Search results for '18th century' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  13
    Tal Gilead (2011). The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature. Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (10):1020-1034.
    The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon asserted that the study of nature should serve to improve living conditions for all members of society. Although influential, Bacon's idea was not easily assimilated by (...)
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  2.  27
    Alexander Broadie, Scottish Philosophy in the 18th Century. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Philosophy was at the core of the eighteenth century movement known as the Scottish Enlightenment. The movement included major figures, such as Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Thomas Reid and Adam Ferguson, and also many others who produced notable works, such as Gershom Carmichael, George Turnbull, George Campbell, James Beattie, Alexander Gerard, Henry Home (Lord Kames) and Dugald Stewart. I discuss some of the leading ideas of these thinkers, though paying less attention than I otherwise would to Hume, (...)
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  3.  3
    W. Bernardi (2000). [The controversy over animal electricity in 18th-century Italy: Galvani, Volta, and others]. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 54 (1):53-70.
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  4.  3
    Steven Tester (2012). Kant and the Theories of Consciousness of the 18th Century. Philosophical Forum 43 (3).
  5.  7
    Leo Catana (2013). Changing Interpretations of Plotinus: The 18th-Century Introduction of the Concept of a 'System of Philosophy'. International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 7 (1):50-98.
    This article critically explores the history and nature of a hermeneutic assumption which frequently guided interpretations of Plotinus from the 18th century onwards, namely that Plotinus advanced a system of philosophy. It is argued that this assumption was introduced relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for the history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, to which the concept of a ‘system of philosophy’ was essential. It (...)
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  6. Christian Maurer (2009). Self-Love in Early 18th Century British Moral Philosophy: Shaftesbury, Mandeville, Hutcheson, Butler and Campbell. Dissertation, Neuchâtel
    The study focuses on the debates on self-love in early 18th - century British moral philosophy. It examines the intricate relations of these debates with questions concerning human nature and morality in five central authors : Anthony Ashley Cooper the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, Bernard Mandeville, Francis Hutcheson, Joseph Butler and Archibald Campbell. One of the central claims of this study is that a distinction between five different concepts of self-love is necessary to achieve a clear understanding of (...)
     
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  7.  14
    Jürgen Oelkers (1999). The Origin of the Concept of €œAllgemeinbildung” in 18th Century Germany. Studies in Philosophy and Education 18 (1):25-41.
    The German theory of education refers mainly to what is called Bildung. The historical sense of Bildung is not cultivaion , but cultivation for inwardness. This concept has two sources, the neo-platonic inner soul on one hand, pietistic piety on the other hand. The article shows that these sources had been part of European discussions before the development of national cultures after 1750. So the German concept of Bildung, famous for the German Sonderweg in culture and politics, had been composed (...)
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  8.  7
    Ronei Clécio Mocellin (2015). Style of Reasoning and Technical-Cultural Capillary Action in the Chemistry of 18th Century. Scientiae Studia 13 (4):759-780.
    RESUMO Neste artigo pretendo identificar um "estilo de raciocínio" próprio à química e apontar a disseminação de seus produtos e conceitos. O objetivo é o de explicitar alguns elementos que caracterizam o estilo de pensar e de fazer da química na segunda metade do século XVIII, sua capilarização técnico-cultural. O delineamento de um estilo químico de raciocinar origina-se da constância dos espaços técnico-epistêmicos em que o saber químico é construído. A química é uma ciência de laboratório, eminentemente técnica e operatória, (...)
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  9.  14
    Peter J. Koehler, Stanley Finger & Marco Piccolino (2009). The "Eels" of South America: Mid-18th-Century Dutch Contributions to the Theory of Animal Electricity. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 42 (4):715 - 763.
    During the mid-18th century, when electricity was coming into its own, natural philosophers began to entertain the possibility that electricity is the mysterious nerve force. Their attention was first drawn to several species of strongly electric fish, namely torpedoes, a type of African catfish, and a South American "eels." This was because their effects felt like those of discharging Leyden jars and could be transmitted along known conductors of electricity. Moreover, their actions could not be adequately explained by (...)
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  10.  12
    Michael J. Demoor (2006). The Philosophy of Art in Reid's Inquiry and Its Place in 18th-Century Scottish Aesthetics. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 4 (1):37-49.
