Search results for '*Measurement' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Luca Mari (2005). The Problem of Foundations of Measurement. Measurement 38 (4):259-266.score: 18.0
    Given the common assumption that measurement plays an important role in the foundation of science, the paper analyzes the possibility that Measurement Science, and therefore measurement itself, can be properly founded. The realist and the representational positions are analyzed at this regards: the conclusion, that such positions unavoidably lead to paradoxical situations, opens the discussion for a new epistemology of measurement, whose characteristics and interpretation are sketched here but are still largely matter of investigation.
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  2. Alessandro Giordani & Luca Mari (2012). Measurement, Models, and Uncertainty. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 61 (8):2144 - 2152.score: 18.0
    Against the tradition, which has considered measurement able to produce pure data on physical systems, the unavoidable role played by the modeling activity in measurement is increasingly acknowledged, particularly with respect to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. This paper characterizes measurement as a knowledge-based process and proposes a framework to understand the function of models in measurement and to systematically analyze their influence in the production of measurement results and their interpretation. To this aim, a general model of measurement is (...)
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  3. Luca Mari (2003). Epistemology of Measurement. Measurement 34 (1):17-30.score: 18.0
    The paper introduces what is deemed as the general epistemological problem of measurement: what characterizes measurement with respect to generic evaluation? It also analyzes the fundamental positions that have been maintained about this issue, thus presenting some sketches for a conceptual history of measurement. This characterization, in which three distinct standpoints are recognized, corresponding to a metaphysical, an anti-metaphysical, and relativistic period, allows us to introduce and briefly discuss some general issues on the current epistemological status of measurement science.
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  4. Luca Mari (2000). Beyond the Representational Viewpoint: A New Formalization of Measurement. Measurement 27 (2):71-84.score: 18.0
    The paper introduces and formally defines a functional concept of a measuring system, on this basis characterizing the measurement as an evaluation performed by means of a calibrated measuring system. The distinction between exact and uncertain measurement is formalized in terms of the properties of the traceability chain joining the measuring system to the primary standard. The consequence is drawn that uncertain measurements lose the property of relation-preservation, on which the very concept of measurement is founded according to the representational (...)
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  5. Luca Mari & Sergio Sartori (2007). A Relational Theory of Measurement: Traceability as a Solution to the Non-Transitivity of Measurement Results. Measurement 40 (2):233-242.score: 18.0
    This paper discusses a relational modeling of measurement which is complementary to the standard representational point of view: by focusing on the experimental character of the measurand-related comparison between objects, this modeling emphasizes the role of the measuring systems as the devices which operatively perform such a comparison. The non-idealities of the operation are formalized in terms of non-transitivity of the substitutability relation between measured objects, due to the uncertainty on the measurand value remaining after the measurement. The metrological structure (...)
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  6. Luca Mari, Valentina Lazzarotti & Raffaella Manzini (2009). Measurement in Soft Systems: Epistemological Framework and a Case Study. Measurement 42 (2):241-253.score: 18.0
    Measurement in soft systems generally cannot exploit physical sensors as data acquisition devices. The emphasis in this case is instead on how to choose the appropriate indicators and to combine their values so to obtain an overall result, interpreted as the value of a property, i.e., the measurand, for the system under analysis. This paper aims at discussing the epistemological conditions of the claim that such a process is a measurement, and performance evaluation is the case introduced to support the (...)
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  7. Eran Tal (2013). Old and New Problems in Philosophy of Measurement. Philosophy Compass 8 (12):1159-1173.score: 16.0
    The philosophy of measurement studies the conceptual, ontological, epistemic, and technological conditions that make measurement possible and reliable. A new wave of philosophical scholarship has emerged in the last decade that emphasizes the material and historical dimensions of measurement and the relationships between measurement and theoretical modeling. This essay surveys these developments and contrasts them with earlier work on the semantics of quantity terms and the representational character of measurement. The conclusions highlight four characteristics of the emerging research program in (...)
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  8. Shan Gao, Protective Measurement and the Meaning of the Wave Function.score: 16.0
    This article analyzes the implications of protective measurement for the meaning of the wave function. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has mass and charge density proportional to the modulus square of its wave function. It is shown that the mass and charge density is not real but effective, formed by the ergodic motion of a localized particle with the total mass and charge of the system. Moreover, it is argued that the ergodic motion is not continuous but (...)
