3):173-182.score: 138.0
    The necessity and opportunity for face-to-face contact with other colleagues is being increasingly reduced as a result of factory automation (FA) or office automation (OA). This means that human functions which are a result of human contact and relationships are substituted for by the function of machine systems. This “transfer of relations” from the human “system” to the machine system causes isolation of the individual in the process of work. This chapter considers some reasons for “isolation” with (...)
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  7. Peter A. Hancock (2009). Mind, Machine and Morality: Toward a Philosophy of Human-Technology Symbiosis. Ashgate.score: 123.8
    Historically, this work is a modern-day child of Bacon's hope for the 'Great Instauration.' However, unlike its forebear, the focus here is on human-machine systems.
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  8. Felix Rauner, Lauge Rasmussen & J. Martin Corbett (1988). The Social Shaping of Technology and Work: Human Centred CIM Systems. [REVIEW] AI and Society 2 (1):47-61.score: 120.0
    This paper decribes the theoretical and methodological issues involved in the social shaping of technology and work, with particular reference to human centred computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) systems. Conventional approaches to the understanding and shaping of the relationship between technology, work and human development are criticised, and an alternative, human centred approach is outlined. The methods and processes whereby the design of human centred CIM systems may be shaped and evaluated are then described and appraised.
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  9. Lars Qvortrup (1996). Scandinavian Human-Centred Systems Design: Theoretical Reflections and Challenges. [REVIEW] AI and Society 10 (2):164-180.score: 117.0
    Currently there is a clear trend towards questioning the traditional sovereign human self which for two hundred years has had an undisputed central status within European culture and philosophy. This challenges the tradition of anthropocentrism which in a Scandinavian computer science context has had two theoretical foundations: the workoriented design theory represented by the Scandinavian participatory design philosophy, and the idea of the computer to a rather passive medium for human communication. The process, reducing the computer to a (...)
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  10. Brian P. Bailey & Joseph A. Konstan (2006). On the Need for Attention-Aware Systems: Measuring Effects of Interruption on Task Performance, Error Rate, and Affective State. Computers in Human Behavior 22 (4):685-708.score: 114.0
  11. Barbara Gorayska & Kevin Cox (1992). Expert Systems as Extensions of the Human Mind: A User Oriented, Holistic Approach to the Design of Multiple Reasoning System Environments and Interfaces. [REVIEW] AI and Society 6 (3):245-262.score: 114.0
    Expert systems have had little impact as computing artifacts. In this paper we argue that the reason for this stems from the underlying assumption of most builders of expert systems that an expert system needs to acquire information and to control the interaction between the human user and itself. We show that this assumption has serious linguistic and usability flaws which diminish the likelihood of producing socially acceptable expert systems. We propose a reversal of this paradigm, for (...)
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  12. Myles Bogner, Uma Ramamurthy & Stan Franklin (2000). Consciousness and Conceptual Learning in a Socially Situated Agent. In Kerstin Dauthenhahn (ed.), Human Cognition and Social Agent Technology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 113--135.score: 105.0
  13. Yoshihiro Sato (1995). Requirement Acquisition in System Development: A Human-Centred Perspective of the Tacit Requirements. [REVIEW] AI and Society 9 (2-3):208-217.score: 102.5
    Specification acquisition in the system design process has been improved since the middle of the 1980s when the upper CASE tools appeared. On the contrary the quality of requirement acquisition in the upper processes of system design has not been enhanced as much as specification acquisition. Understanding the user's requirements is indispensable as one of the basic conditions for building systems that can really satisfy users.This article discusses obtaining requirement knowledge, in terms of human-centred design. The (...)
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  14. Hiroshi Ishiguro (2006). Android Science: Conscious and Subconscious Recognition. Connection Science 18 (4):319-332.score: 102.0
  15. Tom Stonier (1988). Machine Intelligence and the Long-Term Future of the Human Species. AI and Society 2 (2):133-139.score: 102.0
    Intelligence is not a property unique to the human brain; rather it represents a spectrum of phenomena. An understanding of the evolution of intelligence makes it clear that the evolution of machine intelligence has no theoretical limits — unlike the evolution of the human brain. Machine intelligence will outpace human intelligence and very likely will do so during the lifetime of our children. The mix of advanced machine intelligence with human individual and communal intelligence will create an (...)
