Search results for '*Threat' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Rachel Mckinnon (2014). Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women. Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.score: 24.0
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, we gain (...)
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  2. [deleted]G. Colton, E. D. Leshikar & A. H. Gutchess (2012). Age Differences in Neural Response to Stereotype Threat and Resiliency for Self-Referenced Information. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:537-537.score: 24.0
    To investigate the contribution of cortical midline regions to stereotype threat and resiliency, we compared age groups in an event-related functional MRI study. During scanning, seventeen younger and sixteen older adults judged whether words stereotypical of aging and control words described them. Judging stereotype words versus control words revealed higher activations in posterior midline regions associated with self-referencing, including the precuneus, for older adults compared to younger adults. While heightening salience of stereotypes can evoke a threat response, detrimentally affecting performance, (...)
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  3. Thad A. Polk Agnes J. Jasinska, S. Shaun Ho, Stephan F. Taylor, Margit Burmeister, Sandra Villafuerte (2012). Influence of Threat and Serotonin Transporter Genotype on Interference Effects. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Emotion-cognition interactions are critical in goal-directed behavior and may be disrupted in psychopathology. Growing evidence also suggests that emotion-cognition interactions are modulated by genetic variation, including genetic variation in the serotonin system. The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of threat-related distracters and serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR/rs25531) on cognitive task performance in healthy females. Using a novel threat-distracter version of the Multiple-Source Interference Task specifically designed to probe emotion-cognition interactions, we demonstrate a robust and temporally (...)
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  4. Bernhard Hommel Ke Ma (2013). The Virtual-Hand Illusion: Effects of Impact and Threat on Perceived Ownership and Affective Resonance. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    The rubber hand illusion refers to the observation that participants perceive “body ownership” for a rubber hand if it moves, or is stroked in synchrony with the participant’s real (covered) hand. Research indicates that events targeting artificial body parts can trigger affective responses (affective resonance) only with perceived body ownership, while neuroscientific findings suggest affective resonance irrespective of ownership (e.g., when observing other individuals under threat). We hypothesized that this may depend on the severity of the event. We first replicated (...)
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  5. Rui F. Oliveira, Gonçalo A. Oliveira, Sara Uceda, Tania F. De Oliveira, Alexandre Fernandes & Teresa Garcia-Marques (2013). Threat Perception and Familiarity Moderate the Androgen Response to Competition in Women. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Social interactions elicit androgen responses whose function has been posited to be the adjustment of androgen dependent behaviors to social context. The activation of this androgen response is known to be mediated and moderated by psychological factors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the testosterone (T) changes after a competition are not simply related to its outcome, but rather to the way the subject evaluates the event. In particular we tested two evaluative dimensions of a social interaction: familiarity (...)
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  6. Claus Vögele, Oliver Christ & Heike Spaderna (2012). Cardiac Threat Appraisal and Depression After First Myocardial Infarction. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The present study investigated cardiac threat appraisal and its association with depression after first myocardial infarction (MI). A semi-structured interview allowing for DSM-IV-Axis I diagnoses was administered to 36 patients after first MI. Patients completed self-reports 5 to 15 days after the MI (time 1), 6 to 8 weeks later (time 2) and again 6 months later (time 3). Assessments at time 1 included indices of cardiac threat appraisal, locus of control, coping, and depression while at time 2 and time (...)
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  7. Liga MSc Klavina, Abraham P. Buunk & Thomas V. Pollet (2011). Out-Group Mating Threat and Disease Threat Increase Implicit Negative Attitudes Toward the Out-Group Among Men. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    We investigated if perceiving an out-group as a threat to one’s mating opportunities enhanced the implicit negative attitudes towards that out-group. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of disease threat on the relationship between an out-group mating threat and implicit negative attitudes toward an out-group. In Experiment 1, an out-group mating threat led to stronger implicit negative out-group attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test, but only for men with high chronic perceived vulnerability to disease. No such effects (...)
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  8. [deleted]Christian Grillon Oliver J. Robinson, Katherine Vytal, Brian R. Cornwell (2013). The Impact of Anxiety Upon Cognition: Perspectives From Human Threat of Shock Studies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Anxiety disorders constitute a sizeable worldwide health burden with profound social and economic consequences. The symptoms are wide-ranging; from hyperarousal to difficulties with concentrating. This latter effect falls under the broad category of altered cognitive performance; in this review we examine studies quantifying such impacts of anxiety on cognition. Specifically, we focus on the translational threat of unpredictable shock paradigm, a method previously used to characterize emotional responses and defensive mechanisms that is now emerging as valuable tool for examining the (...)