    Abstract It is argued that the scattered remarks on the fine arts made in Reid's Inquiry into the Human Mind (1764) present a conception of the relation between perception and the fine arts that is at once compatible with and different from Reid's mature theory of art in Of Taste (1785). This alternative account of art-relevant perception also points beyond the limits of a philosophy of art developed according to the traditional theory of taste dominant in 18th-century Scottish (...)
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  11.  7
    Raffaele Pisano & Danilo Capecchi (2013). Conceptual and Mathematical Structures of Mechanical Science in the Western Civilization Around 18th Century. Almagest 4 (2):86-21.
    One may discuss the role played by mechanical science in the history of scientific ideas, particularly in physics, focusing on the significance of the relationship between physics and mathematics in describing mathematical laws in the context of a scientific theory. In the second Newtonian law of motion, space and time are crucial physical magnitudes in mechanics, but they are also mathematical magnitudes as involved in derivative operations. Above all, if we fail to acknowledge their mathematical meaning, we fail to comprehend (...)
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  12.  21
    Volker Hess (1998). Medical Semiotics in the 18th Century: A Theory of Practice? [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (3):203-213.
    Medical semiotics in the 18th century was more than a premodern form of diagnosis. Its structure allowed for the combination of empirically proven rules of instruction with the theoretical knowledge of the new sciences, employing the relation between the sign and the signified.
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  13.  16
    Aaron Garrett (2005). :The Library of Scottish Philosophy;Adam Smith: Selected Philosophical Writings;James Beattie: Selected Philosophical Writings;The Scottish Idealists: Selected Philosophical Writings;Art and Enlightenment: Scottish Aesthetics in the 18th Century;Scottish Philosophy: Selected Writings 1690–1960;John Macmurray: Selected Philosophical Writings. [REVIEW] Journal of Scottish Philosophy 3 (2):181-186.
    The Library of Scottish Philosophy: Volumes 1 – 6, Exeter: Imprint Academic, 2004 James Otteson , ed. Adam Smith: Selected Philosophical Writings, 247pp. Paperback £12.95. ISBN 184540-001-1 James Harris , ed. James Beattie: Selected Philosophical Writings, 204pp. Paperback £12.95. ISBN 0907845-711 David Boucher , ed. The Scottish Idealists: Selected Philosophical Writings, 201pp. Paperback £12.95. ISBN 0907845-72X Jonathan Friday , ed. Art and Enlightenment: Scottish Aesthetics in the 18th century, 212pp. Paperback £12.95. ISBN 0907845-762 Gordon Graham , ed. Scottish (...)
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  14.  18
    Alexander Rueger (2002). Aesthetic Appreciation of Experiments: The Case of 18th-Century Mimetic Experiments. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 16 (1):49 – 59.
    This article analyzes a type of experiment, very popular in 18th-century natural philosophy, which has apparently not led to insights into nature but which was aesthetically especially attractive. These experiments--"mimetic experiments"--allow us to trace a connection between aesthetic appreciation in science and in art contemporaneous with the science. I use this case as a problem for McAllister's theory of aesthetic induction according to which aesthetic standards in science tend to be associated with empirical success and propose an alternative (...)
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  15.  7
    Tom Verschaffel (2005). The Modernization of Historiography in 18th-Century Belgium. History of European Ideas 31 (2):135-146.
    During the second half of the 18th-century Belgian historiography developed from the discipline of ?writing? history and collecting historical information towards the discipline of ?studying? history. The ?old? historian wrote a ?history? in which (by definition) as many data as possible concerning (the past of) a subject (a province, a city, a diocese, an institution) were gathered. The ?new? historian on the other hand wrote a ?dissertation?, the topic of which was not so much the past of a (...)
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  16.  5
    Ann Firth (2002). Moral Supervision and Autonomous Social Order: Wages and Consumption in 18th-Century Economic Thought. History of the Human Sciences 15 (1):39-57.
