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Alan Baker [27]A. J. Baker [16]Allan J. Baker [4]A. Harvey Baker [4]
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Profile: Alan Baker (Swarthmore College)
Profile: Amanda Corinne Baker
Profile: Adam Baker
Profile: Alexander Baker (Universidad de Murcia)
Profile: Ann Baker (University of Washington)
Profile: Anthony Baker
Profile: Antoine Baker
Profile: Al Baker (University of Sheffield)
Profile: Anna Baker (University of Edinburgh)
  1. Alan Baker (2005). Are There Genuine Mathematical Explanations of Physical Phenomena? Mind 114 (454):223-238.
    Many explanations in science make use of mathematics. But are there cases where the mathematical component of a scientific explanation is explanatory in its own right? This issue of mathematical explanations in science has been for the most part neglected. I argue that there are genuine mathematical explanations in science, and present in some detail an example of such an explanation, taken from evolutionary biology, involving periodical cicadas. I also indicate how the answer to my title question impacts on broader (...)
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  2. Alan Baker (2009). Mathematical Explanation in Science. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (3):611-633.
    Does mathematics ever play an explanatory role in science? If so then this opens the way for scientific realists to argue for the existence of mathematical entities using inference to the best explanation. Elsewhere I have argued, using a case study involving the prime-numbered life cycles of periodical cicadas, that there are examples of indispensable mathematical explanations of purely physical phenomena. In this paper I respond to objections to this claim that have been made by various philosophers, and I discuss (...)
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  3.  36
    A. J. Baker (1967). If and ⊃. Mind 76 (303):437-438.
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  4. Alan Baker & Mark Colyvan (2011). Indexing and Mathematical Explanation. Philosophia Mathematica 19 (3):323-334.
    We discuss a recent attempt by Chris Daly and Simon Langford to do away with mathematical explanations of physical phenomena. Daly and Langford suggest that mathematics merely indexes parts of the physical world, and on this understanding of the role of mathematics in science, there is no need to countenance mathematical explanation of physical facts. We argue that their strategy is at best a sketch and only looks plausible in simple cases. We also draw attention to how frequently Daly and (...)
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  5.  38
    A. Baker (2012). Science-Driven Mathematical Explanation. Mind 121 (482):243-267.
    Philosophers of mathematics have become increasingly interested in the explanatory role of mathematics in empirical science, in the context of new versions of the Quinean ‘Indispensability Argument’ which employ inference to the best explanation for the existence of abstract mathematical objects. However, little attention has been paid to analysing the nature of the explanatory relation involved in these mathematical explanations in science (MES). In this paper, I attack the only articulated account of MES in the literature (an account sketched by (...)
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  6.  71
    Alan Baker, Simplicity. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  7.  72
    Alan Baker (2003). Quantitative Parsimony and Explanatory Power. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (2):245-259.
    The desire to minimize the number of individual new entities postulated is often referred to as quantitative parsimony. Its influence on the default hypotheses formulated by scientists seems undeniable. I argue that there is a wide class of cases for which the preference for quantitatively parsimonious hypotheses is demonstrably rational. The justification, in a nutshell, is that such hypotheses have greater explanatory power than less parsimonious alternatives. My analysis is restricted to a class of cases I shall refer to as (...)
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  8.  61
    A. Baker (2003). Does the Existence of Mathematical Objects Make a Difference? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (2):246 – 264.
    In this paper I examine a strategy which aims to bypass the technicalities of the indispensability debate and to offer a direct route to nominalism. The starting-point for this alternative nominalist strategy is the claim that--according to the platonist picture--the existence of mathematical objects makes no difference to the concrete, physical world. My principal goal is to show that the 'Makes No Difference' (MND) Argument does not succeed in undermining platonism. The basic reason why not is that the makes-no-difference claim (...)
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  9.  63
    Alan Baker (2008). Experimental Mathematics. Erkenntnis 68 (3):331 - 344.
    The rise of the field of “<span class='Hi'>experimental</span> mathematics” poses an apparent challenge to traditional philosophical accounts of mathematics as an a priori, non-empirical endeavor. This paper surveys different attempts to characterize <span class='Hi'>experimental</span> mathematics. One suggestion is that <span class='Hi'>experimental</span> mathematics makes essential use of electronic computers. A second suggestion is that <span class='Hi'>experimental</span> mathematics involves support being gathered for an hypothesis which is inductive rather than deductive. Each of these options turns out to be inadequate, and instead a (...)
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  10. Alan Baker (2001). Mathematics, Indispensability and Scientific Progress. Erkenntnis 55 (1):85-116.
  11.  37
    A. Baker (2007). Occam's Razor in Science: A Case Study From Biogeography. Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):193-215.
  12.  83
    A. Baker (2010). Mathematical Induction and Explanation. Analysis 70 (4):681-689.
  13.  69
    Alan Baker (2003). The Indispensability Argument and Multiple Foundations for Mathematics. Philosophical Quarterly 53 (210):49–67.
    One recent trend in the philosophy of mathematics has been to approach the central epistemological and metaphysical issues concerning mathematics from the perspective of the applications of mathematics to describing the world, especially within the context of empirical science. A second area of activity is where philosophy of mathematics intersects with foundational issues in mathematics, including debates over the choice of set-theoretic axioms, and over whether category theory, for example, may provide an alternative foundation for mathematics. My central claim is (...)