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  9. Eric Schliesser (2013). Newtonian Emanation, Spinozism, Measurement and the Baconian Origins of the Laws of Nature. Foundations of Science 18 (3):449-466.score: 16.0
    The first two sections of this paper investigate what Newton could have meant in a now famous passage from “De Graviatione” (hereafter “DeGrav”) that “space is as it were an emanative effect of God.” First it offers a careful examination of the four key passages within DeGrav that bear on this. The paper shows that the internal logic of Newton’s argument permits several interpretations. In doing so, the paper calls attention to a Spinozistic strain in Newton’s thought. Second it sketches (...)
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  10. Shan Gao, Protective Measurement and the de Broglie-Bohm Theory.score: 16.0
    We investigate the implications of protective measurement for de Broglie-Bohm theory, mainly focusing on the interpretation of the wave function. It has been argued that the de Broglie-Bohm theory gives the same predictions as quantum mechanics by means of quantum equilibrium hypothesis. However, this equivalence is based on the premise that the wave function, regarded as a Ψ-field, has no mass and charge density distributions. But this premise turns out to be wrong according to protective measurement; a charged quantum system (...)
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  11. David Sherry (2011). Thermoscopes, Thermometers, and the Foundations of Measurement. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):509-524.score: 16.0
    Psychologists debate whether mental attributes can be quantified or whether they admit only qualitative comparisons of more and less. Their disagreement is not merely terminological, for it bears upon the permissibility of various statistical techniques. This article contributes to the discussion in two stages. First it explains how temperature, which was originally a qualitative concept, came to occupy its position as an unquestionably quantitative concept (§§1–4). Specifically, it lays out the circumstances in which thermometers, which register quantitative (or cardinal) differences, (...)
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  12. Nicholas Maxwell (1972). A New Look at the Quantum Mechanical Problem of Measurement. American Journal of Physics 40:1431-5..score: 16.0
    According to orthodox quantum mechanics, state vectors change in two incompatible ways: "deterministically" in accordance with Schroedinger's time-dependent equation, and probabilistically if and only if a measurement is made. It is argued here that the problem of measurement arises because the precise mutually exclusive conditions for these two types of transitions to occur are not specified within orthodox quantum mechanics. Fundamentally, this is due to an inevitable ambiguity in the notion of "meawurement" itself. Hence, if the problem of measurement is (...)
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  13. Ave Mets (2013). Measurement Theory, Nomological Machine And Measurement Uncertainties (In Classical Physics). Studia Philosophica Estonica 5 (2):167-186.score: 16.0
    Measurement is said to be the basis of exact sciences as the process of assigning numbers to matter (things or their attributes), thus making it possible to apply the mathematically formulated laws of nature to the empirical world. Mathematics and empiria are best accorded to each other in laboratory experiments which function as what Nancy Cartwright calls nomological machine: an arrangement generating (mathematical) regularities. On the basis of accounts of measurement errors and uncertainties, I will argue for two claims: 1) (...)
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  14. Alessandro Giordani & Luca Mari (2014). Modeling Measurement: Error and Uncertainty. In Marcel Boumans, Giora Hon & Arthur Petersen (eds.), Error and Uncertainty in Scientific Practice. Pickering & Chatto. 79-96.score: 16.0
    In the last few decades the role played by models and modeling activities has become a central topic in the scientific enterprise. In particular, it has been highlighted both that the development of models constitutes a crucial step for understanding the world and that the developed models operate as mediators between theories and the world. Such perspective is exploited here to cope with the issue as to whether error-based and uncertainty-based modeling of measurement are incompatible, and thus alternative with one (...)
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  15. Eran Tal (2012). The Epistemology of Measurement: A Model-Based Account. Dissertation, University of Torontoscore: 16.0
    This work develops an epistemology of measurement, that is, an account of the conditions under which measurement and standardization methods produce knowledge as well as the nature, scope, and limits of this knowledge. I focus on three questions: (i) how is it possible to tell whether an instrument measures the quantity it is intended to? (ii) what do claims to measurement accuracy amount to, and how might such claims be justified? (iii) when is disagreement among instruments a sign of error, (...)
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  16. Nicholas Maxwell (1973). The Problem of Measurement - Real or Imaginary? American Journal of Physics 41:1022-5.score: 16.0
    It is argued that criticisms of Willian Band and James Park concerning the quantum mechanics measurement problem do not succeed.
