Search results for '*Neurons' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Shannon Spaulding (2013). Mirror Neurons and Social Cognition. Mind and Language 28 (2):233-257.score: 16.0
    Mirror neurons are widely regarded as an important key to social cognition. Despite such wide agreement, there is very little consensus on how or why they are important. The goal of this paper is to clearly explicate the exact role mirror neurons play in social cognition. I aim to answer two questions about the relationship between mirroring and social cognition: What kind of social understanding is involved with mirroring? How is mirroring related to that understanding? I argue that philosophical and (...)
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  2. Chris A. Kramer (2012). As If: Connecting Phenomenology, Mirror Neurons, Empathy, and Laughter. Phaenex 7 (1):275-308.score: 16.0
    The discovery of mirror neurons in both primates and humans has led to an enormous amount of research and speculation as to how conscious beings are able to interact so effortlessly among one another. Mirror neurons might provide an embodied basis for passive synthesis and the eventual process of further communalization through empathy, as envisioned by Edmund Husserl. I consider the possibility of a phenomenological and scientific investigation of laughter as a point of connection that might in the future bridge (...)
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  3. Lawrence Shapiro (2009). Making Sense of Mirror Neurons. Synthese 167 (3):439 - 456.score: 16.0
    The discovery of mirror neurons has been hailed as one of the most exciting developments in neuroscience in the past few decades. These neurons discharge in response to the observation of others’ actions. But how are we to understand the function of these neurons? In this paper I defend the idea that mirror neurons are best conceived as components of a sensory system that has the function to perceive action. In short, mirror neurons are part of a hitherto unrecognized “sixth (...)
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  4. Shannon Spaulding (2012). Mirror Neurons Are Not Evidence for the Simulation Theory. Synthese 189 (3):515-534.score: 16.0
    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in theories of mindreading. New discoveries in neuroscience have revitalized the languishing debate. The discovery of so-called mirror neurons has revived interest particularly in the Simulation Theory (ST) of mindreading. Both ST proponents and theorists studying mirror neurons have argued that mirror neurons are strong evidence in favor of ST over Theory Theory (TT). In this paper I argue against the prevailing view that mirror neurons are evidence for the ST of mindreading. (...)
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  5. Luca Barlassina (2011). After All, It’s Still Replication: A Reply to Jacob on Simulation and Mirror Neurons. Res Cogitans 8 (1):92-111.score: 16.0
    Mindreading is the ability to attribute mental states to other individuals. According to the simulation theory (ST), mindreading is based on the ability the mind has of replicating others' mental states and processes. Mirror neurons (MNs) are a class of neurons that fire both when an agent performs a goal-directed action and when she observes the same type of action performed by another individual. Since MNs appear to form a replicative mechanism in which a portion of the observer's brain replicates (...)
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  6. Stefano Sandrone (2013). Self Through the Mirror (Neurons) and Default Mode Network: What Neuroscientists Found and What Can Still Be Found There. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 16.0
    Self through the Mirror (Neurons) and Default Mode Network: What Neuroscientists Found and What Can Still be Found There.
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  7. Vittorio Gallese (2005). Embodied Simulation: From Neurons to Phenomenal Experience. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4 (1):23-48.score: 14.0
    The same neural structures involved in the unconscious modeling of our acting body in space also contribute to our awareness of the lived body and of the objects that the world contains. Neuroscientific research also shows that there are neural mechanisms mediating between the multi-level personal experience we entertain of our lived body, and the implicit certainties we simultaneously hold about others. Such personal and body-related experiential knowledge enables us to understand the actions performed by others, and to directly decode (...)
