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Atsushi Asai [20]A. Asai [7]
  1. Atsushi Asai (forthcoming). Tsunami-Tendenko and Morality in Disasters. Journal of Medical Ethics:2013-101629.
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  2. Y. Kadooka, A. Asai, M. Fukuyama & S. Bito (2014). A Comparative Survey on Potentially Futile Treatments Between Japanese Nurses and Laypeople. Nursing Ethics 21 (1):64-75.
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  3. Sakiko Masaki, Hiroko Ishimoto & Atsushi Asai (2014). Contemporary Issues Concerning Informed Consent in Japan Based on a Review of Court Decisions and Characteristics of Japanese Culture. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):8.
    Since Japan adopted the concept of informed consent from the West, its inappropriate acquisition from patients in the Japanese clinical setting has continued, due in part to cultural aspects. Here, we discuss the current status of and contemporary issues surrounding informed consent in Japan, and how these are influenced by Japanese culture.
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  4. Noriko Nagao, Yasuhiro Kadooka & Atsushi Asai (2014). Comparison of Ethical Judgments Exhibited by Clients and Ethics Consultants in Japan. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):19.
    Healthcare professionals must make decisions for patients based on ethical considerations. However, they rely on clinical ethics consultations (CEC) to review ethical justifications of their decisions. CEC consultants support the cases reviewed and guide medical care. When both healthcare professionals and CEC consultants face ethical problems in medical care, how is their judgment derived? How do medical judgments differ from the ethical considerations of CECs? This study examines CECs in Japan to identify differences in the ethical judgment of clients and (...)
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  5. Kuniko Aizawa, Atsushi Asai & Seiji Bito (2013). Defining Futile Life-Prolonging Treatments Through Neo-Socratic Dialogue. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):51.
    In Japan, people are negative towards life-prolonging treatments. Laws that regulate withholding or discontinuing life-prolonging treatments and advance directives do not exist. Physicians, however, view discontinuing life-prolonging treatments negatively due to fears of police investigations. Although ministerial guidelines were announced regarding the decision process for end-of-life care in 2007, a consensus could not be reached on the definition of end-of-life and conditions for withholding treatment. We established a forum for extended discussions and consensus building on this topic.
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  6. Atsushi Asai & Hiroko Ishimoto (2013). Should We Maintain Baby Hatches in Our Society? BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):1-7.
    BackgroundA baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches.DiscussionThere are (...)
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  7. Atsushi Asai & Yasuhiro Kadooka (2013). Reexamination of the Ethics of Placebo Use in Clinical Practice. Bioethics 27 (4):186-193.
    A placebo is a substance or intervention believed to be inactive, but is administered by the healthcare professional as if it was an active medication. Unlike standard treatments, clinical use of placebo usually involves deception and is therefore ethically problematic. Our attitudes toward the clinical use of placebo, which inevitably includes deception or withholding information, have a tremendous effect on our practice regarding truth-telling and informed consent. A casual attitude towards it weakens the current practice based on shared decision-making and (...)
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  8. Sakiko Masaki & Atsushi Asai (2013). Seeing-Off of Dead Bodies at Death Discharges in Japan. Medical Humanities 39 (2):131-136.
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  9. A. Asai, S. Maki & Y. Kadooka (2012). Ethical Reflections on the Thoughts and Lives of Kurosawa's Doctors. Medical Humanities 38 (1):38-43.
    The year 2010 marked the centenary of the birth of Akira Kurosawa (1910–1998), whose works have been reassessed favourably in the last couple of years in Japan. During his lifetime, Kurosawa directed and produced three films whose chief characters are medical doctors: Drunken Angel (1948), The Quiet Duel (1949) and Red Beard (1965). This paper discusses these three films and examines the thoughts and lives of the three protagonists from the perspective of modern medical ethics. The films depict contemporary ethical (...)
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  10. Yasuhiro Kadooka, Atsushi Asai & Seiji Bito (2012). Can Physicians' Judgments of Futility Be Accepted by Patients?: A Comparative Survey of Japanese Physicians and Laypeople. BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):7.
    Back groundEmpirical surveys about medical futility are scarce relative to its theoretical assumptions. We aimed to evaluate the difference of attitudes between laypeople and physicians towards the issue.MethodsA questionnaire survey was designed. Japanese laypeople (via Internet) and physicians with various specialties (via paper-and-pencil questionnaire) were asked about whether they would provide potentially futile treatments for end-of-life patients in vignettes, important factors for judging a certain treatment futile, and threshold of quantitative futility which reflects the numerical probability that an act will (...)
