Search results for '*Motor Cortex' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Hugo Théoret, Masahito Kobayashi, Lotfi Merabet, Tim Wagner, Jose M. Tormos & Alvaro Pascual-Leone (2004). Modulation of Right Motor Cortex Excitability Without Awareness Following Presentation of Masked Self-Images. Cognitive Brain Research 20 (1):54-57.
  2. Elliot Clayton Brown, Jan Roelf Wiersema, Gilles Pourtois & Martin Brüne (2013). Modulation of Motor Cortex Activity When Observing Rewarding and Punishing Actions. Neuropsychologia 51 (1):52-58.
    Interpreting others' actions is essential for understanding the intentions and goals in social interactions. Activity in the motor cortex is evoked when we see another person performing actions, which can also be influenced by the intentions and context of the observed action. No study has directly explored the influence of reward and punishment on motor cortex activity when observing others' actions, which is likely to have substantial relevance in different social contexts. In this experiment, EEG was recorded while (...)
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  3.  13
    Jun Wang, Gregory Dam, Sule Yildirim, William Rand, Uri Wilensky & James C. Houk (2008). Reciprocity Between the Cerebellum and the Cerebral Cortex: Nonlinear Dynamics in Microscopic Modules for Generating Voluntary Motor Commands. Complexity 14 (2):29-45.
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  4.  14
    James H. Abbs & Roxanne DePaul (1998). Motor Cortex Fields and Speech Movements: Simple Dual Control is Implausible. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):511-512.
    We applaud the spirit of MacNeilage's attempts to better explain the evolution and cortical control of speech by drawing on the vast literature in nonhuman primate neurobiology. However, he oversimplifies motor cortical fields and their known individual functions to such an extent that he undermines the value of his effort. In particular, MacNeilage has lumped together the functional characteristics across multiple mesial and lateral motor cortex fields, inadvertantly creating two hypothetical centers that simply may not exist.
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  5.  2
    Karl U. Smith (1947). Bilateral Integrative Action of the Cerebral Cortex in Man in Verbal Association and Sensori-Motor Coordination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (5):367.
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  6. Michela Balconi & Adriana Bortolotti (2013). Conscious and Unconscious Face Recognition is Improved by High-Frequency rTMS on Pre-Motor Cortex. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):771-778.
    Simulation process and mirroring mechanism appear to be necessary to the recognition of emotional facial expressions. Prefrontal areas were found to support this simulation mechanism. The present research analyzed the role of premotor area in processing emotional faces with different valence , considering both conscious and unconscious pathways. High-frequency rTMS stimulation was applied to prefrontal area to induce an activation response when overt and covert processing was implicated. Twenty-two subjects were asked to detect emotion/no emotion . Error rates and response (...)
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  7.  4
    Michael S. A. Graziano (2016). Ethological Action Maps: A Paradigm Shift for the Motor Cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (2):121-132.
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  8.  7
    Gregory Hickok, Lori L. Holt & Andrew J. Lotto (2009). Response to Wilson: What Does Motor Cortex Contribute to Speech Perception? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (8):330-331.
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  9.  4
    Jana Speth, Clemens Speth & Trevor A. Harley (2015). Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Motor Cortex in Waking Resting State Induces Motor Imagery. Consciousness and Cognition 36:298-305.
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  10.  3
    Mark Hallett, Jordan Fieldman, Leonardo G. Cohen, Norihiro Sadato & Alvaro Pascual-Leone (1994). Involvement of Primary Motor Cortex in Motor Imagery and Mental Practice. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):210.
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  11.  4
    M. Rushworth (1999). Order in the Motor Cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (6):206.
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  12.  4
    D. R. Humphrey (1978). On the Proportions of Identified Output Cells and Putative Interneurons the Precentral Arm Area of the Monkey's Motor Cortex. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (3):492.
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  13. J. C. Houk (1989). Cooperative Control of Limb Movements by the Motor Cortex, Brainstem and Cerebellum. In Rodney M. J. Cotterill (ed.), Models of Brain Function. Cambridge University Press 309--325.
