Search results for 'A level philosophy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Greg Dewar (2009). AS and A Level Religious Studies: Philosophy & Ethics Through Diagrams: Oxford Revision Guides. OUP Oxford.score: 477.0
    This series builds on the fact that pictures are easier to memorize than words. Each topic is summarized on a single page using annotated diagrams and concise notes with a full index for easy reference. -/- Expert authors have taken the content of the AS and A Level specifications and presented them in a refreshingly clear and concise format.
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  2. Trevor Eaton (1987). Teaching Philosophy at A-Level. Cogito 1 (2):21-22.score: 435.0
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  3. R. Scott Kretchmar (1980). Social Philosophy of Athletics: A Pluralistic and Practice-Oriented Philosophical Analysis of Top Level Amateur Sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 7 (1):59-64.score: 414.0
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  4. Clinton J. Humbolt (1973). An Inquiry Into the Piagetian Tradition in America as a Basis for a Philosophy of Education at the Community College Level: A Quasi-Experimental Approach. [Washington,Educational Resources Information Center.score: 405.0
     
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  5. Gerard Radnitzky (1974). Towards a System Philosophy of Scientific Research. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 4 (3):369-398.score: 306.0
    Can research be studied in a way that is neither logical reconstruction nor empirical psychology or sociology of science? In contemporary philosophy of science this is usually denied—in spite of the recent 'paradigm shift' there. A system-philosophy approach in theory of research is outlined by means of some models : a research enterprise is viewed as a productive, innovative system, the research process as a transformation of complexes of knowledge-problems-instruments (software and hard ware). The direction this development takes (...)
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  6. Klaus M. Meyer-Abich (1979). Toward a Practical Philosophy of Nature. Environmental Ethics 1 (4):293-308.score: 297.0
    The application of the polluter-pays principle in environmental policy depends on answers to the philosophical questions about what is good or detrimental with respect to nature. Science and the economy constitute a functional circle of “observing” nature’s unity as well as its utility. Based on a concept of nature as a system of causally related objects or - complementary to this - as a bunch of “resources,” however, the human interest and responsibility in nature do not seem to be properly (...)
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  7. Zhongjian Mou (2007). A Preliminary Discussion on Daoist Bionomy: On the Basis of Chen Yingning's Philosophy of Immortals. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (2):206-218.score: 288.0
    From the modern point of view, the Daoist regimen culture in China is actually a kind of oriental bionomy. Although it is less developed than the Western life sciences in terms of details and techniques, it has unique advantages in terms of its comprehensive grasp and dynamic observation of life, as well as its emphasis on the development of life potentiality and on the self adjustment and improvement of living bodies. Chen Yingning reestablished a Daoist bionomy through Xianxue 仙学 ( (...) of Immortals) which involves religious faith, philosophy and sciences, leaving us a valuable legacy. To establish a new bionomy system required by the modern society through learning from the Daoist bionomy, the academic circle has to seriously explore the four issues: (1) at the level of faith, to turn the Daoist faith in deities and gods into a pursuit of ideal personality; (2) with respect to the principles of regimen, to extend the dual cultivation into a kind of universal concept; (3) as with the way of regimen, to learn from the regimen thought of Daoism and combine the inner cultivation with the outer one, and static exercise with dynamic exercise; and (4) with regard to the ways of treatment of diseases, to combine the Daoist medicine with the Western medicine. (shrink)
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  8. William Bechtel (2009). Constructing a Philosophy of Science of Cognitive Science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1 (3):548-569.score: 285.0
    Philosophy of science is positioned to make distinctive contributions to cognitive science by providing perspective on its conceptual foundations and by advancing normative recommendations. The philosophy of science I embrace is naturalistic in that it is grounded in the study of actual science. Focusing on explanation, I describe the recent development of a mechanistic philosophy of science from which I draw three normative consequences for cognitive science. First, insofar as cognitive mechanisms are information-processing mechanisms, cognitive science needs (...)