    Political oeconomy in the 18th century operated in the absence of the conception of an autonomous social order articulated in the later concepts of `the economy' and `society'. Without a self-sustaining mechanism oriented to stability and endogenous economic growth, national prosperity and social order were assumed to depend upon the detailed interventions in economic life that are characteristic of mercantilism and the police of the poor. Smith's theory that autonomous economic growth underpinned a stable order of social interdependencies (...)
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  17.  4
    Dragana Jeremic-Molnar & Aleksandar Molnar (2009). Debate on Sublime in the End of 18th Century: Burke, Kant, Schiller. Filozofija I Društvo 20 (1):143-158.
    In the article the authors are examining three positions within the 18th Century aesthetic discussion on the sublime - Edmund Burke's, Immanuel Kant's and Friedrich Schiller's. They are also trying to reconstruct the political backgrounds of each of this theoretical positions: old regime conservatism , republican liberalism and romantic longing for the 'third way' . The most sophisticated and mature theory of sublime is found in Schiller's aesthetic works, especially in those following his disappointment in French Revolution, in (...)
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  18.  5
    Aaron Garrett (2005). Review of : The Library of Scottish Philosophy_; Review of James Otteson: _Adam Smith: Selected Philosophical Writings_; Review of James Harris: _James Beattie: Selected Philosophical Writings_; Review of David Boucher: _The Scottish Idealists: Selected Philosophical Writings_; Review of Jonathan Friday: _Art and Enlightenment: Scottish Aesthetics in the 18th Century_; Review of Gordon Graham: _Scottish Philosophy: Selected Writings 1690–1960_; Review of Esther McIntosh: _John Macmurray: Selected Philosophical Writings. [REVIEW] Journal of Scottish Philosophy 3 (2):181-186.
    The Library of Scottish Philosophy: Volumes 1 – 6, Exeter: Imprint Academic, 2004 James Otteson , ed. Adam Smith: Selected Philosophical Writings, 247pp. Paperback £12.95. ISBN 184540-001-1 James Harris , ed. James Beattie: Selected Philosophical Writings, 204pp. Paperback £12.95. ISBN 0907845-711 David Boucher , ed. The Scottish Idealists: Selected Philosophical Writings, 201pp. Paperback £12.95. ISBN 0907845-72X Jonathan Friday , ed. Art and Enlightenment: Scottish Aesthetics in the 18th century, 212pp. Paperback £12.95. ISBN 0907845-762 Gordon Graham , ed. Scottish (...)
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  19.  1
    Stewart Justman (2011). To Feel What Others Feel: Two Episodes From 18th Century Medicine. Medical Humanities 37 (1):34-37.
    In the late 18th century two medical fashions—Mesmerism in France and the Perkins ‘tractor’ in the USA and England—appealed to the principle that a single universal force acts on all of us and is responsible for health and illness. This principle served both fashions well, as it made it all the easier for those who came within their force fields to experience the sort of sensations that other subscribers to the fashion also seemed to feel. The first research (...)
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  20.  1
    J. Rogister (2008). Transmitting Knowledge in the 18th Century: The Case of Président de Brosses and Abate Antonio Niccolini. Diogenes 55 (2):77 - 82.
    The 18th century in Europe is the ideal period to study the interaction of traditional beliefs and new ideas stemming from scientific observation and philosophical rationalization. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role played by Charles de Brosses and Antonio Niccolini in the process of transmission of knowledge coming through influential members of a European aristocracy that remained attached to traditional values. In fact, the rediscovery of the Classical heritage and its dissemination in print, albeit (...)
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  21. A. Wolf (1961). A History of Science, Technology & Philosophy in the 18th Century. Harper.
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  22.  7
    David Bindman (2002). Ape to Apollo: Aesthetics and the Idea of Race in the 18th Century. Cornell University Press.
    Ape to Apollo is the first book to follow the development in the eighteenth century of the idea of race as it shaped and was shaped by the idea of aesthetics.
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  23.  3
    John T. Ogden (2011). From Spatial to Aesthetic Distance in the 18th Century. Journal of the History of Ideas 35 (1):63-78.