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  9. Katja Valli & Antti Revonsuo (2006). Recurrent Dreams: Recurring Threat Simulations? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):464-469.score: 21.0
  10. Antti Revonsuo & Katja Valli (2000). Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the Threat Simulation Theory of the Function of Dreaming. Psyche 6 (8).score: 21.0
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  11. Antonio Zadra, Sophie Desjardins & Éric Marcotte (2006). Evolutionary Function of Dreams: A Test of the Threat Simulation Theory in Recurrent Dreams. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):450-463.score: 21.0
  12. Sophie Desjardins & Antonio Zadra (2006). Is the Threat Simulation Theory Threatened by Recurrent Dreams? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):470-474.score: 21.0
  13. Mark Alfano (forthcoming). Stereotype Threat and Intellectual Virtue. In Owen Flanagan & Abrol Fairweather (eds.), Naturalizing Virtue. Cambridge University Press.score: 21.0
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  14. Caroline Hunt, Edmund Keogh & Christopher C. French (2006). Anxiety Sensitivity: The Role of Conscious Awareness and Selective Attentional Bias to Physical Threat. Emotion 6 (3):418-428.score: 21.0
  15. Thomas Suslow, Patricia Ohrmann, Jochen Bauer, Astrid V. Rauch, Wolfram Schwindt, Volker Arolt, Walter Heindel & Harald Kugel (2006). Amygdala Activation During Masked Presentation of Emotional Faces Predicts Conscious Detection of Threat-Related Faces. Brain and Cognition 61 (3):243-248.score: 21.0
  16. Jenny Wikström, Lars-Gunnar Lundh & Joakim Westerlund (2003). Stroop Effects for Masked Threat Words: Pre-Attentive Bias or Selective Awareness? Cognition and Emotion 17 (6):827-842.score: 21.0
  17. Robert E. Murphy (1959). Effects of Threat of Shock, Distraction, and Task Design on Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (2):134.score: 21.0
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  18. Bernhard Hommel Henk van Steenbergen, Guido P. H. Band (2011). Threat But Not Arousal Narrows Attention: Evidence From Pupil Dilation and Saccade Control. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 21.0
    It has been shown that negative affect causes attentional narrowing. According to Easterbrook’s (1959) influential hypothesis this effect is driven by the withdrawal motivation inherent to negative emotions and might be related to increases in arousal. We investigated whether valence-unspecific increases in physiological arousal, as measured by pupil dilation, could account for attentional narrowing effects in a cognitive control task. Following the presentation of a negative, positive, or neutral picture, participants performed a saccade task with a prosaccade versus an antisaccade (...)
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  19. Karine Charry, Patrick Pelsmacker & Claude L. Pecheux (forthcoming). How Does Perceived Effectiveness Affect Adults' Ethical Acceptance of Anti-Obesity Threat Appeals to Children? When the Going Gets Tough, the Audience Gets Going. Journal of Business Ethics.score: 21.0
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  20. [deleted]Raja Parasuraman & Scott Galster (2013). Sensing, Assessing, and Augmenting Threat Detection: Behavioral, Neuroimaging, and Brain Stimulation Evidence for the Critical Role of Attention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  21. [deleted]Robert Clarke & Tom Johnstone (2013). Prefrontal Inhibition of Threat Processing Reduces Working Memory Interference. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  22. Walter D. Fenz, Brain L. Kluck & C. Peter Bankart (1969). Effect of Threat and Uncertainty on Mastery of Stress. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (3p1):473.score: 21.0
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  23. [deleted]Orlando Fernandes, Liana C. L. Portugal, Rita C. S. Alves, Rafaela R. Campagnoli, Izabela Mocaiber, Isabel P. A. David, Fátima C. S. Erthal, Eliane Volchan, Leticia de Oliveira & Mirtes G. Pereira (2013). How You Perceive Threat Determines Your Behavior. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  24. [deleted]Mariska Esther Kret, Swann Pichon, Julie Grèzes & Beatrice de Gelder (2011). Men Fear Other Men Most: Gender Specific Brain Activations in Perceiving Threat From Dynamic Faces and Bodies – An fMRI Study. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 21.0
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  25. [deleted]Erin L. Maresh, Lane Beckes & James A. Coan (2013). The Social Regulation of Threat-Related Attentional Disengagement in Highly Anxious Individuals. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  26. [deleted]Elske Salemink, Malte Friese, Emily Drake, Bundy Mackintosh & Laura Hoppitt (2013). Indicators of Implicit and Explicit Social Anxiety Influence Threat-Related Interpretive Bias as a Function of Working Memory Capacity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  27. Charles D. Spielberger, Larry D. Southard & William F. Hodges (1966). Effects of Awareness and Threat of Shock on Verbal Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (3):434.score: 21.0
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  28. Russell L. Christopher (2013). The Contrived Defense and Deterrent Threat Doctrines: A Reply to Professors Finkelstein & Katz. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy 7 (3):629-636.score: 20.0
    What is the relationship between the permissibility/impermissibility of the part and the permissibility/impermissibility of the whole? Does the moral or legal status of a constituent part of an actor’s course of conduct govern the status of the actor’s whole course of conduct or, conversely, does the moral and legal status of the actor’s whole course of conduct govern the status of the constituent parts? This broader issue is examined in the more specific contexts of the contrived defense and deterrent threat (...)