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  11. A. Asai, M. Fukuyama & Y. Kobayashi (2010). Contemporary Japanese View of Life and Death as Depicted in the Film Departures (Okuribito). Medical Humanities 36 (1):31-35.
    Through films, we can see many aspects of a country and its times: culture, morality and religion, and views on life and death. The best films can both entertain audiences and provide viewers with opportunities to think about fundamental human problems. In this article, we use Departures (Okuribito) to examine the contemporary Japanese view of life and death. All sorts of deaths are depicted and each scene provides an insight into the contemporary Japanese view of death. We use the medium (...)
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  12. Atsushi Asai, Yasuhiro Kadooka & Kuniko Aizawa (2010). Arguments Against Promoting Organ Transplants From Brain-Dead Donors, and Views of Contemporary Japanese on Life and Death. Bioethics 26 (4):215-223.
    As of 2009, the number of donors in Japan is the lowest among developed countries. On July 13, 2009, Japan's Organ Transplant Law was revised for the first time in 12 years. The revised and old laws differ greatly on four primary points: the definition of death, age requirements for donors, requirements for brain-death determination and organ extraction, and the appropriateness of priority transplants for relatives.In the four months of deliberations in the National Diet before the new law was established, (...)
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  13. A. Asai, Y. Sato & M. Fukuyama (2009). An Ethical and Social Examination of Dementia as Depicted in Japanese Film. Medical Humanities 35 (1):39-42.
    The ageing population means that dementia is a serious social problem in Japan. Attitudes toward ageing in Japan are increasingly negative, and views of life and death among older people vary. Numerous ethical problems exist in the medical treatment of dementia. Amidst such conditions, it is important and beneficial to examine films that depict demented patients and to consider the issues raised by these films. Through film we see many aspects of a country and its times: culture and ideology, morality (...)
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  14. M. Fukuyama, A. Asai, K. Itai & S. Bito (2008). A Report on Small Team Clinical Ethics Consultation Programmes in Japan. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (12):858-862.
    Clinical ethics support, including ethics consultation, has become established in the field of medical practice throughout the world. This practice has been regarded as useful, most notably in the UK and the USA, in solving ethical problems encountered by both medical practitioners and those who receive medical treatment. In Japan, however, few services are available to respond to everyday clinical ethical issues, although a variety of difficult ethical problems arise daily in the medical field: termination of life support, euthanasia and (...)
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  15. Kayoko Ohnishi, Yumiko Hayama, Atsushi Asai & Shinji Kosugi (2008). The Process of Whistleblowing in a Japanese Psychiatric Hospital. Nursing Ethics 15 (5):631-642.
    This study aims to unveil the process of whistleblowing. Two nursing staff members who worked in a psychiatric hospital convicted of large-scale wrongdoing were interviewed. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Analysis of the interviews demonstrated that they did not decide to whistleblow when they were suspicious or had an awareness of wrongdoing. They continued to work, driven by appreciation, affection, and a sense of duty. Their decision to whistleblow was ultimately motivated by firm conviction. Shortly after (...)
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  16. Seiji Bito & Atsushi Asai (2007). Attitudes and Behaviors of Japanese Physicians Concerning Withholding and Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Treatment for End-of-Life Patients: Results From an Internet Survey. BMC Medical Ethics 8 (1):1-9.
    Background Evidence concerning how Japanese physicians think and behave in specific clinical situations that involve withholding or withdrawal of medical interventions for end-of-life or frail elderly patients is yet insufficient. Methods To analyze decisions and actions concerning the withholding/withdrawal of life-support care by Japanese physicians, we conducted cross-sectional web-based internet survey presenting three scenarios involving an elderly comatose patient following a severe stroke. Volunteer physicians were recruited for the survey through mailing lists and medical journals. The respondents answered questions concerning (...)
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  17. Takao Takahashi & Atsushi Asai (eds.) (2007). Nihon No Seimei Rinri: Kaiko to Tenbō. Kyūshū Daigaku Shuppankai.
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  18. Alireza Bagheri, Atsushi Asai & Ryuichi Ida (2006). Experts' Attitudes Towards Medical Futility: An Empirical Survey From Japan. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-7.
    BackgroundThe current debate about medical futility is mostly driven by theoretical and personal perspectives and there is a lack of empirical data to document experts and public attitudes towards medical futility.MethodsTo examine the attitudes of the Japanese experts in the fields relevant to medical futility a questionnaire survey was conducted among the members of the Japan Association for Bioethics. A total number of 108 questionnaires returned filled in, giving a response rate of 50.9%. Among the respondents 62% were healthcare professionals (...)