    Eighteenth-Century english scientists, Poets, And philosophers extended the meaning of 'distance' beyond a concept of space and time to include psychological and aesthetic meanings. Berkeley (1709), Priestley (1772), And thomas wedgwood (1818) showed that it was not a self-Evident idea but a complex intellectual construction. The poets denham (1655), Pope (1711), Dyer (1726), Collins (1747), Gray (1747), Campbell (1799) and wordsworth (1805-1827) used distance to represent a mental perspective, An aesthetic attitude, Nostalgia, Hope, Fancy, And imagination. Hume (1739), Hartley (...)
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  24. Matthew Lauzon (2008). Welsh Indians and Savage Scots: History, Antiquarianism, and Indian Languages in 18th-Century Britain. History of European Ideas 34 (3):250-269.
    This paper compares late eighteenth-century claims for the authenticity of Macpherson's Ossian and for the existence of Welsh Indians. It shows that although both claims were supported in part by appeals to similarities between Celtic and American Indian languages, the appeals in each case were very different. On the one hand, the Edinburgh literati who supported Ossian's authenticity focused on expressive structures shared by all primitive societies. On the other hand, radically Protestant antiquarians and philologists focused on lexical similarities (...)
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  25. Sherry Ann Beaudreau & Stanley Finger (2006). Medical Electricity and Madness in the 18th Century: The Legacies of Benjamin Franklin and Jan Ingenhousz. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (3):330-345.
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  26. Fernando Vidal (1993). Psychology in the 18th Century: A View From Encyclopaedias. History of the Human Sciences 6 (1):89-119.
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  27.  3
    Leo Catana (2013). Thomas Taylor's Dissent From Some 18th-Century Views on Platonic Philosophy: The Ethical and Theological Context. International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 7 (2):180-220.
    Thomas Taylor’s interpretation of Plato’s works in 1804 was condemned as guilty by association immediately after its publication. Taylor’s 1804 and 1809 reviewer thus made a hasty generalisation in which the qualities of Neoplatonism, assumed to be negative, were transferred to Taylor’s own interpretation, which made use of Neoplatonist thinkers. For this reason, Taylor has typically been marginalised as an interpreter of Plato. This article does not deny the association between Taylor and Neoplatonism. Instead, it examines the historical and historiographical (...)
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  28. S. C. Stimson (2008). Political and Economic Theory in the 18th Century Istvan Hont, The Jealousy of Trade: International Competition and the Nation State. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 21 (1):161-165.
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  29.  67
    Roger T. Ames, Peter D. Hershock, Andrew R. Bailey, Samantha Brennan, Will Kymlicka, Jacob Levy, Alex Sager & Clark Wolf (2008). Bonner, Anthony. The Art and Logic of Ramon Llull: A User's Guide. Studien Und Texte Zur Geistesge-Schichte des Mittelalters, 95. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2007. Pp. Xx+ 333. Cloth, $150.00. Boros, Gábor, Herman De Dijn, and Martin Moors, Editors. The Concept of Love in 17th and 18th Century Philosophy. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2007. Pp. 269. Paper,€ 35.50. Boulnois, Olivier. Au-Delà de l'Image, Une Archéologie du Visual au Moyen Âge, Ve-XVIe Siècle. Paris: Des. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 46 (4):653-56.
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  30.  11
    P. H. Clarke (2000). Adam Smith, Stoicism and Religion in the 18th Century. History of the Human Sciences 13 (4):49-72.
    This article explores the influence of Stoicism and religion on Adam Smith. While other commentators have argued either that the main influence on Smith was Stoicism or that it was religion, the two influences have not been explicitly linked. In this article I attempt to make such a link, arguing that Smith can be seen as belonging to the strand of Christian Stoicism chiefly associated with his teacher, Francis Hutcheson. Finally, some comments are made about the implications of this interpretation (...)
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  31.  15
    Amy Morgan Schmitter (2010). 17th and 18th Century Theories of Emotions. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    1. Introduction: 1.1 Difficulties of Approach; 1.2 Philosophical Background. 2. The Context of Early Modern Theories of the Passions: 2.1 Changing Vocabulary; 2.2 Taxonomies; 2.3 Philosophical Issues in Theories of the Emotions. SUPPLEMENTARY DOCUMENTS: Ancient, Medieval and Renaissance Theories of the Emotions; Descartes; Hobbes; Malebranche; Spinoza; Shaftsbury; Hutcheson; Hume.