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  16. William Green & Boris de Ruyter (2010). The Design and Evaluation of Interactive Systems with Perceived Social Intelligence: Five Challenges. [REVIEW] AI and Society 25 (2):203-210.score: 102.0
    This paper reflects on discussions within the Social Intelligence for Tele-healthcare (SIFT) project. The SIFT project aims to establish a model of social intelligence, to support the user-centred design of social intelligence in interactive systems. The conceptual background of social intelligence for the SIFT project is presented. Five challenges identified for the design of socially aware interactions are described, and their implications are discussed.
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  17. Herbert A. Simon & Stuart A. Eisenstadt (1998). Human and Machine Interpretation of Expressions in Formal Systems. Synthese 116 (3):439-461.score: 98.5
    This paper uses a proof of Gödels theorem, implemented on a computer, to explore how a person or a computer can examine such a proof, understand it, and evaluate its validity. It is argued that, in order to recognize it (1) as Gödel's theorem, and (2) as a proof that there is an undecidable statement in the language of PM, a person must possess a suitable semantics. As our analysis reveals no differences between the processes required by people and machines (...)
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  18. Michael Paetau (1991). 'Adaptive' and 'Cooperative' Computer Systems — A Challenge for Sociological Research. AI and Society 5 (1):61-70.score: 94.5
    The vision of the new generation of office systems is based on the hypothesis that an automatic support system is all the more useful and acceptable, the more systems behaviour and performance are in accordance with features ofhuman behaviour. Consequently recent development activities are influenced by the paradigm of the computer as man's “cooperative assistant”. The metaphors ofassistance andcooperation illustrate some major requirements to be met by new office systems. Cooperative office systems will raise a set (...)
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  19. J. Martin Corbett (1989). Automate or Innervate? The Role of Knowledge in Advanced Manufacturing Systems. AI and Society 3 (3):198-208.score: 94.5
    This chapter examines the role of shopfloor knowledge in the operation of advanced manufacturing systems. Design trends towards full automation are contrasted with those toward hybrid, human-centred systems with particular emphasis on job design and the development and reproduction of knowledge. The chapter concludes with a short discussion of the problems inherent in hybrid design.
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  20. Erich Jantsch (1975). Design for Evolution: Self-Organization and Planning in the Life of Human Systems. G. Braziller.score: 93.0
     
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  21. Barrie Lipscombe (1989). Expert Systems and Computer-Controlled Decision Making in Medicine. AI and Society 3 (3):184-197.score: 93.0
    The search for “usable” expert systems is leading somemedical researchers to question the appropriate role of these programs. Most current systems assume a limited role for the human user, delegating situated “decision-control” to the machine. As expert systems are only able to replace a narrow range of human intellectual functions, this leaves the programs unable to cope with the “constructivist” nature of human knowledge-use. In returning practical control to the human doctor, some researchers are abandoning focusedproblem-solving (...)
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  22. Tom Froese (2013). Bio-Machine Hybrid Technology: A Theoretical Assessment and Some Suggestions for Improved Future Design. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology:1-22.score: 90.0
    In sociology, there has been a controversy about whether there is any essential difference between a human being and a tool, or if the tool–user relationship can be defined by co-actor symmetry. This issue becomes more complex when we consider examples of AI and robots, and even more so following progress in the development of various bio-machine hybrid technologies, such as robots that include organic parts, human brain implants, and adaptive prosthetics. It is argued that a concept of autonomous (...)
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  23. Peter Storkerson (2010). Naturalistic Cognition: A Research Paradigm for Human-Centered Design. Journal of Research Practice 6 (2):Article M12.score: 88.5
    Naturalistic thinking and knowing, the tacit, experiential, and intuitive reasoning of everyday interaction, have long been regarded as inferior to formal reason and labeled primitive, fallible, subjective, superstitious, and in some cases ineffable. But, naturalistic thinking is more rational and definable than it appears. It is also relevant to design. Inquiry into the mechanisms of naturalistic thinking and knowledge can bring its resources into focus and enable designers to create better, human-centered designs for use in real-world settings. This article (...)
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  24. H. H. Rosenbrock (1990). Machines with a Purpose. Oxford University Press.score: 88.5
    There is at present a widespread unease about the direction in which our technology is taking us, apparently against our will. Promising advances seem to carry with them unforeseen negative consequences, including damage to the environment and the reduction of work to the trivial mechanical repetition of actions which have no human meaning. However, attempts to design a better, human-centered technology--one that complements rather than rejects human skills--are all too often frustrated by the prevailing belief that "man is a (...)