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  8. Stephen P. Turner (2007). Mirror Neurons and Practices: A Response to Lizardo. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (3):351–371.score: 14.0
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  9. Wynand Van der Goes van Naters (2013). Inhibition Among Olfactory Receptor Neurons. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 14.0
  10. Fausto Caruana (2010). «Learning to See». The Role of the Mirror Neurons System, Between Neuroscience of Perception and Ordinary Language Analysis. Rivista di Filosofia 101 (3):333-354.score: 14.0
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  11. Stephen L. Macknik & Susana Martinez-Conde (2004). Dichoptic Visual Masking Reveals That Early Binocular Neurons Exhibit Weak Interocular Suppression: Implications for Binocular Vision and Visual Awareness. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16 (6):1049-1059.score: 14.0
  12. Lorelei D. Shoemaker & Paola Arlotta (2010). Untangling the Cortex: Advances in Understanding Specification and Differentiation of Corticospinal Motor Neurons. Bioessays 32 (3):197-206.score: 14.0
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  13. Emma Borg (2007). If Mirror Neurons Are the Answer, What Was the Question? Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (8):5-19.score: 12.0
    Mirror neurons are neurons which fire in two distinct conditions: (i) when an agent performs a specific action, like a precision grasp of an object using fingers, and (ii) when an agent observes that action performed by another. Some theorists have suggested that the existence of such neurons may lend support to the simulation approach to mindreading (e.g. Gallese and Goldman, 1998, 'Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind reading'). In this note I critically examine this suggestion, in both (...)
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  14. Dieter Lohmar (2006). Mirror Neurons and the Phenomenology of Intersubjectivity. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5 (1):5-16.score: 12.0
    The neurological discovery of mirror neurons is of eminent importance for the phenomenological theory of intersubjectivity. G. Rizzolatti and V. Gallese found in experiments with primates that a set of neurons in the premotor cortex represents the visually registered movements of another animal. The activity of these mirror neurons presents exactly the same pattern of activity as appears in the movement of one's own body. These findings may be extended to other cognitive and emotive functions in humans. I show how (...)
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  15. Pierre Jacob (2008). What Do Mirror Neurons Contribute to Human Social Cognition? Mind and Language 23 (2):190–223.score: 12.0
    According to an influential view, one function of mirror neurons (MNs), first discovered in the brain of monkeys, is to underlie third-person mindreading. This view relies on two assumptions: the activity of MNs in an observer’s brain matches (simulates or resonates with) that of MNs in an agent’s brain and this resonance process retrodictively generates a representation of the agent’s intention from a perception of her movement. In this paper, I criticize both assumptions and I argue instead that the activity (...)
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  16. Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (2012). Movement and Mirror Neurons: A Challenging and Choice Conversation. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (3):385-401.score: 12.0
    This paper raises fundamental questions about the claims of art historian David Freedberg and neuroscientist Vittorio Gallese in their article "Motion, Emotion and Empathy in Esthetic Experience." It does so from several perspectives, all of them rooted in the dynamic realities of movement. It shows on the basis of neuroscientific research how connectivity and pruning are of unmistakable import in the interneuronal dynamic patternings in the human brain from birth onward. In effect, it shows that mirror neurons are contingent on (...)
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  17. Anna Christina Ribeiro, Do Mirror Neurons Support a Simulation Theory of Mind-Reading?score: 12.0
    Both macaque monkeys and humans have been shown to have what are called ‘mirror neurons’, a class of neurons that respond to goal-related motor-actions, both when these actions are performed by the subject and when they are performed by another individual observed by the subject. Gallese and Goldman (1998) contend that mirror neurons may be seen as ‘a part of, or a precursor to, a more general mind- reading ability’, and that of the two competing theories of mind-reading, mirror neurons (...)
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  18. Maxim I. Stamenov & Vittorio Gallese (eds.) (2002). Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Brain and Language. John Benjamins.score: 12.0
    Selected contributions to the symposium on "Mirror neurons and the evolution of brain and language" held on July 5-8, 2000 in Delmenhorst, Germany.
