Search results for '*Threat' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  83
    Antonio Zadra, Sophie Desjardins & Éric Marcotte (2006). Evolutionary Function of Dreams: A Test of the Threat Simulation Theory in Recurrent Dreams. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):450-463.
    Revonsuo proposed an intriguing and detailed evolutionary theory of dreams which stipulates that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events and to rehearse threat avoidance behaviors. The goal of the present study was to test this theory using a sample of 212 recurrent dreams that was scored using a slightly expanded version of the DreamThreat rating scale. Six of the eight hypotheses tested were supported. Among the positive findings, 66% of the recurrent dream reports contained one or (...)
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  2.  89
    Antti Revonsuo & Katja Valli (2000). Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the Threat Simulation Theory of the Function of Dreaming. Psyche 6 (8).
    We tested the new threat simulation theory of the biological function of dreaming by analysing 592 dreams from 52 subjects with a rating scale developed for quantifying threatening events in dreams. The main predictions were that dreams contain more frequent and more severe threats than waking life does; that dream threats are realistic; and that they primarily threaten the Dream Self who tends to behave in a relevant defensive manner in response to them. These predictions were confirmed and the theory (...)
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  3.  38
    Rachel Mckinnon (2014). Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women. Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, we gain (...)
  4.  41
    Sophie Desjardins & Antonio Zadra (2006). Is the Threat Simulation Theory Threatened by Recurrent Dreams? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):470-474.
    Zadra, Desjardins, and Marcotte tested several predictions derived from the Threat Simulation Theory of dreaming in a large sample of recurrent dreams. In response to these findings, Valli and Revonsuo presented a commentary outlining alternate conceptualizations and explanations for the results obtained. We argue that many points raised by Valli and Revonsuo do not accurately reflect our main findings and at times present a biased assessment of the data. In this article, we provide necessary clarifications and responses to each one (...)
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  5. Katja Valli & Antti Revonsuo (2006). Recurrent Dreams: Recurring Threat Simulations? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):464-469.
  6.  48
    Mark Alfano (forthcoming). Stereotype Threat and Intellectual Virtue. In Owen Flanagan & Abrol Fairweather (eds.), Naturalizing Virtue. Cambridge University Press
  7.  9
    Jenny Wikström, Lars-Gunnar Lundh & Joakim Westerlund (2003). Stroop Effects for Masked Threat Words: Pre-Attentive Bias or Selective Awareness? Cognition and Emotion 17 (6):827-842.
  8.  18
    Caroline Hunt, Edmund Keogh & Christopher C. French (2006). Anxiety Sensitivity: The Role of Conscious Awareness and Selective Attentional Bias to Physical Threat. Emotion 6 (3):418-428.
  9.  5
    Robert E. Murphy (1959). Effects of Threat of Shock, Distraction, and Task Design on Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (2):134.
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  10.  13
    Thomas Suslow, Patricia Ohrmann, Jochen Bauer, Astrid V. Rauch, Wolfram Schwindt, Volker Arolt, Walter Heindel & Harald Kugel (2006). Amygdala Activation During Masked Presentation of Emotional Faces Predicts Conscious Detection of Threat-Related Faces. Brain and Cognition 61 (3):243-248.
  11.  2
    Karine Charry, Patrick De Pelsmacker & Claude L. Pecheux (2014). How Does Perceived Effectiveness Affect Adults’ Ethical Acceptance of Anti-Obesity Threat Appeals to Children? When the Going Gets Tough, the Audience Gets Going. Journal of Business Ethics 124 (2):243-257.
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  12.  0
    Walter D. Fenz, Brain L. Kluck & C. Peter Bankart (1969). Effect of Threat and Uncertainty on Mastery of Stress. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (3p1):473.
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  13.  0
    Charles D. Spielberger, Larry D. Southard & William F. Hodges (1966). Effects of Awareness and Threat of Shock on Verbal Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (3):434.
  14.  5
    Russell L. Christopher (2013). The Contrived Defense and Deterrent Threat Doctrines: A Reply to Professors Finkelstein & Katz. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy 7 (3):629-636.
    What is the relationship between the permissibility/impermissibility of the part and the permissibility/impermissibility of the whole? Does the moral or legal status of a constituent part of an actor’s course of conduct govern the status of the actor’s whole course of conduct or, conversely, does the moral and legal status of the actor’s whole course of conduct govern the status of the constituent parts? This broader issue is examined in the more specific contexts of the contrived defense and deterrent threat (...)