     
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  25. Hannah Cornish (2010). Investigating How Cultural Transmission Leads to the Appearance of Design Without a Designer in Human Communication Systems. Interaction Studies 11 (1):112-137.score: 85.5
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  26. Karamjit S. Gill (1989). Reflections on Participatory Design. AI and Society 3 (4):297-314.score: 85.5
    The human-centred debate in Britain focuses on the idea of human-machine symbiosis, and the “Dialogue” debate in Scandinavia focuses on the deep understanding of human communication, through a process of inner reflection. Both of these debates provide a framework for the participatory design of AI systems.The emergence of “social Europe” creates the desirability for a sharing of social and cultural knowledge and resources among the citizens of Europe. This raises the possibility of exploiting the potential of new (...)
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  27. Nils O. Larsson (2000). Decision Settings Analysis–a Tool for Analysis and Design of Human Activity Systems. Theory and Decision 49 (4):339-360.score: 85.5
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  28. P. A. A. van den Besselaar (1996). From Human Centred Systems Towards Human Centred Infrastructures: From Design Towards Politics. AI and Society 9:220-238.score: 85.5
  29. Peter Kroes, Pieter E. Vermaas, Andrew Light, Steven A. Moore & Sd Noam Cook (2008). Design and Responsibility: The Interdependence of Natural, Artifactual, and Human Systems. In Pieter E. Vermaas, Peter Kroes, Andrew Light & Steven A. Moore (eds.), Philosophy and Design: From Engineering to Architecture. Springer.score: 84.0
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  30. Tomasz M. Rutkowski, Andrzej Cichocki, Danilo P. Mandic & Toyoaki Nishida (2011). Emotional Empathy Transition Patterns From Human Brain Responses in Interactive Communication Situations. AI and Society 26 (3):301-315.score: 82.5
    The paper reports our research aiming at utilization of human interactive communication modeling principles in application to a novel interaction paradigm designed for brain–computer/machine-interfacing (BCI/BMI) technologies as well as for socially aware intelligent environments or communication support systems. Automatic procedures for human affective responses or emotional states estimation are still a hot topic of contemporary research. We propose to utilize human brain and bodily physiological responses for affective/emotional as well as communicative interactivity estimation, which potentially could be used (...)
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  31. Giuseppe Primiero (2013). Honesty, Competence, and Trust for Systems Design. Philosophy and Technology 26 (4):431-435.score: 81.0
    We briefly present three problems related to promiscuous trust in connection to germane notions of honesty and competence in systems design.
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  32. Markus F. Peschl & Chris Stary (1998). The Role of Cognitive Modeling for User Interface Design Representations: An Epistemological Analysis of Knowledge Engineering in the Context of Human-Computer Interaction. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 8 (2):203-236.score: 79.5
    In this paper we review some problems with traditional approaches for acquiring and representing knowledge in the context of developing user interfaces. Methodological implications for knowledge engineering and for human-computer interaction are studied. It turns out that in order to achieve the goal of developing human-oriented (in contrast to technology-oriented) human-computer interfaces developers have to develop sound knowledge of the structure and the representational dynamics of the cognitive system which is interacting with the computer.We show that in a first step (...)
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  33. Zhengxin Chen (1993). From Participatory Design to Participating Problem Solving: Enhancing System Adaptability Through User Modelling. [REVIEW] AI and Society 7 (3):238-247.score: 79.0
    The issue on the role of users in knowledge-based systems can be investigated from two aspects: the design aspect and the functionality aspect. Participatory design is an important approach for the first aspect while system adaptability supported by user modelling is crucial to the second aspect. In the article, we discuss the second aspect. We view a knowledge-based computer system as the partner of users' problem-solving process, and we argue that the system functionality can be enhanced by (...)
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  34. Peter Brödner (2013). Reflective Design of Technology for Human Needs. AI and Society 28 (1):27-37.score: 77.0
    Inspired by an economic interpretation of the Faustus drama allegorically disclosing the ‘alchemical’ nature of modern economy, the paper presents a critical view on the development of technology as concomitant phenomenon of work practices with particular focus on manufacturing. It starts with a theoretical perspective on the dynamics of creating explicit propositional knowledge and its re-appropriation for practical use. This lays the ground for understanding how technical artefacts emerge from and, in turn, affect social practices. It further helps to understand (...)
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  35. S. G. Sterrett, Turing on the Integration of Human and Machine Intelligence.score: 75.0
    Abstract Philosophical discussion of Alan Turing’s writings on intelligence has mostly revolved around a single point made in a paper published in the journal Mind in 1950. This is unfortunate, for Turing’s reflections on machine (artificial) intelligence, human intelligence, and the relation between them were more extensive and sophisticated. They are seen to be extremely well-considered and sound in retrospect. Recently, IBM developed a question-answering computer (Watson) that could compete against humans on the game show Jeopardy! There are hopes (...)