     
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  14. Katherine R. Naish, Brittany Barnes & Sukhvinder S. Obhi (2016). Stimulation Over Primary Motor Cortex During Action Observation Impairs Effector Recognition. Cognition 149:84-94.
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  15.  8
    Lorelei D. Shoemaker & Paola Arlotta (2010). Untangling the Cortex: Advances in Understanding Specification and Differentiation of Corticospinal Motor Neurons. Bioessays 32 (3):197-206.
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  16. Richard A. Andersen (1995). Coordinate Transformations and Motor Planning in Posterior Parietal Cortex. In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences. MIT Press 519--532.
     
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  17. Bill Faw (2003). Pre-Frontal Executive Committee for Perception, Working Memory, Attention, Long-Term Memory, Motor Control, and Thinking: A Tutorial Review. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (1):83-139.
    As an explicit organizing metaphor, memory aid, and conceptual framework, the prefrontal cortex may be viewed as a five-member ‘Executive Committee,’ as the prefrontal-control extensions of five sub-and-posterior-cortical systems: the ‘Perceiver’ is the frontal extension of the ventral perceptual stream which represents the world and self in object coordinates; the ‘Verbalizer’ is the frontal extension of the language stream which represents the world and self in language coordinates; the ‘Motivator’ is the frontal cortical extension of a subcortical extended-amygdala stream (...)
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  18.  4
    James C. Lynch (1980). The Functional Organization of Posterior Parietal Association Cortex. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (4):485.
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  19.  35
    Helen Johnson & Patrick Haggard (2005). Motor Awareness Without Perceptual Awareness. Neuropsychologia. Special Issue 43 (2):227-237.
    The control of action has traditionally been described as "automatic". In particular, movement control may occur without conscious awareness, in contrast to normal visual perception. Studies on rapid visuomotor adjustment of reaching movements following a target shift have played a large part in introducing such distinctions. We suggest that previous studies of the relation between motor performance and perceptual awareness have confounded two separate dissociations. These are: (a) the distinction between motoric and perceptual representations, and (b) an orthogonal distinction between (...)
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  20.  4
    W. T. Thach (1996). On the Specific Role of the Cerebellum in Motor Learning and Cognition: Clues From PET Activation and Lesion Studies in Man. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):411-433.
    Brindley proposed that we initially generate movements , under higher cerebral control. As the movement is practiced, the cerebellum learns to link within itself the context in which the movement is made to the lower level movement generators. Marr and Albus proposed that the linkage is established by a special input from the inferior olive, which plays upon an input-output element within the cerebellum during the period of the learning. When the linkage is complete, the occurrence of the context (represented (...)
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  21.  17
    Paul E. Tibbetts (2001). The Anterior Cingulate Cortex, Akinetic Mutism, and Human Volition. Brain and Mind 2 (3):323-341.
    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)has been identified as part of a supervisoryattentional network for selecting alternativemotor programs in response to top-down corticalprocessing, particularly in situationsinvolving conflicting cognitive tasks.Bilateral lesions to the ACC may be causallyassociated with akinetic mutism, where patientsare unable to voluntarily initiate responses.The clinical and neuroanatomical evidence forthis presumed causal association is examined atlength. However, given the many reciprocalprojections between cerebral, motor, limbic andparalimbic structures within the executivesupervisory network, the association ofvoluntary behavior with a particular structure(the ACC) (...)
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  22.  31
    E. Koechlin & C. Summerfield (2007). An Information Theoretical Approach to Prefrontal Executive Function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (6):229-235.
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  23. Benjamin W. Libet (2004). Mind Time: The Temporal Factor in Consciousness. MIT Press.
    Over a long career, Libet has conducted experiments that have shown, in clear and concrete ways, how the brain produces conscious awareness.
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  24. Mircea Steriade (1978). Cortical Long-Axoned Cells and Putative Interneurons During the Sleep-Waking Cycle. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (3):465.