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  15.  26
    Michael Fuerstein (2015). Contesting the Market: An Assessment of Capitalism's Threat to Democracy. In Subramanian Rangan (ed.), Performance and Progress: Essays on Capitalism, Business, and Society. Oxford University Press
    I argue that capitalism presents a threat to “democratic contestation”: the egalitarian, socially distributed capacity to affect how, why, and whether power is used. Markets are not susceptible to mechanisms of accountability, nor are they bearers of intentions in the way that political power-holders are. This makes them resistant to the kind of rational, intentional oversight that constitutes one of democracy’s social virtues. I identify four social costs associated with this problem: the vulnerability of citizens to arbitrary interference, the insensitivity (...)
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  16. Andrew Chignell (2012). Kant, Real Possibility, and the Threat of Spinoza. Mind 121 (483):635-675.
    In the first part of the paper I reconstruct Kant’s proof of the existence of a ‘most real being’ while also highlighting the theory of modality that motivates Kant’s departure from Leibniz’s version of the proof. I go on to argue that it is precisely this departure that makes the being that falls out of the pre-critical proof look more like Spinoza’s extended natura naturans than an independent, personal creator-God. In the critical period, Kant seems to think that transcendental idealism (...)
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  17. Wayne Wu (2013). Mental Action and the Threat of Automaticity. In Andy Clark, Julian Kiverstein & Tillman Vierkant (eds.), Decomposing the Will. Oxford University Press 244-61.
    This paper considers the connection between automaticity, control and agency. Indeed, recent philosophical and psychological works play up the incompatibility of automaticity and agency. Specifically, there is a threat of automaticity, for automaticity eliminates agency. Such conclusions stem from a tension between two thoughts: that automaticity pervades agency and yet automaticity rules out control. I provide an analysis of the notions of automaticity and control that maintains a simple connection: automaticity entails the absence of control. An appropriate analysis, however, shows (...)
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  18.  3
    Gina Schouten (2015). The Stereotype Threat Hypothesis: An Assessment From the Philosopher's Armchair, for the Philosopher's Classroom. Hypatia 30 (2):450-466.
    According to Stereotype Threat Hypothesis, fear of confirming gendered stereotypes causes women to experience anxiety in circumstances wherein their performance might potentially confirm those stereotypes, such as high-stakes testing scenarios in science, technology, engineering, and math courses. This anxiety causes women to underperform, which in turn causes them to withdraw from math-intensive disciplines. STH is thought by many to account for the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields, and a growing body of evidence substantiates this hypothesis. In considering the plausibility (...)
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  19.  29
    Kimberly Brewer & Eric Watkins (2012). A Difficulty Still Awaits: Kant, Spinoza, and the Threat of Theological Determinism. Kant-Studien 103 (2):163-187.
    In a short and much-neglected passage in the second Critique, Kant discusses the threat posed to human freedom by theological determinism. In this paper we present an interpretation of Kant’s conception of and response to this threat. Regarding his conception, we argue that he addresses two versions of the threat: either God causes appearances (and hence our spatio-temporal actions) directly or he does so indirectly by causing things in themselves which in turn cause appearances. Kant’s response to the first version (...)
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  20.  37
    Theodore Sider (2014). Outscoping and Discourse Threat. Inquiry 57 (4):413-426.
    Sometimes we give truth-conditions for sentences of a discourse in other terms. According to Agustín Rayo, when doing so it is sometimes legitimate to use the terms of that very discourse, so long as the terms do not occur in the truth-conditions themselves. I argue that giving truth-conditions in this "outscoping" way prevents one from answering "discourse threat" (for example, the threat of indeterminacy).
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  21. B. Sharon Byrd (1989). Kant's Theory of Punishment: Deterrence in its Threat, Retribution in its Execution. [REVIEW] Law and Philosophy 8 (2):151 - 200.
    Kant's theory of punishment is commonly regarded as purely retributive in nature, and indeed much of his discourse seems to support that interpretation. Still, it leaves one with certain misgivings regarding the internal consistency of his position. Perhaps the problem lies not in Kant's inconsistency nor in the senility sometimes claimed to be apparent in the Metaphysic of Morals, but rather in a superimposed, modern yet monistic view of punishment. Historical considerations tend to show that Kant was discussing not one, (...)