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  17. Aldo Frigerio, Alessandro Giordani & Luca Mari (2010). Outline of a General Model of Measurement. Synthese 175 (2):123-149.score: 16.0
    Measurement is a process aimed at acquiring and codifying information about properties of empirical entities. In this paper we provide an interpretation of such a process comparing it with what is nowadays considered the standard measurement theory, i.e., representational theory of measurement. It is maintained here that this theory has its own merits but it is incomplete and too abstract, its main weakness being the scant attention reserved to the empirical side of measurement, i.e., to measurement systems and to the (...)
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  18. Fred S. Roberts (ed.) (1985). Measurement Theory. Cambridge University Press.score: 16.0
    This book provides an introduction to measurement theory for non-specialists and puts measurement in the social and behavioural sciences on a firm mathematical foundation. Results are applied to such topics as measurement of utility, psychophysical scaling and decision-making about pollution, energy, transportation and health. The results and questions presented should be of interest to both students and practising mathematicians since the author sets forth an area of mathematics unfamiliar to most mathematicians, but which has many potentially significant applications.
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  19. Harvey R. Brown & David Wallace (2005). Solving the Measurement Problem: De Broglie-Bohm Loses Out to Everett. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 35 (4):517-540.score: 16.0
    The quantum theory of de Broglie and Bohm solves the measurement problem, but the hypothetical corpuscles play no role in the argument. The solution finds a more natural home in the Everett interpretation.
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  20. Renato M. Angelo (2009). On the Interpretative Essence of the Term “Interaction-Free Measurement”: The Role of Entanglement. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 39 (2):109-119.score: 16.0
    The polemical term “interaction-free measurement” (IFM) is analyzed in its interpretative nature. Two seminal works proposing the term are revisited and their underlying interpretations are assessed. The role played by nonlocal quantum correlations (entanglement) is formally discussed and some controversial conceptions in the original treatments are identified. As a result the term IFM is shown to be consistent neither with the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics nor with the lessons provided by the EPR debate.
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  21. Manuel Bächtold (2008). Five Formulations of the Quantum Measurement Problem in the Frame of the Standard Interpretation. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 39 (1):17 - 33.score: 16.0
    The aim of this paper is to give a systematic account of the so-called “measurement problem” in the frame of the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. It is argued that there is not one but five distinct formulations of this problem. Each of them depends on what is assumed to be a “satisfactory” description of the measurement process in the frame of the standard interpretation. Moreover, the paper points out that each of these formulations refers not to a unique problem, (...)
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  22. Galit Weidman Sassoon (2010). Measurement Theory in Linguistics. Synthese 174 (1):151 - 180.score: 16.0
    This paper presents a novel semantic analysis of unit names (like pound and meter ) and gradable adjectives (like tall, short and happy ), inspired by measurement theory (Krantz et al. In Foundations of measurement: Additive and Polynomial Representations, 1971). Based on measurement theory’s four-way typology of measures, I claim that different adjectives are associated with different types of measures whose special characteristics, together with features of the relations denoted by unit names, explain the puzzling limited distribution of measure phrases, (...)
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  23. Inge C. Kerssens-van Drongelen & Olaf A. M. Fisscher (2003). Ethical Dilemmas in Performance Measurement. Journal of Business Ethics 45 (1-2):51 - 63.score: 16.0
    In this article we discuss the ethical dilemmas facing performance evaluators and the "evaluatees" whose performances are measured in a business context. The concepts of role morality and common morality are used to develop a framework of behaviors that are normally seen as the moral responsibilities of these actors. This framework is used to analyze, based on four empirical situations, why the implementation of a performance measurement system has not been as effective as expected. It was concluded that, in these (...)
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  24. Douglas Kutach (1998). Review of The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and the Measurement Process. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (4):649-651.score: 16.0
    Book review of The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and the Measurement Process.
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  25. Edward J. Gillis (2011). Causality, Measurement, and Elementary Interactions. Foundations of Physics 41 (12):1757-1785.score: 16.0
    Signal causality, the prohibition of superluminal information transmission, is the fundamental property shared by quantum measurement theory and relativity, and it is the key to understanding the connection between nonlocal measurement effects and elementary interactions. To prevent those effects from transmitting information between the generating and observing process, they must be induced by the kinds of entangling interactions that constitute measurements, as implied in the Projection Postulate. They must also be nondeterministic as reflected in the Born Probability Rule. The nondeterminism (...)
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  26. Holger Andreas (2008). Ontological Aspects of Measurement. Axiomathes 18 (3):379-394.score: 16.0
    The concept of measurement is fundamental to a whole range of different disciplines, including not only the natural and engineering sciences, but also laboratory medicine and certain branches of the social sciences. This being the case, the concept of measurement has a particular relevance to the development of top-level ontologies in the area of knowledge engineering. For this reason, the present paper is concerned with ontological aspects of measurement. We are searching for a list of concepts that are apt to (...)