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  25.  24
    F. Xavier Castellanos, Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke, Michael P. Milham & Rosemary Tannock (2006). Characterizing Cognition in ADHD: Beyond Executive Dysfunction. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (3):117-123.
  26.  20
    C. D. Chambers & J. B. Mattingley (2005). Neurodisruption of Selective Attention: Insights and Implications. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (11):542-550.
    Mechanisms of selective attention are vital for coherent perception and action. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience have yielded key insights into the relationship between neural mechanisms of attention and eye movements, and the role of frontal and parietal brain regions as sources of attentional control. Here we explore the growing contribution of reversible neurodisruption techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation and microelectrode stimulation, to the cognitive neuroscience of spatial attention. These approaches permit unique causal inferences concerning the relationship between neural processes (...)
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  27.  10
    Martha Flanders, Stephen I. Helms Tillery & John F. Soechting (1992). Early Stages in a Sensorimotor Transformation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):309-320.
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  28.  4
    Bruce MacLennan, Field Computation in Motor Control.
    to small scales. Further, it is often useful to describe motor control and sensorimotor coordination in terms of external elds such as force elds and sensory images. We survey the basic concepts of eld computation, including both feed-forward eld operations and eld dynamics resulting from recurrent connections. Adaptive and learning mechanisms are discussed brie y. The application of eld computation to motor control is illustrated by several examples: external force elds associated with spinal neurons, population coding of direction in motor (...)
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  29.  26
    Jing Zhu (2003). Reclaiming Volition: An Alternative Interpretation of Libet's Experiment. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (11):61-77.
    Based on his experimental studies, Libet claims that voluntary actions are initiated by unconscious brain activities well before intentions or decisions to act are consciously experienced by people. This account conflicts with our common-sense conception of human agency, in which people consciously and intentionally exert volitions or acts of will to initiate voluntary actions. This paper offers an alternative interpretation of Libet's experiment. The cause of the intentional acts performed by the subjects in Libet's experiment should not be exclusively attributed (...)
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  30.  7
    James C. Houk, Jay T. Buckingham & Andrew G. Barto (1996). Models of the Cerebellum and Motor Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):368-383.
    This article reviews models of the cerebellum and motor learning, from the landmark papers by Marr and Albus through those of the present time. The unique architecture of the cerebellar cortex is ideally suited for pattern recognition, but how is pattern recognition incorporated into motor control and learning systems? The present analysis begins with a discussion of exactly what the cerebellar cortex needs to regulate through its anatomically defined projections to premotor networks. Next, we examine various models showing (...)
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  31.  24
    Daniel A. Pollen (2006). Brain Stimulation and Conscious Experience: Electrical Stimulation of the Cortical Surface at a Threshold Current Evokes Sustained Neuronal Activity Only After a Prolonged Latency. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (3):560-565.
    Libet demonstrated that a substantial duration (>0.5-1.0 s) of direct electrical stimulation of the surface of a sensory cortex at a threshold or liminal current is required before a subject can experience a percept. Libet and his co-workers originally proposed that the result could be due either to spatial and temporal facilitation of the underlying neurons or additionally to a prolonged central processing time. However, over the next four decades, Libet chose to attribute the prolonged latency for evoking conscious (...)
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  32.  12
    Yves Burnod (1991). Organizational Levels of the Cerebral Cortex: An Integrated Model. Acta Biotheoretica 39 (3-4):351-361.
    We propose a theoretical model of the cerebral cortex which is based on its cellular components and integrates its different levels of organization: (1) cells have general adaptive and memorization properties; (2) cortical columns are repetitive interneuronal circuits which determine an adaptive processing specific to the cerebral cortex; (3) cortical maps effect selective combinations which are very efficient to learn basic behaviourial adaptations such as invariant recognition of forms, visually-guided hand movements, or execution of structured motor programs; (4) (...)
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  33.  7
    Norihiro Sadato & Eiichi Naito (2004). Emulation of Kinesthesia During Motor Imagery. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):412-413.