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  22.  4
    Jennifer Cole Wright & Galen L. Baril (2013). Understanding the Role of Dispositional and Situational Threat Sensitivity in Our Moral Judgments. Journal of Moral Education 42 (3):383-397.
    Previous research has identified different moral judgments in liberals and conservatives. While both care about harm/fairness (?individualizing? foundations), conservatives emphasize in-group/authority/purity (?binding? foundations) more than liberals. Thus, some argue that conservatives have a more complex morality. We suggest an alternative view?that consistent with conservatism as ?motivated social cognition?, binding foundation activation satisfies psychological needs for social structure/security/certainty. Accordingly, we found that students who were dispositionally threat-sensitive showed stronger binding foundation activation, and that conservatives are more dispositionally threat-sensitive than liberals. We (...)
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  23.  3
    Richard Coker, Marianna Thomas, Karen Lock & Robyn Martin (2007). Detention and the Evolving Threat of Tuberculosis: Evidence, Ethics, and Law. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 35 (4):609-615.
    The issue of detention as a public health control measure has attracted attention recently. This is because the threat of strains of tuberculosis that are resistant to a wider range of drugs has been identified, and there is renewed concern that public health is threatened. This paper considers whether involuntary detention is justified where voluntary measures have failed or where a patient poses a danger, albeit uncertain, to the public. We discuss the need for strengthening evidence-based assessments of public health (...)
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  24.  16
    K. Valli, A. Revonsuo, O. Palkas, K. Ismail, K. Ali & R. Punamaki (2005). The Threat Simulation Theory of the Evolutionary Function of Dreaming: Evidence From Dreams of Traumatized Children. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):188-218.
    The threat simulation theory of dreaming states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from TST is that real threatening events encountered by the individual during wakefulness should lead to an increased activation of the system, a threat simulation (...)
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  25.  19
    H. Sterling Burnett (2009). Understanding the Precautionary Principle and its Threat to Human Welfare. Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):378-410.
    Over the past three decades, the Precautionary Principle (PP) has become popular in discussions of public policy, especially in relation to health and environmental policy. Though there are a number of different versions of the principle, the genesis of the idea is that it is better to be safe than sorry. In terms of public policy, proponents of the PP argue that being safe means that, if there is a possibility of harm from a new activity or novel technology, even (...)
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  26.  68
    Michael E. Mann (2009). Do Global Warming and Climate Change Represent a Serious Threat to Our Welfare and Environment? Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):193-230.
    The science underlying global warming, climate change, and the connections between these phenomena are reviewed. Projected future climate changes under various plausible scenarios of future human behavior are explored, as are the potential impacts of projected climate changes on society, ecosystems, and our environment. The economic, security, and ethical considerations relevant to determining the threat posed by climate change are subsequently assessed. The article then discusses the various means available for climate change mitigation, focusing on the relative strengths and weaknesses (...)
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  27.  17
    David Friedman, Bracha Rager-Zisman, Eitan Bibi & Alex Keynan (2010). The Bioterrorism Threat and Dual-Use Biotechnological Research: An Israeli Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):85-97.
    Israel has a long history of concern with chemical and biological threats, since several hostile states in the Middle East are likely to possess such weapons. The Twin-Tower terrorist attacks and Anthrax envelope scares of 2001 were a watershed for public perceptions of the threat of unconventional terror in general and of biological terror in particular. New advances in biotechnology will only increase the ability of terrorists to exploit the burgeoning availability of related information to develop ever-more destructive bioweapons. Many (...)
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  28.  41
    Matthew Beard (2013). Risking Aggression: Toleration of Threat and Preventive War. Heythrop Journal 54 (5):n/a-n/a.
    Generally speaking, just war theory (JWT) holds that there are two just causes for war: self-defence and ‘other-defence’. The most common type of the latter is popularly known as ‘humanitarian intervention’. There is debate, however, as to whether these can serve as just causes for preventive war. Those who subscribe to JWT tend to be unified in treating so-called preventive war with a high degree of suspicion on the grounds that it fails to satisfy conventional criteria for jus ad bello; (...)
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  29.  1
    George E. Marcus (2008). Different Situations, Different Responses: Threat, Partisanship, Risk, and Deliberation. Critical Review 20 (1-2):75-89.