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  9. Matthew Taylor (2007). Philosophy of Religion for as and A. Routledge.score: 285.0
    Endorsed by OCR for use with the OCR AS and A2 Religious Studies specifications. This tailor-made, up-to-date guide sets a new standard within the field. Written by an experienced teacher and edited by an experienced A-level examiner, this lively and student-friendly textbook strictly follows the OCR syllabus, covering all the areas integral to the course. Each chapter includes features such as explanations of key terminology, example examination questions, suggestions for activities and discussion, and recommended further reading. Philosophy of (...)
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  10. Elizabeth Burns & Stephen Law (eds.) (2004). Philosophy for as and A. Routledge.score: 279.0
    Philosophy for AS and A2 is the definitive textbook for students of Advanced Subsidiary or Advanced Level courses, structured directly around the specification of the AQA - the only exam board to offer these courses. Following a lively foreword by Nigel Warburton, author of Philosophy: The Basics , a team of experienced teachers devote a chapter each to the six themes covered by the syllabus: AS * Theory of Knowledge * Moral Philosophy * Philosophy of (...)
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  11. Anita Konzelmann Ziv (2008). Naturalized Rationality – A Glance at Bolzano's Philosophy of Mind. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 4 (1):1-21.score: 279.0
    Bernard Bolzano's philosophy of mind is closely related to his metaphysical conceptions of substance, adherence and force. Questions as to how the mind is working are treated in terms of efficient (causal) faculties producing simple and complex representations, conclusive and non-conclusive judgments, and meta-representational attitudes such as believing and knowing. My paper outlines the proximity of Bolzano's account of "mental forces" to contemporary accounts of faculty psychology such as Modularity Theory and Simple Heuristics. While the modularist notions of domain (...)
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  12. K. Brad Wray (2013). Specialization in Philosophy: A Preliminary Study. Scientometrics.score: 279.0
    I examine the degree of specialization in various sub-fields of philosophy, drawing on data from the PhilPapers Survey. The following three sub-fields are highly specialized: Ancient philosophy, seventeenth/eighteenth century philosophy, and philosophy of physics. The following sub-fields have a low level of specialization: metaphilosophy, philosophy of religion, philosophy of probability, philosophy of the social sciences, decision theory, and philosophy of race and gender. Highly specialized sub-fields tend to require extensive knowledge in (...)
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  13. Ana Bazac (2011). Philosophy and Reform: A Word About Current Philosophy – Religion Dialogue Within the Romanian Educational System. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 10 (28):108-128.score: 279.0
    Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The analysis aims at showing that the position of philosophy in society depends upon two factors: the real spirit of reform born from philosophy and the appetence of society for reform. The first part of the present study provides a short historical illustration of the genuine character of (...)
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  14. Michael W. Austin (ed.) (2007). Running & Philosophy: A Marathon for the Mind. Blackwell Pub..score: 279.0
    A unique anthology of essays exploring the philosophical wisdom runners contemplate when out for a run. It features writings from some of America’s leading philosophers, including Martha Nussbaum, Charles Taliaferro, and J.P. Moreland. A first-of-its-kind collection of essays exploring those gems of philosophical wisdom runners contemplate when out for a run Topics considered include running and the philosophy of friendship; the freedom of the long distance runner; running as aesthetic experience, and “Could a Zombie Run a Marathon?” Contributing essayists (...)
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  15. James Fieser & Norman Lillegard (eds.) (2002). A Historical Introduction to Philosophy: Texts and Interactive Guides. Oxford University Press.score: 279.0
    Featuring a unique pedagogical apparatus, A Historical Introduction to Philosophy: Texts and Interactive Guides provides selections from the most influential primary works in philosophy from the Presocratics through the twentieth century, integrating them with substantial commentary and study questions. It offers extensive treatment of the Hellenistic and Renaissance periods--which are typically given only minimal coverage in other anthologies--and devotes substantial chapters to nineteenth- and twentieth-century philosophy. The selections are organized historically and are presented in short and manageable (...)