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  36. Marco C. Bettoni (1995). Kant and the Software Crisis: Suggestions for the Construction of Human-Centred Software Systems. [REVIEW] AI and Society 9 (4):396-401.score: 75.0
    -/- In this article I deal with the question “How could we renew and enrich computer technology with Kant's help?”. By this I would like to invite computer scientists and engineers to initiate or intensify their cooperation with Kant experts. -/- What I am looking for is a better “method of definition” for software systems, particularly for the development of object-oriented and knowledge-based systems. -/- After a description of the “software crisis”, I deal first with the question why (...)
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  37. Furio Di Paola (1988). Human-Oriented and Machine-Oriented Reasoning: Remarks on Some Problems in the History of Automated Theorem Proving. [REVIEW] AI and Society 2 (2):121-131.score: 75.0
    Examples in the history of Automated Theorem Proving are given, in order to show that even a seemingly ‘mechanical’ activity, such as deductive inference drawing, involves special cultural features and tacit knowledge. Mechanisation of reasoning is thus regarded as a complex undertaking in ‘cultural pruning’ of human-oriented reasoning. Sociological counterparts of this passage from human- to machine-oriented reasoning are discussed, by focusing on problems of man-machine interaction in the area of computer-assisted proof processing.
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  38. Dongming Xu (2010). Beyond Simon's Means-Ends Analysis: Natural Creativity and the Unanswered 'Why' in the Design of Intelligent Systems for Problem-Solving. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 20 (3):327-347.score: 73.5
    Goal-directed problem solving as originally advocated by Herbert Simon’s means-ends analysis model has primarily shaped the course of design research on artificially intelligent systems for problem-solving. We contend that there is a definite disregard of a key phase within the overall design process that in fact logically precedes the actual problem solving phase. While systems designers have traditionally been obsessed with goal-directed problem solving, the basic determinants of the ultimate desired goal state still remain to be (...)
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  39. Kuo-Chin Chang, Tzung-Pei Hong & Shian-Shyong Tseng (1996). Machine Learning by Imitating Human Learning. Minds and Machines 6 (2):203-228.score: 73.0
    Learning general concepts in imperfect environments is difficult since training instances often include noisy data, inconclusive data, incomplete data, unknown attributes, unknown attribute values and other barriers to effective learning. It is well known that people can learn effectively in imperfect environments, and can manage to process very large amounts of data. Imitating human learning behavior therefore provides a useful model for machine learning in real-world applications. This paper proposes a new, more effective way to represent imperfect training instances (...)
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  40. Robert Sparrow (2009). Building a Better Warbot: Ethical Issues in the Design of Unmanned Systems for Military Applications. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (2):169-187.score: 72.0
    Unmanned systems in military applications will often play a role in determining the success or failure of combat missions and thus in determining who lives and dies in times of war. Designers of UMS must therefore consider ethical, as well as operational, requirements and limits when developing UMS. I group the ethical issues involved in UMS design under two broad headings, Building Safe Systems and Designing for the Law of Armed Conflict, and identify and discuss a number (...)
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  41. Bandar Alharthey & Amran Rasli (2012). The Use of Human Resource Management Systems in the Saudi Market. Asian Journal of Business Ethics 1 (2):163 - 176.score: 72.0
    Abstract The goal of the study was to investigate the current situation with Human Resources (HR) systems in the Saudi market on the basis of survey conducted among 100 organizations. Their HR and IT experts were to fill out a questionnaire that allowed receiving their expert opinion and make conclusions considering the HR systems usage in this country. In the course of the study, eight hypotheses were investigated and proved: the number of companies’ users of Human Resource Management (...)
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  42. Mark Graves (2009). The Emergence of Transcendental Norms in Human Systems. Zygon 44 (3):501-532.score: 72.0
    Terrence Deacon has described three orders of emergence; Arthur Peacocke and others have suggested four levels of human systems and sciences; and Philip Clayton has postulated an additional, transcendent, level. Orders and levels describe distinct aspects of emergence, with orders characterizing topological complexity and levels characterizing theoretical knowledge and causal power. By using Deacon's orders to analyze and relate each of the four "lower" levels one can project that analysis on the transcendent level to gain insight into the teleodynamic (...)