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  27. Yuh-Jia Chen & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2006). Attitude Toward and Propensity to Engage in Unethical Behavior: Measurement Invariance Across Major Among University Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 69 (1):77 - 93.score: 16.0
    This research examines business and psychology students’ attitude toward unethical behavior (measured at Time 1) and their propensity to engage in unethical behavior (measured at Time 1 and at Time 2, 4 weeks later) using a 15-item Unethical Behavior measure with five Factors: Abuse Resources, Not Whistle Blowing, Theft, Corruption, and Deception. Results suggested that male students had stronger unethical attitudes and had higher propensity to engage in unethical behavior than female students. Attitude at Time 1 predicted Propensity at Time (...)
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  28. R. N. Sen (2008). Physics and the Measurement of Continuous Variables. Foundations of Physics 38 (4):301-316.score: 16.0
    This paper addresses the doubts voiced by Wigner about the physical relevance of the concept of geometrical points by exploiting some facts known to all but honored by none: Almost all real numbers are transcendental; the explicit representation of any one will require an infinite amount of physical resources. An instrument devised to measure a continuous real variable will need a continuum of internal states to achieve perfect resolution. Consequently, a laboratory instrument for measuring a continuous variable in a finite (...)
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  29. Paul Teller (2013). The Concept of Measurement-Precision. Synthese 190 (2):189-202.score: 16.0
    The science of metrology characterizes the concept of precision in exceptionally loose and open terms. That is because the details of the concept must be filled in—what I call narrowing of the concept—in ways that are sensitive to the details of a particular measurement or measurement system and its use. Since these details can never be filled in completely, the concept of the actual precision of an instrument system must always retain some of the openness of its general characterization. The (...)
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  30. Matthias Neuber (2012). Invariance, Structure, Measurement – Eino Kaila and the History of Logical Empiricism. Theoria 78 (4):358-383.score: 16.0
    Eino Kaila's thought occupies a curious position within the logical empiricist movement. Along with Hans Reichenbach, Herbert Feigl, and the early Moritz Schlick, Kaila advocates a realist approach towards science and the project of a “scientific world conception”. This realist approach was chiefly directed at both Kantianism and Poincaréan conventionalism. The case in point was the theory of measurement. According to Kaila, the foundations of physical reality are characterized by the existence of invariant systems of relations, which he called structures. (...)
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  31. Bas Spitters (2012). The Space of Measurement Outcomes as a Spectral Invariant for Non-Commutative Algebras. Foundations of Physics 42 (7):896-908.score: 16.0
    The recently developed technique of Bohrification associates to a (unital) C*-algebra Athe Kripke model, a presheaf topos, of its classical contexts;in this Kripke model a commutative C*-algebra, called the Bohrification of A;the spectrum of the Bohrification as a locale internal in the Kripke model. We propose this locale, the ‘state space’, as a (n intuitionistic) logic of the physical system whose observable algebra is A.We compute a site which externally captures this locale and find that externally its points may be (...)
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  32. Miklavž Vospernik (2004). Measurement and the Verificationist Theory/Observation Distinction. Acta Analytica 19 (33):95-117.score: 16.0
    In the following article, we propose to show that following the general verificationist epistemic programme (its demand that the truth of our judgments be verifiable), the analysis of measurement on the one hand, and the classical positivist analysis of common-sense observation on the other, do not lead to same conclusions. This is especially important, because the differences in conclusions concern the positivist theory/observation distinction. In particular, the analysis of measurement does not fully support this distinction. This fact might have important (...)
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  33. Harvey Brown & David Wallace (2005). Solving the Measurement Problem: De Broglie-Bohm Loses Out to Everett. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 35 (4):517-540.score: 16.0
    The quantum theory of de Broglie and Bohm solves the measurement problem, but the hypothetical corpuscles play no role in the argument. The solution finds a more natural home in the Everett interpretation.
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  34. Eran Tal (forthcoming). Making Time: A Study in the Epistemology of Measurement. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.score: 16.0
    This article develops a model-based account of the standardization of physical measurement, taking the contemporary standardization of time as its central case-study. To standardize the measurement of a quantity, I argue, is to legislate the mode of application of a quantity-concept to a collection of exemplary artefacts. Legislation involves an iterative exchange between top-down adjustments to theoretical and statistical models regulating the application of a concept, and bottom-up adjustments to material artefacts in light of remaining gaps. The model-based account clarifies (...)