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  19. Sebo Uithol, Iris van Rooij, Harold Bekkering & Pim Haselager (2011). What Do Mirror Neurons Mirror? Philosophical Psychology 24 (5):607 - 623.score: 12.0
    Single cell recordings in monkeys provide strong evidence for an important role of the motor system in action understanding. This evidence is backed up by data from studies of the (human) mirror neuron system using neuroimaging or TMS techniques, and behavioral experiments. Although the data acquired from single cell recordings are generally considered to be robust, several debates have shown that the interpretation of these data is far from straightforward. We will show that research based on single-cell recordings allows for (...)
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  20. Corrado Sinigaglia (2008). Mirror Neurons: This is the Question. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (s 10-11):70-92.score: 12.0
    Despite the impressive body of evidence supporting the existence of a mirror neuron (MN) system for action, the original claim regarding its crucial role in action understanding remains controversial. Emma Borg has recently launched a sharp attack on this claim, with the aim of demonstrating that neither the original version nor the subsequent revisions of the MN hypothesis tell us very much about how intentional attribution actually works. In this article I take up the challenge she issues in the title (...)
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  21. Massimiliano Cappuccio (2009). Constructing the Space of Action: From Bio-Robotics to Mirror Neurons. World Futures 65 (2):126 – 132.score: 12.0
    This article distinguishes three archetypal ways of articulating spatial cognition: (1) via metric representation of objective geometry, (2) via somatosensory constitution of the peripersonal environment, and (3) via pragmatic comprehension of the finalistic sense of action. The last one is documented by neuroscientific studies concerning mirror neurons. Bio-robotic experiments implementing mirror functions confirm the constitutive role of goal-oriented actions in spatial processes.
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  22. Colin Allen, Macaque Mirror Neurons.score: 12.0
    Primatologists generally agree that monkeys lack higher-order intentional capacities related to theory of mind. Yet the discovery of the so-called “mirror neurons” in monkeys suggests to many neuroscientists that they have the rudiments of intentional understanding. Given a standard philosophical view about intentional understanding, which requires higher-order intentionality, a paradox arises. Different ways of resolving the paradox are assessed, using evidence from neural, cognitive, and behavioral studies of humans and monkeys. A decisive resolution to the paradox requires substantial additional empirical (...)
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  23. Vittorio Gallese & Christian Keysers (2001). Mirror Neurons: A Sensorimotor Representation System. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):983-984.score: 12.0
    Positing the importance of sensorimotor contingencies for perception is by no means denying the presence and importance of representations. Using the evidence of mirror neurons we will show the intrinsic relationship between action control and representation within the logic of forward models.
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  24. Marco Iacoboni (2008). Mesial Frontal Cortex and Super Mirror Neurons. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (1):30-30.score: 12.0
    Depth electrode recordings in the human mesial frontal cortex have revealed individual neurons with mirror properties. A third of these cells have excitatory properties during action execution and inhibitory properties during action observation. These cells provide the neural mechanism that implements the functions of layers 3+4 of the shared circuits model (SCM).
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  25. Giacomo Rizzolatti (1998). What Happened to Homo Habilis? (Language and Mirror Neurons). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):527-528.score: 12.0
    The evolutionary continuity between the prespeech functions of premotor cortex and its new linguistic functions, the main thesis of MacNeilage's target article, is confirmed by the recent discovery of “mirror” neurons in monkeys and a corresponding action-observation/action-execution matching system in humans. Physiological data (and other considerations) appear to indicate, however, that brachiomanual gestures played a greater role in language evolution than MacNeilage would like to admit.
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  26. Dr John R. Skoyles (2008). Why Our Brains Cherish Humanity: Mirror Neurons and Colamus Humanitatem. Cogprints.score: 12.0
    Commonsense says we are isolated. After all, our bodies are physically separate. But Seneca’s colamus humanitatem, and John Donne’s observation that “no man is an island” suggests we are neither entirely isolated nor separate. A recent discovery in neuroscience—that of mirror neurons—argues that the brain and the mind is neither built nor functions remote from what happens in other individuals. What are mirror neurons? They are brain cells that process both what happens to or is done by an individual, and, (...)