     
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  16. Mamta Swaroop, Sagar C. Galwankar, Stanislaw Pa Stawicki, Jayaraj M. Balakrishnan, Tamara Worlton, Ravi S. Tripathi, David P. Bahner, Sanjeev Bhoi, Colin Kaide & Thomas J. Papadimos (2014). The 9th Annual INDUS-EM 2013 Emergency Medicine Summit, “Principles, Practices, and Patients,” a Level One International Meeting, Kerala University of Health Sciences and Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala, India, October 23–27, 2013. [REVIEW] Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 9 (1):8.score: 273.0
    INDUS-EM is India’s only level one conference imparting and exchanging quality knowledge in acute care. Specifically, in general and specialized emergency care and training in trauma, burns, cardiac, stroke, environmental and disaster medicine. It provides a series of exchanges regarding academic development and implementation of training tools related to developing future academic faculty and residents in Emergency Medicine in India. The INDUS-EM leadership and board of directors invited scholars from multiple institutions to participate in this advanced educational symposium that (...)
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  17. William J. Rapaport (1986). Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence: A Course Outline. Teaching Philosophy 9 (2):103-120.score: 270.0
    In the Fall of 1983, I offered a junior/senior-level course in Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence, in the Department of Philosophy at SUNY Fredonia, after returning there from a year’s leave to study and do research in computer science and artificial intelligence (AI) at SUNY Buffalo. Of the 30 students enrolled, most were computerscience majors, about a third had no computer background, and only a handful had studied any philosophy. (I might note that enrollments have subsequently increased (...)
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  18. Enrique Dussel (2009). A New Age in the History of Philosophy: The World Dialogue Between Philosophical Traditions. Philosophy and Social Criticism 35 (5):499-516.score: 270.0
    This article argues the following points. (1) It is necessary to affirm that all of humanity has always sought to address certain `core universal problems' that are present in all cultures. (2) The rational responses to these `core problems' first acquire the shape of mythical narratives. (3) The formulation of categorical philosophical discourses is a subsequent development in human rationality, which does not, however, negate all mythical narratives. These discourses arose in all the great urban neolithic cultures (even if only (...)
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  19. Roberta L. Millstein (2006). Natural Selection as a Population-Level Causal Process. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (4):627-653.score: 270.0
    Recent discussions in the philosophy of biology have brought into question some fundamental assumptions regarding evolutionary processes, natural selection in particular. Some authors argue that natural selection is nothing but a population-level, statistical consequence of lower-level events (Matthen and Ariew [2002]; Walsh et al. [2002]). On this view, natural selection itself does not involve forces. Other authors reject this purely statistical, population-level account for an individual-level, causal account of natural selection (Bouchard and Rosenberg [2004]). I (...)
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  20. Alex Voorhoeve (2001). Review of Alex Rosenberg's Philosophy of Science: A Contemporary Introduction. Routledge, London, 2000. Pp. 191. For Philosophy Today, 2001. [REVIEW] Philosophy Today 14:8-9.score: 270.0
    Philosophy of Science is a mid-level text for students with some grounding in philosophy. It introduces the questions that drive enquiry in the philosophy of science, and aims to educate readers in the main positions, problems and arguments in the field today. Alex Rosenberg is certainly well qualified to write such an introduction. His works cover a large area of the philosophy of natural and social sciences. In addition, the author of the argument that the (...)
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  21. Christian Lotz (2009). Representation or Sensation? A Critique of Deleuze’s Philosophy of Painting. Sympsium. Canadian Journal for Continental Philosophy 13 (1):59-73.score: 270.0
    In this paper I shall present an argument against Deleuze’s philosophy of painting. Deleuze’s main thesis in Logic of Sensation is twofold: [1] he claims that painting is based on a non-representational level; and [2] he claims that this level comes out of the materiality of painting. I shall claim that Deleuze’s theses should be rejected for the following reasons: first, the difference between non-intentional life and the representational world is too strict. I submit that the non-intentional (...)
