Search results for '*Visual Contrast' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  9
    Ville Ojanen, Antti Revonsuo & Mikko Sams (2003). Visual Awareness of Low-Contrast Stimuli is Reflected in Event-Related Brain Potentials. Psychophysiology 40 (2):192-197.
  2.  1
    Martha Wilson (1972). Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Visual Discrimination by Rhesus Monkeys. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (2):279.
  3. P. Gouras (1985). Parallel Processing of Color-Contrast Detectors in the Visual Cortex. In David Rose & Vernon Dobson (eds.), Models of the Visual Cortex. New York: John Wiley & Sons 242.
     
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  4.  1
    Jeffrey T. Andre (1996). Visual Functioning in Challenging Conditions: Effects of Alcohol Consumption, Luminance, Stimulus Motion, and Glare on Contrast Sensitivity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 2 (3):250.
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  5. M. Boon & C. M. Suttle (2004). Estimating Chromatic Contrast Thresholds From the Transient Visual Evoked Potential. In Robert Schwartz (ed.), Perception. Malden Ma: Blackwell Publishing 58-58.
     
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  6.  0
    William N. Dember & John Chambers (1975). Maskability of Visual Targets Varying in Brightness Contrast. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 5 (1):51-52.
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  7. B. R. Figge & E. R. Wist (1996). Visual Acuity Based on Motion Contrast: The Effect of Luminance and Luminance Contrast Reduction on Binocular and Monocular Performance. In Enrique Villanueva (ed.), Perception. Ridgeview 122-122.
     
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  8.  16
    Maria Wilenius & Antti Revonsuo (2007). Timing of the Earliest ERP Correlate of Visual Awareness. Psychophysiology 44 (5):703-710.
  9.  2
    J. J. Gibson & M. Radner (1937). Adaptation, After-Effect and Contrast in the Perception of Tilted Lines. I. Quantitative Studies. Journal of Experimental Psychology 20 (5):453.
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  10.  2
    J. J. Gibson (1937). Adaptation, After-Effect, and Contrast in the Perception of Tilted Lines. II. Simultaneous Contrast and the Areal Restriction of the After-Effect. [REVIEW] Journal of Experimental Psychology 20 (6):553.
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  11.  27
    Rolf Reber & Norbert Schwarz (2001). The Hot Fringes of Consciousness: Perceptual Fluency and Affect. Consciousness and Emotion 2 (2):223-231.
    High figure-ground contrast usually results in more positive evaluations of visual stimuli. This may either reflect that high figure-ground contrast per se is a desirable attribute or that this attribute facilitates fluent processing. In the latter case, the influence of high figure-ground contrast should be most pronounced under short exposure times, that is, under conditions where the facilitative influence on perceptual fluency is most pronounced. Supporting this hypothesis, ratings of the prettiness of visual stimuli increased with figure-ground (...)
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  12.  1
    Daniel J. Weintraub (1964). Successive Contrast Involving Luminance and Purity Alterations of the Ganzfeld. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (6):555.
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  13.  3
    W. F. Grether (1942). The Magnitude of Simultaneous Color Contrast and Simultaneous Brightness Contrast for Chimpanzee and Man. Journal of Experimental Psychology 30 (1):69.
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  14.  3
    Julian Hochberg & Virginia Brooks (1958). Effects of Previously Associated Annoying Stimuli (Auditory) on Visual Recognition Thresholds. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (5):490.
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  15.  3
    E. B. Greene (1932). Effect of Background on Visual Acuity of Circle Grids. Journal of Experimental Psychology 15 (5):585.
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  16.  3
    A. Leonard Diamond (1955). Foveal Simultaneous Contrast as a Function of Inducing-Field Area. Journal of Experimental Psychology 50 (2):144.
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  17.  2
    Tadasu Oyama & Yun Hsia (1966). Compensatory Hue Shift in Simultaneous Color Contrast as a Function of Separation Between Inducing and Test Fields. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (3):405.
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  18.  1
    Allen Parducci, Daniel S. Perrett & Herbert W. Marsh (1969). Assimilation and Contrast as Range-Frequency Effects of Anchors. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (2):281.
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  19.  1
    Siegfried J. Gerathewohl & William F. Taylor (1953). Effect of Intermittent Light on the Readability of Printed Matter Under Conditions of Decreasing Contrast. Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (4):278.