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  29. Andrew Chignell (2012). Kant, Real Possibility, and the Threat of Spinoza. Mind 121 (483):635-675.score: 18.0
    In the first part of the paper I reconstruct Kant’s proof of the existence of a ‘most real being’ while also highlighting the theory of modality that motivates Kant’s departure from Leibniz’s version of the proof. I go on to argue that it is precisely this departure that makes the being that falls out of the pre-critical proof look more like Spinoza’s extended natura naturans than an independent, personal creator-God. In the critical period, Kant seems to think that transcendental idealism (...)
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  30. Wayne Wu (2013). Mental Action and the Threat of Automaticity. In Andy Clark, Julian Kiverstein & Tillman Vierkant (eds.), Decomposing the Will. Oxford University Press. 244-61.score: 18.0
    This paper considers the connection between automaticity, control and agency. Indeed, recent philosophical and psychological works play up the incompatibility of automaticity and agency. Specifically, there is a threat of automaticity, for automaticity eliminates agency. Such conclusions stem from a tension between two thoughts: that automaticity pervades agency and yet automaticity rules out control. I provide an analysis of the notions of automaticity and control that maintains a simple connection: automaticity entails the absence of control. An appropriate analysis, however, shows (...)
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  31. B. Sharon Byrd (1989). Kant's Theory of Punishment: Deterrence in its Threat, Retribution in its Execution. [REVIEW] Law and Philosophy 8 (2):151 - 200.score: 18.0
    Kant's theory of punishment is commonly regarded as purely retributive in nature, and indeed much of his discourse seems to support that interpretation. Still, it leaves one with certain misgivings regarding the internal consistency of his position. Perhaps the problem lies not in Kant's inconsistency nor in the senility sometimes claimed to be apparent in the Metaphysic of Morals, but rather in a superimposed, modern yet monistic view of punishment. Historical considerations tend to show that Kant was discussing not one, (...)
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  32. Michael E. Mann (2009). Do Global Warming and Climate Change Represent a Serious Threat to Our Welfare and Environment? Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):193-230.score: 18.0
    The science underlying global warming, climate change, and the connections between these phenomena are reviewed. Projected future climate changes under various plausible scenarios of future human behavior are explored, as are the potential impacts of projected climate changes on society, ecosystems, and our environment. The economic, security, and ethical considerations relevant to determining the threat posed by climate change are subsequently assessed. The article then discusses the various means available for climate change mitigation, focusing on the relative strengths and weaknesses (...)
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  33. Paul Raymont (1999). An Idle Threat: Epiphenomenalism Exposed. Dissertation, University of Torontoscore: 18.0
    In this doctoral dissertation I consider, and reject, the claim that recent varieties of non-reductive physicalism, particularly Donald Davidson's anomalous monism, are committed to a new kind of epiphenomenalism. Non-reductive physicalists identify each mental event with a physical event, and are thus entitled to the belief that mental events are causes, since the physical events with which they are held to be identical are causes. However, Jaegwon Kim, Ernest Sosa and others have argued that if we follow the non-reductive physicalist (...)
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  34. Thomas Nys (2009). Autonomy Under Threat: A Revised Frankfurtian Account. Philosophical Explorations 12 (1):3 – 17.score: 18.0
    In the early 1970s Harry Frankfurt argued that so-called 'coercive threats' cause a violation of their victim's autonomy, thereby excluding him from moral responsibility. A person is therefore not responsible for doing what he is forced to do. Although this seems correct on an intuitive level, I will use Frankfurt's later vocabulary of 'care' and 'love' in order to show that threats essentially involve an abuse of a person's autonomy instead of an infringement or violation thereof. Still, if we want (...)