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  27. Kazuyuki Aihara & Jun Kyung Ryeu (2001). Chaotic Neurons and Analog Computation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):810-811.score: 12.0
    Chaotic dynamics can be related to analog computation. A possibility of electronically implementing the chaos-driven contracting system in the target article is explored with an analog electronic circuit with inevitable noise from the viewpoint of analog computation with chaotic neurons.
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  28. Benjamin Rathgeber & Mathias Gutmann (2008). What is Mirrored by Mirror Neurons? Poiesis and Praxis 5 (3-4):233-247.score: 12.0
    Mirror neurons are a particular class of visumotorical neurons, originally discovered in area F5 of the monkey premotorical cortex. They discharge both (1) when the animal performs a specific action and (2) when it observes a similar action. Actually, it is often assumed that this unique functioning could explain different abilities ranging from imitation behaviour to faculty of speech. In this article, we discuss the question what is meant by the expression: The neuron x mirrors the action y by perception (...)
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  29. Justin H. G. Williams, Andrew Whiten, Thomas Suddendorf & David I. Perrett (2001). Imitation, Mirror Neurons and Autism. Philosophical Explorations.score: 12.0
    Various deficits in the cognitive functioning of people with autism have been documented in recent years but these provide only partial explanations for the condition. We focus instead on an imitative disturbance involving difficulties both in copying actions and in inhibiting more stereotyped mimicking, such as echolalia. A candidate for the neural basis of this disturbance may be found in a recently discovered class of neurons in frontal cortex, 'mirror neurons' (MNs). These neurons show activity in relation both to specific (...)
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  30. Stuart Hameroff (1999). The Neuron Doctrine is an Insult to Neurons. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):838-839.score: 12.0
    As presently implemented, the neuron doctrine (ND) portrays the brain's neurons and chemical synapses as fundamental components in a computer-like switching circuit, supporting a view of brain = mind = computer. However, close examination reveals individual neurons to be far more complex than simple switches, with enormous capacity for intracellular information processing (e.g., in the internal cytoskeleton). Other poorly appreciated factors (gap junctions, apparent randomness, dendritic-dendritic processing, possible quantum computation, the living state) also suggest that the ND grossly oversimplifies neuronal (...)
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  31. V. S. Ramachandran, Apraxia, Metaphor and Mirror Neurons.score: 12.0
    Summary Ideomotor apraxia is a cognitive disorder in which the patient loses the ability to accurately perform learned, skilled actions. This is despite normal limb power and coordination. It has long been known that left supramarginal gyrus lesions cause bilateral upper limb apraxia and it was proposed that this area stored a visualkinaesthetic image of the skilled action, which was translated elsewhere in the brain into the pre-requisite movement formula. We hypothesise that, rather than these two functions occurring separately, both (...)
     
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  32. Stein Braten (2004). Hominin Infant Decentration Hypothesis: Mirror Neurons System Adapted to Subserve Mother-Centered Participation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):508-509.score: 12.0
    Falk's hominin mother-infant model presupposes an emerging infant capacity to perceive and learn from afforded gestures and vocalizations. Unlike back-riding offspring of other primates, who were in no need to decenter their own body-centered perspective, a mirror neurons system may have been adapted in hominin infants to subserve the kind of (m)other-centered mirroring we now see manifested by human infants soon after birth.
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  33. K. Moutoussis, Alexander Maier, Semir Zeki & Nikos K. Logothetis (2005). Seeing Invisible Motion: Responses of Area V5 Neurons in the Awake-Behaving Macaque. Soc. For Neurosci. Abstr 390 (11).score: 12.0
    Moutoussis, K., A. Maier, S. Zeki and N. K. Logothetis: Seeing invisible motion: responses of area V5 neurons in the awake-behaving macaque. Soc. for Neurosci. Abstr. 390.11, 1 (11 2005) Abstract.