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  20.  0
    W. H. Mikesell & M. Bentley (1930). Configuration and Brightness Contrast. Journal of Experimental Psychology 13 (1):1.
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  21.  1
    E. Rae Harcum (1967). Visual Detection and Recognition of Targets with Various Dependency Contrasts in Microstructure. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (1):155.
  22.  24
    Scott P. Johnson (2010). How Infants Learn About the Visual World. Cognitive Science 34 (7):1158-1184.
    The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from computational modeling and from experiments with human infants highlights three kinds of learning that contribute to infants’ knowledge of the visual world: learning via association, learning via active assembly, and (...)
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  23.  24
    Bruno G. Breitmeyer, Haluk Ogmen, Jose Ramon & Jian Chen (2005). Unconscious and Conscious Priming by Forms and Their Parts. Visual Cognition 12 (5):720-736.
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  24.  41
    Kaoru Noguchi (2003). The Relationship Between Visual Illusion and Aesthetic Preference – an Attempt to Unify Experimental Phenomenology and Empirical Aesthetics. Axiomathes 13 (3-4):261-281.
    Experimental phenomenology has demonstrated that perception is much richer than stimulus. As is seen in color perception, one and the same stimulus provides more than several modes of appearance or perceptual dimensions. Similarly, there are various perceptual dimensions in form perception. Even a simple geometrical figure inducing visual illusion gives not only perceptual impressions of size, shape, slant, depth, and orientation, but also affective or aesthetic impressions. The present study reviews our experimental phenomenological work on visual illusion and experimental aesthetics, (...)
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  25.  9
    Brian R. Gaines (2009). Designing Visual Languages for Description Logics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (2):217-250.
    Semantic networks were developed in cognitive science and artificial intelligence studies as graphical knowledge representation and inference tools emulating human thought processes. Formal analysis of the representation and inference capabilities of the networks modeled them as subsets of standard first-order logic (FOL), restricted in the operations allowed in order to ensure the tractability that seemed to characterize human reasoning capabilities. The graphical network representations were modeled as providing a visual language for the logic. Sub-sets of FOL targeted on knowledge representation (...)
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  26.  3
    Remigiusz Szczepanowski, Jakub Traczyk, Michał Wierzchoń & Axel Cleeremans (2013). The Perception of Visual Emotion: Comparing Different Measures of Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):212-220.
    Here, we explore the sensitivity of different awareness scales in revealing conscious reports on visual emotion perception. Participants were exposed to a backward masking task involving fearful faces and asked to rate their conscious awareness in perceiving emotion in facial expression using three different subjective measures: confidence ratings , with the conventional taxonomy of certainty, the perceptual awareness scale , through which participants categorize “raw” visual experience, and post-decision wagering , which involves economic categorization. Our results show that the CR (...)
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  27.  22
    Ceri T. Trevethan, Arash Sahraie & Larry Weiskrantz (2007). Can Blindsight Be Superior to 'Sighted-Sight?'. Cognition 103 (3):491-501.
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  28.  54
    R. Rensink (2000). Visual Search for Change: A Probe Into the Nature of Attentional Processing. Visual Cognition 7:345-376.
    A set of visual search experiments tested the proposal that focused attention is needed to detect change. Displays were arrays of rectangles, with the target being the item that continually changed its orientation or contrast polarity. Five aspects of performance were examined: linearity of response, processing time, capacity, selectivity, and memory trace. Detection of change was found to be a self-terminating process requiring a time that increased linearly with the number of items in the display. Capacity for orientation was (...)
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  29. Susanna Siegel (2009). The Visual Experience of Causation. Philosophical Quarterly 59 (236):519-540.
    In this paper I argue that causal relations between objects are represented in visual experience, and contrast my argument and its conclusion with Michotte's results from the 1960's.
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  30.  4
    K. I. Taylor, B. J. Devereux, K. Acres, B. Randall & L. K. Tyler (2012). Contrasting Effects of Feature-Based Statistics on the Categorisation and Basic-Level Identification of Visual Objects. Cognition 122 (3):363-374.
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  31.  93
    Semir Zeki & Andreas Bartels (1999). Toward a Theory of Visual Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):225-59.
    The visual brain consists of several parallel, functionally specialized processing systems, each having several stages (nodes) which terminate their tasks at different times; consequently, simultaneously presented attributes are perceived at the same time if processed at the same node and at different times if processed by different nodes. Clinical evidence shows that these processing systems can act fairly autonomously. Damage restricted to one system compromises specifically the perception of the attribute that that system is specialized for; damage to a given (...)