    Illusory kinesthetic sensation was influenced by motor imagery of the wrist following tendon vibration. The imagery and the illusion conditions commonly activated the contralateral cingulate motor area, supplementary motor area, dorsal premotor cortex, and ipsilateral cerebellum. This supports the notion that motor imagery is a mental rehearsal of movement, during which expected kinesthetic sensation is emulated by recruiting multiple motor areas, commonly activated by pure kinesthesia.
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  34.  5
    Michel Dufossé, Arthur Kaladjian & Philippe Grandguillaume (1997). Origin of Error Signals During Cerebellar Learning of Motor Sequences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):249-250.
    Prefrontal cerebral areas project to Purkinje cells, located in the most lateral part of the cerebellum, via mossy and climbing fibers. The latter olivary error signals reflect the attentional load of the prefrontal cortex. At the cerebral level, LTP-LTD plasticity allows these Purkinje cells to adaptively reinforce the active pyramidal cells involved in the motor sequence.
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  35.  2
    Michael A. Arbib & Jacob Spoelstra (1997). Microcomplexes: The Basic Unit of the Cerebellar Role in Adaptive Motor Control. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):245-246.
    We offer a critique of the role of the parallel fiber beam as the unit of cerebellar computation, with the as its mode of operation. Instead we see the microcomplex linking cerebellar cortex and nuclei as the unit, with parallel fibers providing the means to coordinate the effects of microcomplexes in modulating various motor pattern generators (MPGs).
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  36.  8
    C. H. Vanderwolf & T. E. Robinson (1981). Reticulo-Cortical Activity and Behavior: A Critique of the Arousal Theory and a New Synthesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):459-476.
    It is traditionally believed that cerebral activation (the presence of low voltage fast electrical activity in the neocortex and rhythmical slow activity in the hippocampus) is correlated with arousal, while deactivation (the presence of large amplitude irregular slow waves or spindles in both the neocortex and the hippocampus) is correlated with sleep or coma. However, since there are many exceptions, these generalizations have only limited validity. Activated patterns occur in normal sleep (active or paradoxical sleep) and during states of (...)
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  37.  9
    George A. Ojemann (1983). Brain Organization for Language From the Perspective of Electrical Stimulation Mapping. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):189.
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  38. Vittorio Gallese (2007). Before and Below 'Theory of Mind': Embodied Simulation and the Neural Correlates of Social Cognition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 362 (1480):659-669.
  39.  19
    Penny A. MacDonald & Tomás Paus (2003). The Role of Parietal Cortex in Awareness of Self-Generated Movements: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study. Cerebral Cortex 13 (9):962-967.
  40. Melvyn A. Goodale, Jonathan S. Cant & Grzegorz Króliczak (2006). Grasping the Past and Present: When Does Visuomotor Priming Occur? In Ögmen, Haluk; Breitmeyer, Bruno G. (2006). The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes. (Pp. 51-71). Cambridge, Ma, Us: Mit Press. Xi, 410 Pp.
  41.  46
    David A. Oakley & Patrick Haggard (2006). The Timing of Brain Events: Authors' Response to Libet's 'Reply'. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (3):548-550.
  42.  19
    Susan Pockett (2006). The Great Subjective Back-Referral Debate: Do Neural Responses Increase During a Train of Stimuli? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (3):551-559.
    Evidence is summarised for and against the hypothesis that potentiation or facilitation of neural responses during a train of threshold-level stimuli occurred in the experiments reported by Libet et al. . It is concluded that such potentiation probably did occur. Since the main arguments for the existence of subjective backwards referral take it as given that such potentiation did not occur, it is further concluded that the main arguments for the existence of subjective backwards referral fail.
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  43. James Danckert, Patrice Revol, Laure Pisella, Pierre Krolak-Salmon, Alain Vighetto, Melvyn A. Goodale & Yves Rosetti (2003). Measuring Unconscious Actions in Action-Blindsight: Exploring the Kinematics of Pointing Movements to Targets in the Blind Field of Two Patients with Cortical Hemianopia. Neuropsychologia 41 (8):1068-1081.