    The theory of affective intelligence dichotomizes challenging situations into threatening and risky ones. When people perceive a familiar threat, they tend to be dogmatic and partisan, since they are mobilizing decisive action based on habitual behaviors and nearly instinctual perceptions that have proved their worth in similar situations. When facing a novel risk, however, people tend to become more open‐minded and deliberative, since old solutions do not apply. An experiment with students' reactions to challenges to their opinions about a divisive (...)
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  30.  5
    S. MalcolmSmith, M. SolMs, O. Turnbull & C. Tredoux (2008). Threat in Dreams: An Adaptation? Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1281-1291.
    Revonsuo’s influential Threat Simulation Theory predicts that people exposed to survival threats will have more threat dreams, and evince enhanced responses to dream threats, compared to those living in relatively safe conditions. Participants in a high crime area differed significantly from participants in a low crime area in having greater recent exposure to a life-threatening event . Contrary to TST’s predictions, the SA participants reported significantly fewer threat dreams , and did not differ from the Welsh participants in responses to (...)
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  31.  7
    Jordan B. Peterson & Colin G. DeYoung (2000). Metaphoric Threat is More Real Than Real Threat. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):992-993.
    Dreams represent threat, but appear to do so metaphorically more often than realistically. The metaphoric representation of threat allows it to be conceptualized in a manner that is constant across situations (as what is common to all threats begins to be understood and portrayed). This also means that response to threat can come to be represented in some way that works across situations. Conscious access to dream imagery, and subsequent social communication of that imagery, can facilitate this generalized adaptive process, (...)
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  32.  0
    A. Revonsuo & K. Valli (2008). How to Test the Threat-Simulation Theory☆. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1292-1296.
    Malcolm-Smith, Solms, Turnbull and Tredoux [Malcolm-Smith, S., Solms, M.,Turnbull, O., & Tredoux, C. . Threat in dreams: An adaptation? Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1281–1291.] have made an attempt to test the Threat-Simulation Theory , a theory offering an evolutionary psychological explanation for the function of dreaming [Revonsuo, A. . The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 877–901]. Malcolm-Smith et al. argue that empirical evidence from their own study as well as (...)
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  33.  7
    S. Windmann & T. Kruger (1998). Subconscious Detection of Threat as Reflected by an Enhanced Response Bias. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (4):603-633.
    Neurobiological and cognitive models of unconscious information processing suggest that subconscious threat detection can lead to cognitive misinterpretations and false alarms, while conscious processing is assumed to be perceptually and conceptually accurate and unambiguous. Furthermore, clinical theories suggest that pathological anxiety results from a crude preattentive warning system predominating over more sophisticated and controlled modes of processing. We investigated the hypothesis that subconscious detection of threat in a cognitive task is reflected by enhanced ''false signal'' detection rather than by selectively (...)
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  34.  17
    Paul Henry Lysaker, Jason K. Johannesen & John Timothy Lysaker (2005). Schizophrenia and the Experience of Intersubjectivity as Threat. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4 (3):335-352.
    Many with schizophrenia find social interactions a profound and terrifying threat to their sense of self. To better understand this we draw upon dialogical models of the self that suggest that those with schizophrenia have difficulty sustaining dialogues among diverse aspects of self. Because interpersonal exchanges solicit and evoke movement among diverse aspects of self, many with schizophrenia may consequently find those exchanges overwhelming, resulting in despair, the sensation of fusion with another, and/or self-dissolution. In short, compromised dialogical capacities may (...)
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  35.  5
    Randolph Sloof (2004). Finite Horizon Bargaining With Outside Options And Threat Points. Theory and Decision 57 (2):109-142.
    We characterize equilibrium behavior in a finite horizon multiple-pie alternating offer bargaining game in which both agents have outside options and threat points. In contrast to the infinite horizon case the strength of the threat to delay agreement is non-stationary and decreases over time. Typically the delay threat determines equilibrium proposals in early periods, while the threat to opt out characterizes those in later ones. Owing to this non-stationarity both threats may appear in the equilibrium shares immediately agreed upon in (...)
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  36.  30
    Matthew Rendall (2011). Climate Change and the Threat of Disaster: The Moral Case for Taking Out Insurance at Our Grandchildren's Expense. Political Studies 59 (4):884-99.