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  32.  15
    Petra Stoerig & E. Barth (2001). Low-Level Phenomenal Vision Despite Unilateral Destruction of Primary Visual Cortex. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):574-587.
    GY, an extensively studied human hemianope, is aware of salient visual events in his cortically blind field but does not call this ''vision.'' To learn whether he has low-level conscious visual sensations or whether instead he has gained conscious knowledge about, or access to, visual information that does not produce a conscious phenomenal sensation, we attempted to image process a stimulus s presented to the impaired field so that when the transformed stimulus T(s) was presented to the normal hemifield it (...)
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  33. David M. Rosenthal (2001). Color, Mental Location, and the Visual Field. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (1):85-93.
    Color subjectivism is the view that color properties are mental properties of our visual sensations, perhaps identical with properties of neural states, and that nothing except visual sensations and other mental states exhibits color properties. Color phys- icalism, by contrast, holds that colors are exclusively properties of visible physical objects and processes.
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  34. Robert Briscoe (2008). Another Look at the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis: The Argument From Illusion Studies. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (8):35-62.
    The purpose of this paper is to defend what I call the action-oriented coding theory (ACT) of spatially contentful visual experience. Integral to ACT is the view that conscious visual experience and visually guided action make use of a common subject-relative or 'egocentric' frame of reference. Proponents of the influential two visual systems hypothesis (TVSH), however, have maintained on empirical grounds that this view is false (Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006; Clark, 1999; 2001; Campbell, 2002; Jacob & Jeannerod, 2003; Goodale & (...)
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  35.  74
    John van der Kamp & Geert J. P. Savelsbergh (2001). On the Development of the Two Visual Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):120-120.
    Norman's reconciliation of the two theories of perception is challenged because it directly leads to the nature-nurture dichotomy in the development of the two visual systems. In contrast, the proposition of a separate development of the two visual systems may be better understood as involving different types of information that follow a distinct temporal sequence.
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  36.  1
    Judith Degen & Michael K. Tanenhaus (2015). Availability of Alternatives and the Processing of Scalar Implicatures: A Visual World Eye‐Tracking Study. Cognitive Science 39 (6):n/a-n/a.
    Two visual world experiments investigated the processing of the implicature associated with some using a “gumball paradigm.” On each trial, participants saw an image of a gumball machine with an upper chamber with orange and blue gumballs and an empty lower chamber. Gumballs dropped to the lower chamber, creating a contrast between a partitioned set of gumballs of one color and an unpartitioned set of the other. Participants then evaluated spoken statements, such as “You got some of the blue (...)
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  37.  12
    Bruce Bridgeman (1999). Implicit and Explicit Representations of Visual Space. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):759-760.
    The visual system captures a unique contrast between implicit and explicit representation where the same event (location of a visible object) is coded in both ways in parallel. A method of differentiating the two representations is described using an illusion that affects only the explicit representation. Consistent with predictions, implicit information is available only from targets presently visible, but, surprisingly, a two-alternative decision does not disturb the implicit representation.
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  38.  1
    Alessandra Fanini & Carlo Alberto Marzi (1999). Unwanted Reflex-Like Saccades in Visual Extinction Patients. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):683-683.
    We studied patients with left visual extinction following right hemisphere damage in a simple manual reaction time task using brief visual stimuli. With unilateral lateralized stimuli the patients showed a high proportion of unwanted, reflex-like saccades to either side of stimulation. In contrast, with bilateral stimuli there was an overall decrease in the proportion of unwanted saccades, and the vast majority of them were directed toward the ipsilesional side. The implications of these results for the Findlay & Walker model (...)
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  39. David Bennett & Patrick Foo (2010). Mid-Range Action-Driving Visual Information. Psyche 16 (2):98-116.
    Milner and Goodale have advanced a justly influential theory of the structure of the human visual system. In broad outline, Milner and Goodale hold that the ventral neural pathway is associated with recognition and experiential awareness, and with a kind of indirect control of action. And they hold that, by contrast, the dorsal neural stream is associated with the non-conscious, direct control of visually informed action. Most of the relevant empirical research has focused on the visual control of close-in, (...)
     
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  40.  0
    Marjan Persuh & Tony Ro (2012). Context-Dependent Brightness Priming Occurs Without Visual Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):177-185.