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  19. Atsushi Asai & O. E. Sachi (2005). A Valuable Up-to-Date Compendium of Bioethical Knowledge. Developing World Bioethics 5 (3):216–219.
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  20. Atsushi Asai, Motoki Ohnishi, Etsuyo Nishigaki, Miho Sekimoto, Shunichi Fukuhara & Tsuguya Fukui (2004). Focus Group Interviews Examining Attitudes Towards Medical Research Among the Japanese: A Qualitative Study. Bioethics 18 (5):448–470.
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  21. Atsushi Asai, Motoki Ohnishi, Etsuyo Nishigaki, Miho Sekimoto, Shunichi Fukuhara & Tsuguya Fukui (2002). Attitudes of the Japanese Public and Doctors Towards Use of Archived Information and Samples Without Informed Consent: Preliminary Findings Based on Focus Group Interviews. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 3 (1):1-10.
    Background The purpose of this study is to explore laypersons' attitudes toward the use of archived (existing) materials such as medical records and biological samples and to compare them with the attitudes of physicians who are involved in medical research. Methods Three focus group interviews were conducted, in which seven Japanese male members of the general public, seven female members of the general public and seven physicians participated. Results It was revealed that the lay public expressed diverse attitudes towards the (...)
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  22. Noritoshi Tanida, Atsushi Asai, Motoki Ohnishi, Shizuko K. Nagata, Tsuguya Fukui, Yasuji Yamazaki & Helga Kuhse (2002). Voluntary Active Euthanasia and the Nurse: A Comparison of Japanese and Australian Nurses. Nursing Ethics 9 (3):313-322.
    Although euthanasia has been a pressing ethical and public issue, empirical data are lacking in Japan. We aimed to explore Japanese nurses’ attitudes to patients’ requests for euthanasia and to estimate the proportion of nurses who have taken active steps to hasten death. A postal survey was conducted between October and December 1999 among all nurse members of the Japanese Association of Palliative Medicine, using a self-administered questionnaire based on the one used in a previous survey with Australian nurses in (...)
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  23. Atsushi Asai, Motoki Ohnishi, Shizuko K. Nagata, Noritoshi Tanida & Yasuji Yamazaki (2001). Doctors' and Nurses' Attitudes Towards and Experiences of Voluntary Euthanasia: Survey of Members of the Japanese Association of Palliative Medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (5):324-330.
    Objective—To demonstrate Japanese doctors' and nurses' attitudes towards and practices of voluntary euthanasia (VE) and to compare their attitudes and practices in this regard. Design—Postal survey, conducted between October and December 1999, using a self-administered questionnaire.Participants—All doctor members and nurse members of the Japanese Association of Palliative Medicine.Main outcome measure—Doctors' and nurses' attitude towards and practices of VE.Results—We received 366 completed questionnaires from 642 doctors surveyed (response rate, 58%) and 145 from 217 nurses surveyed (68%). A total of 54% (95% (...)
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  24. Teresa Chikako Maruyama & Atsushi Asai (2001). Book Reviews-Hospice Care and Culture: A Comparison of the Hospice Movement in the West and Japan. Bioethics-Oxford 15 (2):157-159.
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  25. A. Asai, M. Maekawa, I. Akiguchi, T. Fukui, Y. Miura, N. Tanabe & S. Fukuhara (1999). Survey of Japanese Physicians' Attitudes Towards the Care of Adult Patients in Persistent Vegetative State. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (4):302-308.
  26. Atsushi Asai, Minako Kishino, Tsuguya Fukui, Masahiko Sakai, Masako Yokota, Kazumi Nakata, Sumiko Sasakabe, Kiyomi Sawada & Fumie Kaiji (1998). Choices of Japanese Patients in the Face of Disagreement. Bioethics 12 (2):162–172.
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  27. A. Asai, S. Fukuhara, O. Inoshita, Y. Miura, N. Tanabe & K. Kurokawa (1997). Medical Decisions Concerning the End of Life: A Discussion with Japanese Physicians. Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (5):323-327.
    OBJECTIVES: Life-sustaining treatment at the end of life gives rise to many ethical problems in Japan. Recent surveys of Japanese physicians suggested that they tend to treat terminally ill patients aggressively. We studied why Japanese physicians were reluctant to withhold or withdraw life-support from terminally ill patients and what affected their decisions. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A qualitative study design was employed, using a focus group interview with seven physicians, to gain an in-depth understanding of attitudes and rationales in Japan regarding (...)
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