    Is drastic action against global warming essential to avoid impoverishing our descendants? Or does it mean robbing the poor to give to the rich? We do not yet know. Yet most of us can agree on the importance of minimising expected deprivation. Because of the vast number of future generations, if there is any significant risk of catastrophe, this implies drastic and expensive carbon abatement unless we discount the future. I argue that we should not discount. Instead, the rich countries (...)
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  37.  11
    U. Beck (2002). The Terrorist Threat: World Risk Society Revisited. Theory, Culture and Society 19 (4):39-55.
    This article differentiates between three different axes of conflict in world risk society. The first axis is that of ecological conflicts, which are by their very essence global. The second is global financial crises, which, in a first stage, can be individualized and nationalized. And the third, which suddenly broke upon us on September 11th, is the threat of transnational terror networks, which empowers governments and states. Two sets of implications are drawn: first, there are the political dynamics of world (...)
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  38.  18
    T. L. Short (2013). Peirce and the Threat of Nominalism by Paul Forster. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 48 (3):385-387.
    This book is remarkable for what it does not do. It purports to be about Peirce's opposition to nominalism, but it never states clearly what nominalism is and says little about Peirce's realist alternative. It contains no historical discussion of nominalism and thus does not explain the relation of Peirce's idiosyncratic use of that term to its original meaning. It ignores the secondary literature on that topic and does not even list Rosa Mayorga's highly relevant 2007 book, From Realism to (...)
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  39.  43
    Thomas Nys (2009). Autonomy Under Threat: A Revised Frankfurtian Account. Philosophical Explorations 12 (1):3 – 17.
    In the early 1970s Harry Frankfurt argued that so-called 'coercive threats' cause a violation of their victim's autonomy, thereby excluding him from moral responsibility. A person is therefore not responsible for doing what he is forced to do. Although this seems correct on an intuitive level, I will use Frankfurt's later vocabulary of 'care' and 'love' in order to show that threats essentially involve an abuse of a person's autonomy instead of an infringement or violation thereof. Still, if we want (...)
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  40.  40
    Anne Germain, Tore A. Nielsen, Antonio Zadra & Jacques Montplaisir (2000). The Prevalence of Typical Dream Themes Challenges the Specificity of the Threat Simulation Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):940-941.
    The evolutionary theory of threat simulation during dreaming indicates that themes appropriate to ancestral survival concerns (threats) should be disproportionately represented in dreams. Our studies of typical dream themes in students and sleep-disordered patients indicate that threatening dreams involving chase and pursuit are indeed among the three most prevalent themes, thus supporting Revonsuo's theory. However, many of the most prevalent themes are of positive, not negative, events (e.g., sex, flying) and of current, not ancestral, threat scenarios (e.g., schoolwork). Moreover, many (...)
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  41.  2
    Cristiano Castelfranchi & Marco Guerini (2007). Is It a Promise or a Threat? Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):277-311.
    In this paper we analyse the concepts of Promise and Threat and their inter-relations. Our objective is to study the uses of P and T in persuasion and to shed some light on related concepts such as requesting, ordering, giving prizes, punishing, etc. First, we show that some Ps and Ts are used for persuasion and some are conditional in nature. Using general definitions of P and T and a broad notion of persuasion, four different typologies of P and T (...)
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  42.  23
    A. Zadra & D. C. Donderi (2000). Threat Perceptions and Avoidance in Recurrent Dreams. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1017-1018.
    Revonsuo argues that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events and to rehearse threat avoidance behaviors. He views recurrent dreams as an example of this function. We present data and clinical observations suggesting that (1) many types of recurrent dreams do not include threat perceptions; (2) the nature of the threat perceptions that do occur in recurrent dreams are not always realistic; and (3) successful avoidance responses are absent from most recurrent dreams and possibly nightmares. [Hobson et (...)
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  43.  4
    Jeffrey Paris (2008). Abolition Democracy and the Ultimate Carceral Threat. Radical Philosophy Today 5:237-247.
    The series of conversations between Angela Y. Davis and Eduardo Mendieta entitled Abolition Democracy is a powerful investigation of the failed moral imagination of imperial democracies. After examining their discussion of how truncated political discourses enable abuses in both war and imprisonment, I look to the “exceptional” status of war prisons such as at Guantánamo and Abu Ghraib. I argue that domestic prisons, like international war prisons, are means for the paradigmatic functioning of the exception in modern democracy, as described (...)