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  35. Anne Germain, Tore A. Nielsen, Antonio Zadra & Jacques Montplaisir (2000). The Prevalence of Typical Dream Themes Challenges the Specificity of the Threat Simulation Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):940-941.score: 18.0
    The evolutionary theory of threat simulation during dreaming indicates that themes appropriate to ancestral survival concerns (threats) should be disproportionately represented in dreams. Our studies of typical dream themes in students and sleep-disordered patients indicate that threatening dreams involving chase and pursuit are indeed among the three most prevalent themes, thus supporting Revonsuo's theory. However, many of the most prevalent themes are of positive, not negative, events (e.g., sex, flying) and of current, not ancestral, threat scenarios (e.g., schoolwork). Moreover, many (...)
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  36. Matthew Beard (2013). Risking Aggression: Toleration of Threat and Preventive War. Heythrop Journal 54 (5):n/a-n/a.score: 18.0
    Generally speaking, just war theory (JWT) holds that there are two just causes for war: self-defence and ‘other-defence’. The most common type of the latter is popularly known as ‘humanitarian intervention’. There is debate, however, as to whether these can serve as just causes for preventive war. Those who subscribe to JWT tend to be unified in treating so-called preventive war with a high degree of suspicion on the grounds that it fails to satisfy conventional criteria for jus ad bello; (...)
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  37. Theodore Sider (2014). Outscoping and Discourse Threat. Inquiry 57 (4):413-426.score: 18.0
    For various philosophical purposes it is sometimes necessary to give truth-conditions for sentences of a discourse in other terms. According to Agustín Rayo, when doing so it is sometimes legitimate to use the terms of that very discourse, so long as the terms do not occur in the truth-conditions themselves. I argue that giving truth-conditions in this ?outscoping? way prevents one from answering ?discourse threat? (for example, the threat of indeterminacy).
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  38. A. Zadra & D. C. Donderi (2000). Threat Perceptions and Avoidance in Recurrent Dreams. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1017-1018.score: 18.0
    Revonsuo argues that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events and to rehearse threat avoidance behaviors. He views recurrent dreams as an example of this function. We present data and clinical observations suggesting that (1) many types of recurrent dreams do not include threat perceptions; (2) the nature of the threat perceptions that do occur in recurrent dreams are not always realistic; and (3) successful avoidance responses are absent from most recurrent dreams and possibly nightmares. [Hobson et (...)
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  39. H. Sterling Burnett (2009). Understanding the Precautionary Principle and its Threat to Human Welfare. Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):378-410.score: 18.0
    Over the past three decades, the Precautionary Principle (PP) has become popular in discussions of public policy, especially in relation to health and environmental policy. Though there are a number of different versions of the principle, the genesis of the idea is that it is better to be safe than sorry. In terms of public policy, proponents of the PP argue that being safe means that, if there is a possibility of harm from a new activity or novel technology, even (...)
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  40. Kimberly Brewer & Eric Watkins (2012). A Difficulty Still Awaits: Kant, Spinoza, and the Threat of Theological Determinism. Kant-Studien 103 (2):163-187.score: 18.0
    In a short and much-neglected passage in the second Critique, Kant discusses the threat posed to human freedom by theological determinism. In this paper we present an interpretation of Kant’s conception of and response to this threat. Regarding his conception, we argue that he addresses two versions of the threat: either God causes appearances (and hence our spatio-temporal actions) directly or he does so indirectly by causing things in themselves which in turn cause appearances. Kant’s response to the first version (...)
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  41. Matthew Rendall (2011). Climate Change and the Threat of Disaster: The Moral Case for Taking Out Insurance at Our Grandchildren's Expense. Political Studies 59 (4):884-99.score: 18.0
    Is drastic action against global warming essential to avoid impoverishing our descendants? Or does it mean robbing the poor to give to the rich? We do not yet know. Yet most of us can agree on the importance of minimising expected deprivation. Because of the vast number of future generations, if there is any significant risk of catastrophe, this implies drastic and expensive carbon abatement unless we discount the future. I argue that we should not discount. Instead, the rich countries (...)
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  42. David Friedman, Bracha Rager-Zisman, Eitan Bibi & Alex Keynan (2010). The Bioterrorism Threat and Dual-Use Biotechnological Research: An Israeli Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):85-97.score: 18.0
    Israel has a long history of concern with chemical and biological threats, since several hostile states in the Middle East are likely to possess such weapons. The Twin-Tower terrorist attacks and Anthrax envelope scares of 2001 were a watershed for public perceptions of the threat of unconventional terror in general and of biological terror in particular. New advances in biotechnology will only increase the ability of terrorists to exploit the burgeoning availability of related information to develop ever-more destructive bioweapons. Many (...)