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  35. Alexey Kryukov (2007). On the Measurement Problem for a Two-Level Quantum System. Foundations of Physics 37 (1):3-39.score: 16.0
    A geometric approach to quantum mechanics with unitary evolution and non-unitary collapse processes is developed. In this approach the Schrödinger evolution of a quantum system is a geodesic motion on the space of states of the system furnished with an appropriate Riemannian metric. The measuring device is modeled by a perturbation of the metric. The process of measurement is identified with a geodesic motion of state of the system in the perturbed metric. Under the assumption of random fluctuations of the (...)
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  36. Noushi Rahman & Corinne Post (2012). Measurement Issues in Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility (ECSR): Toward a Transparent, Reliable, and Construct Valid Instrument. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 105 (3):307-319.score: 16.0
    One of the major roadblocks in conducting Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility (ECSR) research is operationalization of the construct. Existing ECSR measurement tools either require primary data gathering or special subscriptions to proprietary databases that have limited replicability. We address this deficiency by developing a transparent ECSR measure, with an explicit coding scheme, that strictly relies on publicly available data. Our ECSR measure tests favorably for internal consistency and inter-rater reliability, as well as convergent and discriminant validity.
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  37. Rodolfo Gambini & Jorge Pullin (2007). Relational Physics with Real Rods and Clocks and the Measurement Problem of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 37 (7):1074-1092.score: 16.0
    The use of real clocks and measuring rods in quantum mechanics implies a natural loss of unitarity in the description of the theory. We briefly review this point and then discuss the implications it has for the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. The intrinsic loss of coherence allows to circumvent some of the usual objections to the measurement process as due to environmental decoherence.
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  38. Louis Narens (ed.) (1985). Abstract Measurement Theory. MIT Press.score: 16.0
    The need for quantitative measurement represents a unifying bond that links all the physical, biological, and social sciences. Measurements of such disparate phenomena as subatomic masses, uncertainty, information, and human values share common features whose explication is central to the achievement of foundational work in any particular mathematical science as well as for the development of a coherent philosophy of science. This book presents a theory of measurement, one that is "abstract" in that it is concerned with highly general axiomatizations (...)
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  39. Zhengjun Xi & Yongming Li (2013). Quantum and Classical Correlations in Quantum Measurement. Foundations of Physics 43 (3):285-293.score: 16.0
    We revisit quantum measurement when the apparatus is initially in a mixed state. We find that, in a particular restriction setup, the amount of entanglement between the system and the apparatus is given by the entropy increasing of the system under the measurement transformation. We show that the information gained is equal to the amount of entanglement under performing perfect measurement. Based on the perfect measurement, we give an upper bound of quantum discord.
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  40. Carlos Alexandre Brasil, L. A. De Castro & R. D. J. Napolitano (2013). How Much Time Does a Measurement Take? Foundations of Physics 43 (5):642-655.score: 16.0
    We consider the problem of measurement using the Lindblad equation, which allows the introduction of time in the interaction between the measured system and the measurement apparatus. We use analytic results, valid for weak system-environment coupling, obtained for a two-level system in contact with a measurer (Markovian interaction) and a thermal bath (non-Markovian interaction), where the measured observable may or may not commute with the system-environment interaction. Analysing the behavior of the coherence, which tends to a value asymptotically close to (...)
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  41. P. Hájíček (2011). The Quantum Measurement Problem and Cluster Separability. Foundations of Physics 41 (4):640-666.score: 16.0
    A modified Beltrametti-Cassinelli-Lahti model of the measurement apparatus that satisfies both the probability reproducibility condition and the objectification requirement is constructed. Only measurements on microsystems are considered. The cluster separability forms a basis for the first working hypothesis: the current version of quantum mechanics leaves open what happens to systems when they change their separation status. New rules that close this gap can therefore be added without disturbing the logic of quantum mechanics. The second working hypothesis is that registration apparatuses (...)
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  42. Irwin Feller (2009). Performance Measurement and the Governance of American Academic Science. Minerva 47 (3):323-344.score: 16.0
    Neoliberal precepts of the governance of academic science-deregulation; reification of markets; emphasis on competitive allocation processes have been conflated with those of performance management—if you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it—into a single analytical and consequent single programmatic worldview. As applied to the United States’ system of research universities, this conflation leads to two major divergences from relationships hypothesized in the governance of science literature. (1) The governance and financial structures supporting academic science in the United States’ system of (...)