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  22. Charles E. Zimmerman Jr (2007). There's a Deaf Student in Your Philosophy Class—Now What? Teaching Philosophy 30 (4):421-442.score: 270.0
    Having a deaf student in class can pose a tremendous challenge for both the professor and the student, but it can also be an incredibly rewarding experience. To help make it so, this article briefly covers the differences between American Sign Language and English and then identifies aspects of linguistic skills where the deaf student may encounter difficulty in dealing with Philosophy. Those discussed are inadequate vocabulary, problems in reading and writing, insufficient background or “life” information, and difficulty in (...)
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  23. Willem A. deVries & Timm Triplett (2000). Knowledge, Mind, and the Given: A Reading of Sellars’ “Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind”. Hackett.score: 270.0
    This is a careful explication of and commentary on Wilfrid Sellars's classic essay "Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind" [EPM]. It is appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and beyond. The full text of EPM is included in the volume.
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  24. Jerome Gellman (2011). I Called to God From a Narrow Place a Wide Future for Philosophy of Religion. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 3 (1):43 - 66.score: 270.0
    I urge philosophers of religion to investigate far more vigorously than they have until now the acceptability of varied components of the world religions and their epistemological underpinnings. By evaluating "acceptability" I mean evaluation of truth, morality, spiritual efficacy and human flourishing, in fact, any value religious devotees might think significant to their religious lives. Secondly, I urge that philosophers of religion give more attention to what scholars have called the "esoteric" level of world religions, including components of strong (...)
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  25. Anthony F. Beavers & Derek Jones (2014). Philosophy in the Age of Information: A Symposium on Luciano Floridi's The Philosophy of Information. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 24 (1):1-3.score: 267.0
    This special issue of Minds and Machines contains a number of responses to Luciano Floridi’s groundbreaking Philosophy of Information (Oxford 2011). The essays contained here have been grouped by topic; essays 1–5 concern epistemological features of Floridi’s approach, and essays 6–8 address his metaphysics.In “On Floridi’s Method of Levels ofion”, Jan van Leeuwen addresses Floridi’s operational definition of a level of abstraction. Emphasizing the link between Floridi’s notion of abstraction and that used in computer science, van Leeuven notes (...)
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  26. H. Rosa (2004). Four Levels of Self-Interpretation: A Paradigm for Interpretive Social Philosophy and Political Criticism. Philosophy and Social Criticism 30 (5-6):691-720.score: 265.0
    If we are to find the criteria for critical analyses of social arrangements and processes not in some abstract, universalist framework, but from the guiding ‘self-interpretations’ of the societies in question, as contemporary contextualist and ‘communitarian’ approaches to social philosophy suggest, the vexing question arises as to where these self-interpretations can be found and how they are identified. The paper presents a model according to which there are four interdependent as well as partially autonomous spheres or ‘levels’ of socially (...)
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  27. Joseph Shieber (2010). On the Nature of Thought Experiments and a Core Motivation of Experimental Philosophy. Philosophical Psychology 23 (4):547-564.score: 261.0
    In this paper I discuss some underlying motivations common to most strands of experimental philosophy, noting that most forms of experimental philosophy have a commitment to the claim that certain empirical evidence concerning the level of agreement on intuitive judgments across cultures, ethnic groups or socioeconomic strata impugns the role that intuitions play in traditional “armchair” philosophy. I then develop an argument to suggest that, even if one were to grant the truth of the data adduced (...)
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  28. Stuart R. Hameroff (1998). "Funda-Mentality": Is the Conscious Mind Subtly Linked to a Basic Level of the Universe? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (4):119-124.score: 261.0
    Age-old battle lines over the puzzling nature of mental experience are shaping a modern resurgence in the study of consciousness. On one side are the long-dominant "physicalists" who view consciousness as an emergent property of the brain's neural networks. On the alternative, rebellious side are those who see a necessary added ingredient: proto-conscious experience intrinsic to reality, perhaps understandable through modern physics (panpsychists, pan-experientialists, "funda-mentalists"). It is argued here that the physicalist premise alone is unable to solve completely the difficult (...)