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  43. Christian Mühl Fabien Lotte, Florian Larrue (2013). Flaws in Current Human Training Protocols for Spontaneous Brain-Computer Interfaces: Lessons Learned From Instructional Design. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 72.0
    While recent research on Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) has highlighted their potential for many applications, they remain barely used outside laboratories. The main reason is their lack of robustness. Indeed, with current BCI, mental state recognition is usually slow and often incorrect. Spontaneous BCI (i.e., mental imagery-based BCI) often rely on mutual learning efforts by the user and the machine, with BCI users learning to produce stable EEG patterns (spontaneous BCI control being widely acknowledged as a skill) while the computer (...)
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  44. Peter J. Carew & Larry Stapleton (forthcoming). Towards Empathy: A Human-Centred Analysis of Rationality, Ethics and Praxis in Systems Development. AI and Society:1-18.score: 72.0
    Functionalism has long been the dominant paradigm in systems development practice. However, functionalism promotes an innate and immutable instrumental rationality that is indifferent to human values, rights, society, culture and international stability. It, in essence, lacks empathy. Although alternative paradigms have been promoted for decades in the systems development literature to help address this deficit, functionalism remains dominant. This paper reiterates the call for a fundamental paradigm shift away from myopic functionalism and towards a more empathic and human-centred (...)
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  45. Linda Passarge & Thomas Binder (1996). Supporting Reflection and Dialogue in a Community of Machine Setters: Lessons Learned From Design and Use of a Hypermedia Type Training Material. [REVIEW] AI and Society 10 (1):79-88.score: 72.0
    The debate about experience-based or tacit knowledge has focused much attention on the limits to formalisation of work process knowledge. A main line of argument has been that, for example, industrial work even with highly advanced technical equipment can only be performed adequately when the worker through experience on the job has gained a feel for the functioning of the machinery and the properties and behaviour of the materials. In this debate links tend to be created between on the one (...)
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  46. Shin’Ichi Warisawa, Chikao Inaba & Yoshimi Ito (2003). The Application of Manufacturing Culture to the Design of Asian Region Oriented Machine Tools. AI and Society 17 (3-4):278-290.score: 72.0
    During the last years the demand for regionally and culturally harmonised machine design is increasingly on the agenda. The problem of localising products like machine tools instantly poses the question for new procedures that allow including the regional and cultural adaptations into the design processes of machine tool companies. How to transform the general insight into the necessity of culture- and region-adapted technologies and how to embed it into a design procedure comprising applicable (...) attributes is the crucial problem addressed. The paper shows in an exemplary way how ambiguous design attributes can eventually be embodied in a prototype design. (shrink)
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  47. Yonca Hurol (2013). Ethical Considerations for a Better Collaboration Between Architects and Structural Engineers: Design of Buildings with Reinforced Concrete Frame Systems in Earthquake Zones. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):1-16.score: 72.0
    Architects design building structures, although structural design is the profession of structural engineers. Thus, it is better for architects and structural engineers to collaborate starting from the initial phases of the architectural design. However, this is not very common because of the contradictory design processes and value systems held within the two professions. This article provides a platform upon which architects and structural engineers can resolve the value conflicts between them by analysing phases of the (...)
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  48. Frederick Kile (2013). Artificial Intelligence and Society: A Furtive Transformation. [REVIEW] AI and Society 28 (1):107-115.score: 71.0
    During the 1950s, there was a burst of enthusiasm about whether artificial intelligence might surpass human intelligence. Since then, technology has changed society so dramatically that the focus of study has shifted toward society’s ability to adapt to technological change. Technology and rapid communications weaken the capacity of society to integrate into the broader social structure those people who have had little or no access to education. (Most of the recent use of communications by the excluded has been disruptive, not (...)
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  49. Alexander Laszlo & Kathia Laszlo (2002). The Evolution of Evolutionary Systems Design. World Futures 58 (5 & 6):351 – 363.score: 69.0
    This article presents the genesis of Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD) as a praxis that draws on General Evolution Theory and Social Systems Design methodology, in addition to Critical Systems Theory, to engage in lifelong learning and human development in partnership with the Earth. The contributions of Bela H. Banathy to the creation of ESD are portrayed as bridging evolutionary consciousness and evolutionary action. Following a brief description of the inspiration and mentorship provided by Bela in (...)
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  50. Alexander Laszlo (1999). Evolutionary Systems Design: A Soft Technology for Hard Challenges. World Futures 54 (4):313-335.score: 69.0
    (1999). Evolutionary systems design: A soft technology for hard challenges. World Futures: Vol. 54, Challenges of Evolution at Pat I: The Human Factor in Evolution, pp. 313-335.
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