    Our visual systems account for stimulus context in brightness perception, but whether such adjustments occur for stimuli that we are unaware of has not been established. We therefore assessed whether stimulus context influences brightness processing by measuring unconscious priming with metacontrast masking. When a middle-gray disk was presented on a darker background, such that it could be consciously perceived as brighter via simultaneous brightness contrast , reaction times were significantly faster to a bright annulus than to a dark annulus. (...)
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  41.  2
    J. J. Gibson (1933). Adaptation, After-Effect and Contrast in the Perception of Curved Lines. Journal of Experimental Psychology 16 (1):1.
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  42.  4
    Coleman T. Merryman & Frank Restle (1970). Perceptual Displacement of a Test Mark Toward the Larger of Two Visual Objects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (2):311.
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  43.  0
    P. W. Cobb & F. K. Moss (1927). The Relation Between Extent and Contrast in the Liminal Stimulus for Vision. Journal of Experimental Psychology 10 (4):350.
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  44.  2
    Maria Staudte, Matthew W. Crocker, Alexis Heloir & Michael Kipp (2014). The Influence of Speaker Gaze on Listener Comprehension: Contrasting Visual Versus Intentional Accounts. Cognition 133 (1):317-328.
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  45. Joel Norman (2001). Two Visual Systems and Two Theories of Perception: An Attempt to Reconcile the Constructivist and Ecological Approaches. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):73-96.
    The two contrasting theoretical approaches to visual perception, the constructivist and the ecological, are briefly presented and illustrated through their analyses of space and size perception. Earlier calls for their reconciliation and unification are reviewed. Neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and psychophysical evidence for the existence of two quite distinct visual systems, the ventral and the dorsal, is presented. These two perceptual systems differ in their functions; the ventral system's central function is that of identification, while the dorsal system is mainly engaged in (...)
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  46.  10
    Kristjan Laasik (2015). Visual Contents: Beyond Reach? Philosophical Forum 46 (2):193-204.
    Susanna Siegel argues that visual contents are rich: visual experiences represent a variety of properties, over and above mere colors and shapes, including, notably, kind properties, e.g., the property of being a pine tree. To argue her case, she makes use of the method of phenomenal contrasts, which involves choosing among different explanatory hypotheses to account for phenomenal contrasts between relevant experiences. I will argue that there is reason to question whether the method of phenomenal contrasts is suitable for establishing (...)
  47. Robert Briscoe (2015). Cognitive Penetration and the Reach of Phenomenal Content. In Athanassios Raftopoulos & John Zeimbekis (eds.), Cognitive Penetrability. Oxford University Press
    This chapter critically assesses recent arguments that acquiring the ability to categorize an object as belonging to a certain high-level kind can cause the relevant kind property to be represented in visual phenomenal content. The first two arguments, developed respectively by Susanna Siegel (2010) and Tim Bayne (2009), employ an essentially phenomenological methodology. The third argument, developed by William Fish (2013), by contrast, is supported by an array of psychophysical and neuroscientific findings. I argue that while none of these (...)
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  48. John Schwenkler (2014). Vision, Self‐Location, and the Phenomenology of the 'Point of View'. Noûs 48 (1):137-155.
    According to the Self-Location Thesis, one’s own location can be among the things that visual experience represents, even when one’s body is entirely out of view. By contrast, the Minimal View denies this, and says that visual experience represents things only as "to the right", etc., and never as "to the right of me". But the Minimal View is phenomenologically inadequate: it cannot explain the difference between a visual experience of self-motion and one of an oppositely moving world. To (...)
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  49.  81
    S. Ullman (1980). Against Direct Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):333-81.
    Central to contemporary cognitive science is the notion that mental processes involve computations defined over internal representations. This view stands in sharp contrast to the to visual perception and cognition, whose most prominent proponent has been J.J. Gibson. In the direct theory, perception does not involve computations of any sort; it is the result of the direct pickup of available information. The publication of Gibson's recent book (Gibson 1979) offers an opportunity to examine his approach, and, more generally, to (...)
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  50.  41
    Shimon Edelman (1998). Representation is Representation of Similarities. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):449-467.
    Intelligent systems are faced with the problem of securing a principled (ideally, veridical) relationship between the world and its internal representation. I propose a unified approach to visual representation, addressing both the needs of superordinate and basic-level categorization and of identification of specific instances of familiar categories. According to the proposed theory, a shape is represented by its similarity to a number of reference shapes, measured in a high-dimensional space of elementary features. This amounts to embedding the stimulus in a (...)
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