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  29. Huib L. de Jong & Maurice K. D. Schouten (2005). Ruthless Reductionism: A Review Essay of John Bickle's Philosophy and Neuroscience: A Ruthlessly Reductive Account. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 18 (4):473-486.score: 261.0
    John Bickle's new book on philosophy and neuroscience is aptly subtitled 'a ruthlessly reductive account'. His 'new wave metascience' is a massive attack on the relative autonomy that psychology enjoyed until recently, and goes even beyond his previous (Bickle, J. (1998). Psychoneural reduction: The new wave. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.) new wave reductionsism. Reduction of functional psychology to (cognitive) neuroscience is no longer ruthless enough; we should now look rather to cellular or molecular neuroscience at the lowest possible (...) for explanations of memory, consciousness and attention. Bickle presents a fascinating set of experimental cases of such molecule-to-mind explanations. This book qualifies as a showcase of naturalism in the philosophy of mind. Naturally, many of the traditional conceptual approaches in the philosophy of mind are given short shrift, but - in Bickle's metascientific scheme - the role of philosophy of science also seems reduced to explicating laboratory findings. The present reviewers think that this reductionism suffers from overstretching; in particular, the idea of 'explanation in a single bound' from molecule to mind is a bit too ruthless. Still, Bickle's arguments are worth serious attention. (shrink)
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  30. Tudor Baetu (forthcoming). Defining Species: A Multi-Level Approach. Acta Biotheoretica.score: 261.0
    Abstract Different concepts define species at the pattern-level grouping of organisms into discrete clusters, the level of the processes operating within and between populations leading to the formation and maintenance of these clusters, or the level of the inner-organismic genetic and molecular mechanisms that contribute to species cohesion or promote speciation. I argue that, unlike single-level approaches, a multi-level framework takes into account the complex sequences of cause-effect reinforcements leading to the formation and maintenance of (...)
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  31. Kurtis G. Hagen, Confucian Constructivism: A Reconstruction and Application of the Philosophy of Xunzi.score: 261.0
    In Part 1, I offer a "constructivist" interpretation of Xunzi's philosophy. On the constructivist view, there is no privileged description of the world. Concepts, categories, and norms as social constructs help us effectively manage our way through the world, rather than reveal or express univocal knowledge of it. In the opening chapter, I argue that dao should be understood as open ended and that Xunzi's worldview allows for a plurality of legitimate daos-at least at the theoretical level. Chapter (...)
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  32. Luciano Floridi (2010). The Philosophy of Information as a Conceptual Framework. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (1):1-31.score: 261.0
    The article contains the replies to the collection of contributions discussing my research on the philosophy of information.
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  33. Marcelo Dascal, Reframing the Historiography of Philosophy: A Dialectic Approach.score: 261.0
    Kant considered it a scandal that philosophy, unlike science, had been spending its time in fruitless debates, which hindered its progress. In this session, we question Kant’s assessment, and suggest an approach to the history of philosophy that considers controversy as essential in the evolution of philosophical ideas. In his recent work on the Enlightenment, Jonathan Israel has demonstrated the role of the intense debate around radically new philosophical ideas in creating the conceptual underpinnings of revolution and of (...)
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  34. Enrique Dussel (2012). A New Age in the History of Philosophy. Journal of Philosophical Research 37 (Supplement):151-166.score: 261.0
    This paper argues the following points: (1) It is necessary to affirm that humanity has always sought to address certain “core universal problems” that are present in all cultures. (2) The rational responses to these “core problems” first appear as mythical narratives. (3) The formulation of categorical philosophical discourses is a subsequent development in human rationality, which does not however negate all mythical narratives. (4) Modern European philosophy confused its economic, political, and cultural domination, and the resulting crises in (...)
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  35. Andrew Benjamin (2014). Translation and the Nature of Philosophy (Routledge Revivals): A New Theory of Words. Routledge.score: 261.0
    This engrossing study, first published in 1989, explores the basic mutuality between philosophy and translation. By studying the conceptions of translation in Plato, Seneca, Davidson, Walter Benjamin and Freud, Andrew Benjamin reveals the interplay between the two disciplines not only in their relationship to language, but also at a deeper, cognitive level. Benjamin engages throughout with the central tenets of post-structuralism: the concept of a constant yet illusive ‘true’ meaning has lost authority, but remains a problem. The fact (...)