     
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  34. Cecilia Heyes (forthcoming). Where Do Mirror Neurons Come From? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews.score: 12.0
    1. Properties of mirror neurons in monkeys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (...)
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  35. E. N. Miranda (1997). How Good Are Formal Neurons for Modelling Real Ones? Acta Biotheoretica 45 (2).score: 12.0
    A formal neuron has been studied mathematically. The spiking behaviour of a single neuron has been considered and the influence of the other neurons has been replaced by an average activity level. Four different kinds of spiking behaviour are predicted by the model: B (bursts), C (continuous), P (periodic) and S (silent) neurons and several real neurons can be classified within these four categories. Some properties of the spiking neuron are calculated: 1) the time between spikes, 2) the spike train (...)
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  36. Pierre Jacob (2009). A Philosopher's Reflections on the Discovery of Mirror Neurons. Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (3):570-595.score: 12.0
    Mirror neurons fire both when a primate executes a transitive action directed toward a target (e.g., grasping) and when he observes the same action performed by another. According to the prevalent interpretation, action-mirroring is a process of interpersonal neural similarity whereby an observer maps the agent's perceived movements onto her own motor repertoire. Furthermore, ever since Gallese and Goldman's (1998) influential paper, action-mirroring has been linked to third-person mindreading on the grounds that it enables an observer to represent the agent's (...)
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  37. Victoria Pitts‐Taylor (2013). I Feel Your Pain: Embodied Knowledges and Situated Neurons. Hypatia 28 (4):852-869.score: 12.0
    The widely touted discovery of mirror neurons has generated intense scientific interest in the neurobiology of intersubjectivity. Social neuroscientists have claimed that mirror neurons, located in brain regions associated with motor action, facial recognition, and somatosensory processing, allow us to automatically grasp other people's intentions and emotions. Despite controversies, mirror neuron research is animating materialist, affective, and embodied accounts of intersubjectivity. My view is that mirror neurons raise issues that are directly relevant to feminism and cultural studies, but interventions are (...)
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  38. Frank Julius Meye, Salvatore Lecca, Kristina Valentinova & Manuel Mameli (2013). Synaptic and Cellular Profile of Neurons in the Lateral Habenula. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:860.score: 12.0
    The lateral habenula (LHb) is emerging as a crucial structure capable of conveying rewarding and aversive information. Recent evidence indicates that a rapid increase in the activity of LHb neurons drives negative states and avoidance. Furthermore, the hyperexcitability of neurons in the lateral habenula, especially those projecting to the midbrain, may represent an important cellular correlate for neuropsychiatric disorders like depression and drug addiction. Despite the recent insights regarding the implications of the LHb in the context of reward and aversion, (...)
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  39. Christoph E. Schreiner (1998). Input Limitations for Cortical Combination-Sensitive Neurons Coding Stop-Consonants? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):284-284.score: 12.0
    A tendency of auditory cortical neurons to respond at the beginning of major transitions in sounds rather than providing a continuously updated spectral-temporal profile may impede the generation of combination-sensitivity for certain classes of stimuli. Potential consequences of the cortical encoding of voiced stop-consonants on representational principles derived from orderly output constraints are discussed.
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  40. Thomas J. Perrault Jr, Barry E. Stein & Benjamin A. Rowland (2011). Non-Stationarity in Multisensory Neurons in the Superior Colliculus. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 12.0
    The superior colliculus (SC) integrates information from multiple sensory modalities to facilitate the detection and localization of salient events. The efficacy of “multisensory integration” is traditionally measured by comparing the magnitude of the response elicited by a cross-modal stimulus to the responses elicited by its modality-specific component stimuli, and because there is an element of randomness in the system, these calculations are made using response values averaged over multiple stimulus presentations in an experiment. Recent evidence suggests that multisensory integration in (...)