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  43. Christoph Kneiding & Paul Tracey (2009). Towards a Performance Measurement Framework for Community Development Finance Institutions in the Uk. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (3):327 - 345.score: 16.0
    Community Development Finance Institutions (CDFIs) are publicly funded organisations that provide small loans to people in financially underserved areas of the UK. Policy makers have repeatedly sought to understand and measure the performance of CDFIs to ensure the efficient use of public funds, but have struggled to identify an appropriate way of doing so. In this article, we empirically derive a framework that measures the performance of CDFIs through an analysis of their stakeholder relationships. Based on qualitative data from 20 (...)
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  44. Masanao Ozawa (2011). Quantum Reality and Measurement: A Quantum Logical Approach. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 41 (3):592-607.score: 16.0
    The recently established universal uncertainty principle revealed that two nowhere commuting observables can be measured simultaneously in some state, whereas they have no joint probability distribution in any state. Thus, one measuring apparatus can simultaneously measure two observables that have no simultaneous reality. In order to reconcile this discrepancy, an approach based on quantum logic is proposed to establish the relation between quantum reality and measurement. We provide a language speaking of values of observables independent of measurement based on quantum (...)
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  45. Henry E. Kyburg (ed.) (1984). Theory and Measurement. Cambridge University Press.score: 16.0
    Measurement is fundamental to all the sciences, the behavioural and social as well as the physical and in the latter its results provide our paradigms of 'objective fact'. But the basis and justification of measurement is not well understood and is often simply taken for granted. Henry Kyburg Jr proposes here an original, carefully worked out theory of the foundations of measurement, to show how quantities can be defined, why certain mathematical structures are appropriate to them and what meaning attaches (...)
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  46. Gerd Niestegge (2009). A Representation of Quantum Measurement in Nonassociative Algebras. Foundations of Physics 39 (2):120-136.score: 16.0
    Starting from an abstract setting for the Lüders-von Neumann quantum measurement process and its interpretation as a probability conditionalization rule in a non-Boolean event structure, the author derived a certain generalization of operator algebras in a preceding paper. This is an order-unit space with some specific properties. It becomes a Jordan operator algebra under a certain set of additional conditions, but does not own a multiplication operation in the most general case. A major objective of the present paper is the (...)
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  47. Alexandra Bendixen Mona Spielmann, Erich Schröger, Sonja A. Kotz, Thomas Pechmann (2013). Using a Staircase Procedure for the Objective Measurement of Auditory Stream Integration and Segregation Thresholds. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 16.0
    Auditory scene analysis describes the ability to segregate relevant sounds out from the environment and to integrate them into a single sound stream using the characteristics of the sounds to determine whether or not they are related. This study aims to contrast task performances in objective threshold measurements of segregation and integration using identical stimuli, manipulating two variables known to influence streaming, inter-stimulus-interval (ISI) and frequency difference (Δf). For each measurement, one parameter (either ISI or Δf) was held constant while (...)
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  48. Gerd Niestegge (2008). A Representation of Quantum Measurement in Order-Unit Spaces. Foundations of Physics 38 (9):783-795.score: 16.0
    A certain generalization of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics beyond operator algebras is considered. The approach is based on the concept of conditional probability and the interpretation of the Lüders-von Neumann quantum measurement as a probability conditionalization rule. A major result shows that the operator algebras must be replaced by order-unit spaces with some specific properties in the generalized approach, and it is analyzed under which conditions these order-unit spaces become Jordan algebras. An application of this result provides a (...)
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  49. Jochen Rau (2011). Measurement-Based Quantum Foundations. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):380-388.score: 16.0
    I show that quantum theory is the only probabilistic framework that permits arbitrary processes to be emulated by sequences of local measurements. This supports the view that, contrary to conventional wisdom, measurement should not be regarded as a complex phenomenon in need of a dynamical explanation but rather as a primitive—and perhaps the only primitive—operation of the theory.
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  50. Michael Simpson (2011). Larc: A State Reduction Theory of Quantum Measurement. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 41 (10):1648-1663.score: 16.0
    This proposes a new theory of Quantum measurement; a state reduction theory in which reduction is to the elements of the number operator basis of a system, triggered by the occurrence of annihilation or creation (or lowering or raising) operators in the time evolution of a system. It is from these operator types that the acronym ‘LARC’ is derived. Reduction does not occur immediately after the trigger event; it occurs at some later time with probability P t per unit time, (...)
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