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  36. Walter M. Elsasser (1973). A Natural Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics Based on Induction. Foundations of Physics 3 (1):117-137.score: 246.0
    A systematic effort is here made to express some of the general results of quantum mechanics in a conceptual form closer to ordinary language than is the case with most modern physics. Many of the implications of the theory appear much more clearly thereby, in particular the fact that the laws of quantum mechanics are only statistical propositions about classes, not referring to individual objects. Conversely, the microscopic structure of an object cannot be precisely defined in quantum mechanical terms. To (...)
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  37. Bruce Glymour (1999). Population Level Causation and a Unified Theory of Natural Selection. Biology and Philosophy 14 (4):521-536.score: 243.0
    Sober (1984) presents an account of selection motivated by the view that one property can causally explain the occurrence of another only if the first plays a unique role in the causal production of the second. Sober holds that a causal property will play such a unique role if it is a population level cause of its effect, and on this basis argues that there is selection for a trait T only if T is a population level cause (...)
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  38. Michael Lacewing (2006). Revise Philosophy for AS Level. Routledge.score: 234.0
    A revision guide for students taking Philosophy AS, helping students prepare for the three units they have to take: 1. Theory of knowledge (compulsory) 2. Moral philosophy OR Philosophy of Religion 3. One of the following texts: Plato's The Republic; Descartes' Meditations; Marx and Engels' The German Ideology; or Sartre's Existentialism and Humanism.
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  39. Darrell P. Rowbottom (2011). Kuhn Vs. Popper on Criticism and Dogmatism in Science: A Resolution at the Group Level. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 42 (1):117-124.score: 225.0
    Popper repeatedly emphasised the significance of a critical attitude, and a related critical method, for scientists. Kuhn, however, thought that unquestioning adherence to the theories of the day is proper; at least for ‘normal scientists’. In short, the former thought that dominant theories should be attacked, whereas the latter thought that they should be developed and defended (for the vast majority of the time). -/- Both seem to have missed a trick, however, due to their apparent insistence that each individual (...)
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  40. Marcel Quarfood (2006). Kant on Biological Teleology: Towards a Two-Level Interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (4):735-747.score: 225.0
    Kant stresses the regulative status of teleological attributions, but sometimes he seems to treat teleology as a constitutive condition for biology. To clarify this issue, the concept of natural purpose and its role for biology are examined. I suggest that the concept serves an identificatory function: it singles out objects as natural purposes, whereby the special science of biology is constituted. This relative constitutivity of teleology is explicated by means of a distinction of levels: on the object level of (...)
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  41. Nicolas Rasmussen (2001). Evolving Scientific Epistemologies and the Artifacts of Empirical Philosophy of Science: A Reply Concerning Mesosomes. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 16 (5):627-652.score: 225.0
    In a 1993 paper, I argued that empirical treatments of the epistemologyused by scientists in experimental work are too abstract in practice tocounter relativist efforts to explain the outcome of scientificcontroversies by reference to sociological forces. This was because, atthe rarefied level at which the methodology of scientists is treated byphilosophers, multiple mutually inconsistent instantiations of theprinciples described by philosophers are employed by contestingscientists. These multiple construals change within a scientificcommunity over short time frames, and these different versions ofscientific (...)
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  42. Kenneth Aggerholm, Ejgil Jespersen & Lars Tore Ronglan (2011). Falling For The Feint – An Existential Investigation Of A Creative Performance In High-Level Football. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (3):343 - 358.score: 225.0
    This paper begins with the decisive moment of the 2010 Champions League final, as Diego Milito dribbles past van Buyten to settle the score. By taking a closer look at this situation we witness a complex and ambiguous movement phenomenon that seems to transcend established phenomenological accounts of performance, as a creative performance such as this cannot be reduced to bodily self-awareness or absorbed skilful coping. Instead, the phenomenon of the feint points to a central question we need to ask (...)