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  44.  4
    Ulrich W. Weger, Nic Hooper, Brian P. Meier & Tim Hopthrow (2012). Mindful Maths: Reducing the Impact of Stereotype Threat Through a Mindfulness Exercise. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):471-475.
    Individuals who experience stereotype threat – the pressure resulting from social comparisons that are perceived as unfavourable – show performance decrements across a wide range of tasks. One account of this effect is that the cognitive pressure triggered by such threat drains the same cognitive resources that are implicated in the respective task. The present study investigates whether mindfulness can be used to moderate stereotype threat, as mindfulness has previously been shown to alleviate working-memory load. Our results show that performance (...)
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  45.  11
    Jeffrey Paris (2007). 13. Abolition Democracy and the Ultimate Carceral Threat. Radical Philosophy Today 2007:237-247.
    The series of conversations between Angela Y. Davis and Eduardo Mendieta entitled Abolition Democracy is a powerful investigation of the failed moral imagination of imperial democracies. After examining their discussion of how truncated political discourses enable abuses in both war and imprisonment, I look to the “exceptional” status of war prisons such as at Guantánamo and Abu Ghraib. I argue that domestic prisons, like international war prisons, are means for the paradigmatic functioning of the exception in modern democracy, as described (...)
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  46.  10
    Brian Locke (1998). “Top Dog,” “Black Threat,” and “Japanese Cats”: The Impact of the White-Black Binary on Asian-American Identity. Radical Philosophy Review 1 (2):98-125.
    This essay is a reading of two Hollywood films: The Defiant Ones (1958, directed by Stanley Kramer, starring Tony Curtis and Sidney Poitier) and Rising Sun (1993, directed by Philip Kauffman starring Wesley Snipes and Sean Connery, based on the Michael Crichton novel of the same name). The essay argues that these films work to contain black demand for social and political equality not through exclusionary measures, but rather through deliberate acknowledgment of blackness as integral to US identity. My reading (...)
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  47.  3
    Erin Gallagher-Cohoon (2013). “Illegal Loves and Sexual Deviancy: Homosexuality as a Threat in Cold War Canada”. Constellations 4 (2).
    This paper analyzes the criminalization and medicalization of homosexuality during the early twentieth century in Canada. Through court records and medical texts the discourse of homosexuality as a threat to the family unit and to the nation is contextualized within Cold War rhetoric. A Foucaultian conceptualization of power and discipline helps frame questions regarding homosexuality as a criminal offense and as a mental illness. It is argued that both state control and societal pressures constructed the homosexual as criminal, the homosexual (...)
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  48.  8
    Ajit Narayanan (2013). Society Under Threat… but Not From AI. AI and Society 28 (1):87-94.
    25 years ago, when AI & Society was launched, the emphasis was, and still is, on dehumanisation and the effects of technology on human life, including reliance on technology. What we forgot to take into account was another very great danger to humans. The pervasiveness of computer technology, without appropriate security safeguards, dehumanises us by allowing criminals to steal not just our money but also our confidential and private data at will. Also, denial-of-service attacks prevent us from accessing the information (...)
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  49.  1
    Lisa M. Rasmussen (2009). Problems with Minimal-Risk Research Oversight: A Threat to Academic Freedom? IRB: Ethics & Human Research 31 (3):11.
    A subcommittee of the American Association of University Professors has published a report, “Research on Human Subjects: Academic Freedom and the Institutional Review Board” , which argues that institutional review board oversight may pose a threat to academic freedom, and that a different oversight model based on departmental review would both maintain subject protection and eliminate the threat. But the report does not demonstrate that IRBs pose a threat to academic freedom, and using departmental oversight may not sufficiently protect human (...)
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  50.  1
    H. Sterling Burnett (2009). Understanding the Precautionary Principle and its Threat to Human Welfare. Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):378-410.
    Over the past three decades, the Precautionary Principle has become popular in discussions of public policy, especially in relation to health and environmental policy. Though there are a number of different versions of the principle, the genesis of the idea is that it is better to be safe than sorry. In terms of public policy, proponents of the PP argue that being safe means that, if there is a possibility of harm from a new activity or novel technology, even if (...)
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