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  41. Elizabeth Ann Simpson & Pier Francesco Ferrari (2013). Mirror Neurons Are Central for a Second-Person Neuroscience: Insights From Developmental Studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):438 - 438.score: 12.0
    Based on mirror neurons' properties, viewers are emotionally engaged when observing others infant interactions.
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  42. Loraine McCune (2002). Mirror Neurons' Registration of Biological Motion. In Maxim I. Stamenov & Vittorio Gallese (eds.), Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Brain and Language. John Benjamins. 42--315.score: 12.0
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  43. Jeremy E. Niven, Lars Chittka & Michael L. Anderson (2010). Reuse of Identified Neurons in Multiple Neural Circuits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):285.score: 12.0
    The growing recognition by cognitive neuroscientists that areas of vertebrate brains may be reused for multiple purposes either functionally during development or during evolution echoes a similar realization made by neuroscientists working on invertebrates. Because of these animals' relatively more accessible nervous systems, neuronal reuse can be examined at the level of individual identified neurons and fully characterized neural circuits.
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  44. Edda Weigand (2002). Dialogic Interaction Mirror Neurons and What They Tell. In Maxim I. Stamenov & Vittorio Gallese (eds.), Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Brain and Language. John Benjamins. 42--229.score: 12.0
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  45. Kenji Kawano Yasuko Sugase-Miyamoto, Narihisa Matsumoto (2011). Role of Temporal Processing Stages by Inferior Temporal Neurons in Facial Recognition. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 12.0
    In this review, we focus on the role of temporal stages of encoded facial information in the visual system, which might enable the efficient determination of species, identity, and expression. Facial recognition is an important function of our brain and is known to be processed in the ventral visual pathway, where visual signals are processed through areas V1, V2, V4, and the inferior temporal (IT) cortex. In the IT cortex, neurons show selective responses to complex visual images such as faces, (...)
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  46. Vittorio Gallese (2001). The 'Shared Manifold' Hypothesis: From Mirror Neurons to Empathy. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (5-7):33-50.score: 10.0
  47. Chris Eliasmith (2000). How Neurons Mean: A Neurocomputational Theory of Representational Content. Dissertation, Washington University in St. Louisscore: 10.0
    Questions concerning the nature of representation and what representations are about have been a staple of Western philosophy since Aristotle. Recently, these same questions have begun to concern neuroscientists, who have developed new techniques and theories for understanding how the locus of neurobiological representation, the brain, operates. My dissertation draws on philosophy and neuroscience to develop a novel theory of representational content.
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  48. Nancey C. Murphy (2007/2009). Did My Neurons Make Me Do It?: Philosophical and Neurobiological Perspectives on Moral Responsibility and Free Will. Oxford University Press.score: 10.0
    Introduction: New approaches to knotty old problems -- Avoiding Cartesian materialism -- From causal reductionism to self-directed systems -- From mindless to intelligent action -- How can neural nets mean? -- How does reason get its grip on the brain? -- Who's responsible? -- Neurobiological reductionism and free will.
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  49. Sunny Auyang, Are You Nothing but Genes or Neurons?score: 10.0
    All complex systems are complex, but some are more complex than others are. Biological systems are generally more complex than physical systems. How do biologists tackle complex systems? In this talk, we will consider two biological systems, the genome and the brain. Scientists know much about them, but much more remains unknown. Ignorance breeds philosophical speculation. Reductionism makes a strong showing here, as it does in other frontier sciences where large gaps remain in our understanding. I will show that reductionism (...)
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  50. Tara H. Abraham (2003). From Theory to Data: Representing Neurons in the 1940s. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 18 (3):415-426.score: 10.0
    Recent literature on the role of pictorial representation in the life sciences has focused on the relationship between detailed representations of empirical data and more abstract, formal representations of theory. The standard argument is that in both a historical and epistemic sense, this relationship is a directional one: beginning with raw, unmediated images and moving towards diagrams that are more interpreted and more theoretically rich. Using the neural network diagrams of Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts as a case study, I (...)
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