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  43. Scott Fleming & Carwyn Jones (2011). The 'Enforcer' in Elite-Level Sport: A Conceptual Critique. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 4 (3):306-318.score: 225.0
    The role of the ?enforcer? in elite-level sports contests is a familiar one. Simply, the role involves establishing or restoring a ?moral balance? to the sporting encounter when it is absent ? usually when match officials are thought to be failing to apply the laws/rules of the game. How the enforcer secures this outcome is more morally contentious as it may involve deliberate violations of the laws/rules of the sport. In this paper we consider the role of the enforcer (...)
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  44. G. S. Axtell (1990). Logicism, Pragmatism, and Metascience: Towards a Pancritical Pragmatic Theory of Meta-Level Discourse. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:39 - 49.score: 225.0
    The faults of logical empiricist accounts of metascientific discourse are examined through a study of the modifications Carnap makes to his version of the program over four decades. As empiricists acquiesced on the distinction between theory and observation, Carnap attempted to retain and insulate an equally suspect sharp distinction between the theoretic and the pragmatic. Carnap's later philosophy was understood as a modification of the program in the direction of pragmatism. But neither the key notion of "external questions" nor (...)
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  45. Ronald Tinnevelt & Helder Schutteder (2008). Global Justice as Justice for a World of Largely Independent Nations? From Dualism to a Multi-Level Ethical Position. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 11 (4):519-538.score: 225.0
    Can global justice simply be seen as social justice writ large? According to Miller it cannot. Seen from the viewpoint of justice there are fundamental differences between the national and international sphere. Just like Nagel he strongly rejects monism. Yet unlike Nagel, Miller does not confine duties of justice to sovereign states. Different forms of human association require different principles of justice. Strangely enough, however, Miller does not replace Nagel?s dualism with a multi?level ethical position, but with a split? (...) one. In this article we argue that ? contrary to Miller?s own claims ? his contextualist view of justice contains the necessary tools for accepting the importance of multiple contexts of justice beyond the nation?state. Even if one is committed to seeing nation?states as the privileged sites of social justice, there is no reason not to recognize substantial amounts of social justice above the nation?state level. (shrink)
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  46. Elizabeth Burns & Michael Lacewing (2004). Essay Writing and Exam Preparation. In Elizabeth Burns & Stephen Law (eds.), Philosophy for as and A. Routledge.score: 216.0
  47. John Bickle (2005). Precis of Philosophy and Neuroscience: A Ruthlessly Reductive Account. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4 (3):231-238.score: 216.0
    This book precis describes the motives behind my recent attempt to bring to bear “ruthlessly reductive” results from cellular and molecular neuroscience onto issues in the philosophy of mind. Since readers of this journal will probably be most interested in results addressing features of conscious experience, I highlight these most prominently. My main challenge is that philosophers (even scientifically-inspired ones) are missing the nature and scope of reductionism in contemporary neuroscience by focusing exclusively on higher-level cognitive neuroscience, and (...)
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  48. William P. Bechtel, Pete Mandik, Jennifer Mundale & Robert S. Stufflebeam (eds.) (2001). Philosophy and the Neurosciences: A Reader. Blackwell.score: 216.0
    2. Daugman, J. G. Brain metaphor and brain theory 3. Mundale, J. Neuroanatomical Foundations of Cognition: Connecting the Neuronal Level with the Study of Higher Brain Areas.
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  49. Luiz Pessoa, Evan Thompson & Alva Noë (1998). Finding Out About Filling-In: A Guide to Perceptual Completion for Visual Science and the Philosophy of Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (21):723–802.score: 216.0
    In visual science the term filling-inis used in different ways, which often leads to confusion. This target article presents a taxonomy of perceptual completion phenomena to organize and clarify theoretical and empirical discussion. Examples of boundary completion (illusory contours) and featural completion (color, brightness, motion, texture, and depth) are examined, and single-cell studies relevant to filling-in are reviewed and assessed. Filling-in issues must be understood in relation to theoretical issues about neuralignoring an absencejumping to a conclusionanalytic isomorphismCartesian materialism, a particular (...)
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