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  43. T. L. Short (2013). Peirce and the Threat of Nominalism by Paul Forster. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 48 (3):385-387.score: 18.0
    This book is remarkable for what it does not do. It purports to be about Peirce's opposition to nominalism, but it never states clearly what nominalism is and says little about Peirce's realist alternative. It contains no historical discussion of nominalism and thus does not explain the relation of Peirce's idiosyncratic use of that term to its original meaning. It ignores the secondary literature on that topic and does not even list Rosa Mayorga's highly relevant 2007 book, From Realism to (...)
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  44. Paul Henry Lysaker, Jason K. Johannesen & John Timothy Lysaker (2005). Schizophrenia and the Experience of Intersubjectivity as Threat. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4 (3):335-352.score: 18.0
    Many with schizophrenia find social interactions a profound and terrifying threat to their sense of self. To better understand this we draw upon dialogical models of the self that suggest that those with schizophrenia have difficulty sustaining dialogues among diverse aspects of self. Because interpersonal exchanges solicit and evoke movement among diverse aspects of self, many with schizophrenia may consequently find those exchanges overwhelming, resulting in despair, the sensation of fusion with another, and/or self-dissolution. In short, compromised dialogical capacities may (...)
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  45. Paul Gilbert (2004). Threat, Safeness, and Schizophrenia: Hidden Issues in an Evolutionary Story. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):858-859.score: 18.0
    There is evidence that people with schizophrenia have difficulties in some (recently evolved) competencies for processing social information. However, a case can be made that vulnerabilities can also lie in (previously evolved) threat and safeness processing systems. Evolutionary models may need to consider interactions between genetic sensitivities, early experiences of threat/safeness, and later cognitive vulnerabilities. Psychological treatments must address issues of experienced threat and safeness before working on more cognitive competencies.
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  46. Ajit Narayanan (2013). Society Under Threat… but Not From AI. AI and Society 28 (1):87-94.score: 18.0
    25 years ago, when AI & Society was launched, the emphasis was, and still is, on dehumanisation and the effects of technology on human life, including reliance on technology. What we forgot to take into account was another very great danger to humans. The pervasiveness of computer technology, without appropriate security safeguards, dehumanises us by allowing criminals to steal not just our money but also our confidential and private data at will. Also, denial-of-service attacks prevent us from accessing the information (...)
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  47. Jordan B. Peterson & Colin G. DeYoung (2000). Metaphoric Threat is More Real Than Real Threat. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):992-993.score: 18.0
    Dreams represent threat, but appear to do so metaphorically more often than realistically. The metaphoric representation of threat allows it to be conceptualized in a manner that is constant across situations (as what is common to all threats begins to be understood and portrayed). This also means that response to threat can come to be represented in some way that works across situations. Conscious access to dream imagery, and subsequent social communication of that imagery, can facilitate this generalized adaptive process, (...)
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  48. Todd K. Shackelford & Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford (2000). Threat Simulation, Dreams, and Domain-Specificity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1004-1004.score: 18.0
    According to Revonsuo, dreams are the output of a evolved “threat simulation mechanism.” The author marshals a diverse and comprehensive array of empirical and theoretical support for this hypothesis. We propose that the hypothesized threat simulation mechanism might be more domain-specific in design than the author implies. To illustrate, we discuss the possible sex-differentiated design of the hypothesized threat simulation mechanism. [Revonsuo].
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  49. Jeffrey Paris (2007). 13. Abolition Democracy and the Ultimate Carceral Threat. Radical Philosophy Today 2007:237-247.score: 18.0
    The series of conversations between Angela Y. Davis and Eduardo Mendieta entitled Abolition Democracy is a powerful investigation of the failed moral imagination of imperial democracies. After examining their discussion of how truncated political discourses enable abuses in both war and imprisonment, I look to the “exceptional” status of war prisons such as at Guantánamo and Abu Ghraib. I argue that domestic prisons, like international war prisons, are means for the paradigmatic functioning of the exception in modern democracy, as described (...)
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  50. Brian Locke (1998). “Top Dog,” “Black Threat,” and “Japanese Cats”: The Impact of the White-Black Binary on Asian-American Identity. Radical Philosophy Review 1 (2):98-125.score: 18.0
    This essay is a reading of two Hollywood films: The Defiant Ones (1958, directed by Stanley Kramer, starring Tony Curtis and Sidney Poitier) and Rising Sun (1993, directed by Philip Kauffman starring Wesley Snipes and Sean Connery, based on the Michael Crichton novel of the same name). The essay argues that these films work to contain black demand for social and political equality not through exclusionary measures, but rather through deliberate acknowledgment of blackness as integral to US identity. My reading (...)
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