     
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  44. Stephen Jackson (2000). Perception, Awareness and Action: Insights From Blindsight. In Yves Rossetti & Antti Revonsuo (eds.), Beyond Dissociation: Interaction Between Dissociated Implicit and Explicit Processing. John Benjamins
  45.  6
    P. E. Roland (1978). Sensory Feedback to the Cerebral Cortex During Voluntary Movement in Man. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):129.
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  46.  36
    József Fiser, Pietro Berkes, Gergő Orbán & Máté Lengyel (2010). Statistically Optimal Perception and Learning: From Behavior to Neural Representations: Perceptual Learning, Motor Learning, and Automaticity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (3):119.
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  47.  32
    Peter F. MacNeilage (1998). The Frame/Content Theory of Evolution of Speech Production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):499-511.
    The species-specific organizational property of speech is a continual mouth open-close alternation, the two phases of which are subject to continual articulatory modulation. The cycle constitutes the syllable, and the open and closed phases are segments framescontent displays that are prominent in many nonhuman primates. The new role of Broca's area and its surround in human vocal communication may have derived from its evolutionary history as the main cortical center for the control of ingestive processes. The frame and content components (...)
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  48.  47
    Sarah-Jane Blakemore (2003). Deluding the Motor System. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (4):647-655.
    How do we know that our own actions belong to us? How are we able to distinguish self-generated sensory events from those that arise externally? In this paper, I will briefly discuss experiments that were designed to investigate these questions. In particularly, I will review psychophysical and neuroimaging studies that have investigated how we recognise the consequences of our own actions, and why patients with delusions of control confuse self-produced and externally produced actions and sensations. Studies investigating the failure of (...)
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  49. Valentino Braitenberg, Detlef Heck & Fahad Sultan (1997). The Detection and Generation of Sequences as a Key to Cerebellar Function: Experiments and Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):229-245.
    Starting from macroscopic and microscopic facts of cerebellar histology, we propose a new functional interpretation that may elucidate the role of the cerebellum in movement control. The idea is that the cerebellum is a large collection of individual lines (Eccles's : Eccles et al. 1967a) that respond specifically to certain sequences of events in the input and in turn produce sequences of signals in the output. We believe that the sequence-in/sequence-out mode of operation is as typical for the cerebellar (...) as the transformation of sets into sets of active neurons is typical for the cerebral cortex, and that both the histological differences between the two and their reciprocal functional interactions become understandable in the light of this dichotomy. The response of Purkinje cells to sequences of stimuli in the mossy fiber system was shown experimentally by Heck on surviving slices of rat and guinea pig cerebellum. Sequential activation of a row of eleven stimulating electrodes in the granular layer, imitating a of the stimuli along the folium, produces a powerful volley in the parallel fibers that strongly excites Purkinje cells, as evidenced by intracellular recording. The volley, or has maximal amplitude when the stimulus moves toward the recording site at the speed of conduction in parallel fibers, and much smaller amplitudes for lower or higher The succession of stimuli has no effect when they in the opposite direction. Synchronous activation of the stimulus electrodes also had hardly any effect. We believe that the sequences of mossy fiber activation that normally produce this effect in the intact cerebellum are a combination of motor planning relayed to the cerebellum by the cerebral cortex, and information about ongoing movement, reaching the cerebellum from the spinal cord. The output elicited by the specific sequence to which a is tuned may well be a succession of well timed inhibitory volleys the motor sequences so as to adapt them to the complicated requirements of the physics of a multijointed system. (shrink)
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  50.  2
    Caruana Fausto & Cuccio Valentina (forthcoming). Types of Abduction in Tool Behavior. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-19.
    Tool-use behavior is currently one of the most intriguing and widely debated topics in cognitive neuroscience. Different accounts of our ability to use tools have been proposed. In the first part of the paper we review the most prominent interpretations and suggest that none of these accounts, considered in itself, is sufficient to explain tool use. In the second part of the paper we disentangle three different types of reasoning on tools, characterized by a different distribution of motor and cognitive (...)
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