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  32.  36
    Paul Guyer, 18th Century German Aesthetics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  33.  5
    L. Hunt (2004). The 18th-Century Body and the Origins of Human Rights. Diogenes 51 (3):41-56.
    Recent historical work on changing perceptions of the human body has been influenced by Michel Foucault’s contention that the self of western individualism was created by new regimes of disciplining the body. A different approach is taken here, one that focuses on how individual bodies came to be viewed as separate and inviolable, that is, as autonomous. The separateness and inviolability of bodies can be traced in the histories of bodily practices as different as portraiture and legal torture. After 1750, (...)
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  34. Oiva Kuisma (2006). The History of Finnish Aesthetics From the Late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century. Societas Scientiarum Fennica.
     
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  35.  42
    Moshe Idel (1992). Perceptions of Kabbalah in the Second Half of the 18th Century. Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 1 (1):55-114.
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  36.  3
    Aram Vartanian (1950). Trembley's Polyp, La Mettrie, and 18th-Century French Materialism. Journal of the History of Ideas 11 (1/4):259.
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  37.  6
    Matthias Hühn (forthcoming). Adam Smith: 18th Century Sentimentalist or 20th Century Rationalist? Business Ethics Journal Review:22-27.
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  38.  4
    Moshe Pelli (2000). Literature of Haskalah in the Late 18th Century. Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 52 (4):333-348.
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  39.  7
    Karl Heinrich Kaufhold (1986). Urbanity in the Country. Taking the Waters at Pyrmont in the 18th Century. Philosophy and History 19 (2):167-167.
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  40.  11
    Gilles Denis (2001). Pratiques Paysannes Et Théories Savantes Préagronomiques au XVIIIe Siècle: Le Cas des Débats Sur la Transmission des Maladies des Grains de Blé/Rural Practice and Learned Pre-Agronomical Theories in the 18th Century: The Case of the Debate on the Transmission of Grain Diseases. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 54 (4):451-494.
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  41.  6
    Jonathan Simon (2010). A Material Perspective on 18th-Century Chemistry. Metascience 19 (1):71-73.
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  42.  6
    Marisa Linton (2000). Virtue Rewarded? Women and the Politics of Virtue in 18th-Century France. Part II. History of European Ideas 26 (1):51-65.
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  43.  10
    Ann Thomson (forthcoming). Politics, Religion and the Natural History of Man in 18th-Century France. History of Political Thought.
  44.  3
    Wendell Bird (2016). Liberties of Press and Speech: ‘Evidence Does Not Exist To Contradict the … Blackstonian Sense’ in Late 18th Century England? Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 36 (1):1-25.
    Blackstone, in the last volume of his Commentaries in 1769, defined freedom of the press as merely ‘laying no previous restraints upon publications, and not in freedom from censure for criminal matter [seditious libel] when published’. That ‘criminal matter’ included most criticism of government and its officials. Many neo-Blackstonians, most prominently the late Leonard Levy along with numerous other British and American scholars, argue that at the time of America’s First Amendment and Fox’s Libel Act ‘[e]vidence does not exist to (...)
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  45.  12
    Karl Heinrich Kaufhold (1987). Dessau-Wörlitz. Ornament and Paragon of the 18th Century. Philosophy and History 20 (2):189-189.
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  46.  5
    H. Rudolf Vaget (1971). Werther and its Impact. On the Syndrome of the Middle Class in 18th Century Society. Philosophy and History 4 (2):231-232.
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  47.  7
    Melvin Santer (2009). Richard Bradley: A Unified, Living Agent Theory of the Cause of Infectious Diseases of Plants, Animals, and Humans in the First Decades of the 18th Century. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (4):566-578.
  48.  4
    G. P. Henderson (1951). Philosophical Surveys, II: A Survey of Work Dealing with 17th and 18th Century British Empiricism, 1945-50. Philosophical Quarterly 1 (3):254-268.
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  49.  6
    Marisa Linton (2000). Virtue Rewarded? Women and the Politics of Virtue in 18th-Century France. Part I. History of European Ideas 26 (1):35-49.
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  50. Isaiah Berlin (1984). The Age of Enlightenment the 18th Century Philosophers. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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