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  14.  57
    Alan Baker (1999). Are the Laws of Nature Deductively Closed? In H. Sankey (ed.), Causation and Laws of Nature. Kluwer Academic Press 91--109.
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  15.  8
    Alan Baker (forthcoming). Parsimony and Inference to the Best Mathematical Explanation. Synthese:1-18.
    Indispensability-based arguments for mathematical platonism are typically motivated by drawing an analogy between abstract mathematical objects and concrete scientific posits. In this paper, I argue that mathematics can sometimes help to reduce our concrete ontological, ideological, and structural commitments. My focus is on optimization explanations, and in particular the case study involving periodical cicadas. I argue that in this case, stronger mathematical apparatus yields explanations that have fewer concrete commitments. The nominalist cannot accept these more parsimonious explanations without embracing the (...)
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  16.  6
    A. J. Baker (1967). If and $\Mathbb{\Supset}$. Mind 76 (303):437 - 438.
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  17.  6
    Alfreda Baker (1988). Perkins, Pascal, and the Power of Critical Thinking. Inquiry 1 (4):5-5.
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  18.  41
    Alan Baker, Non-Deductive Methods in Mathematics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  19.  1
    Adrian Baker, Jonathan Potter, Katharine Young & Ira Madan (2011). The Applicability of Grading Systems for Guidelines. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (4):758-762.
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  20.  23
    Alan Baker (2015). Christopher Pincockmathematics and Scientific Representation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (3):695-699.
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  21.  83
    Christopher Pincock, Alan Baker, Alexander Paseau & Mary Leng (2012). Science and Mathematics: The Scope and Limits of Mathematical Fictionalism. [REVIEW] Metascience 21 (2):269-294.
    Science and mathematics: the scope and limits of mathematical fictionalism Content Type Journal Article Category Book Symposium Pages 1-26 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9640-3 Authors Christopher Pincock, University of Missouri, 438 Strickland Hall, Columbia, MO 65211-4160, USA Alan Baker, Department of Philosophy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081, USA Alexander Paseau, Wadham College, Oxford, OX1 3PN UK Mary Leng, Department of Philosophy, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD UK Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  22.  27
    Alan Baker (2008). Complexity Unfavoured. Analysis 68 (297):85–88.
  23.  31
    Alan Baker (2007). Drinking Discretely: Parsons's Old Peculiar. Analysis 67 (296):318–321.
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  24.  10
    A. J. Baker (1986). Australian Realism: The Systematic Philosophy of John Anderson. Cambridge University Press.
    This book outlines the realist and pluralist philosophy of John Anderson, Australia's most original thinker. His teaching at Sydney University and his arti6es have deeply influenced Australian intellectual life. Several main themes run through his work, but Anderson never gave an overall account of his views. This is remedied here: exhibiting the range of Anderson's thought from logic, epistemology and theory of mind, to language and social theory, this volume sketches realism as a systematic philosophical position, while showing something of (...)
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  25. Alan Baker (2007). Is There a Problem of Induction for Mathematics? In M. Potter (ed.), Mathematical Knowledge. Oxford University Press 57-71.
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  26.  6
    Arthur Latham Baker (1905). A Circular Polygon. The Monist 15 (3):462-466.
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  27.  3
    Arthur Baker (1908). An Esperanto Grammar. The Monist 18 (2):317-317.
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  28.  52
    A. J. Baker (1955). Incompatible Hypotheticals and the Barber Shop Paradox. Mind 64 (255):384-387.
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  29.  63
    A. J. Baker (1956). Presupposition and Types of Clause. Mind 65 (259):368-378.
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  30.  40
    Alan Baker (2010). No Reservations Required? Defending Anti-Nominalism. Studia Logica 96 (2):127-139.
    In a 2005 paper, John Burgess and Gideon Rosen offer a new argument against nominalism in the philosophy of mathematics. The argument proceeds from the thesis that mathematics is part of science, and that core existence theorems in mathematics are both accepted by mathematicians and acceptable by mathematical standards. David Liggins (2007) criticizes the argument on the grounds that no adequate interpretation of “acceptable by mathematical standards” can be given which preserves the soundness of the overall argument. In this discussion (...)
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  31.  4
    Agnes Bäker, Werner Güth, Kerstin Pull & Manfred Stadler (2014). Entitlement and the Efficiency-Equality Trade-Off: An Experimental Study. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 76 (2):225-240.
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  32.  9
    Lawrence J. Niles, Jonathan Bart, Humphrey P. Sitters, Amanda D. Dey, Kathleen E. Clark, Phillip W. Atkinson, Allan J. Baker, Karen A. Bennett, Kevin S. Kalasz & Nigel A. Clark (2009). Effects of Horseshoe Crab Harvest in Delaware Bay on Red Knots: Are Harvest Restrictions Working? BioScience 59 (2):153-164.
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  33.  23
    Alan Baker (2013). Complexity, Networks, and Non-Uniqueness. Foundations of Science 18 (4):687-705.
    The aim of the paper is to introduce some of the history and key concepts of network science to a philosophical audience, and to highlight a crucial—and often problematic—presumption that underlies the network approach to complex systems. Network scientists often talk of “the structure” of a given complex system or phenomenon, which encourages the view that there is a unique and privileged structure inherent to the system, and that the aim of a network model is to delineate this structure. I (...)
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  34.  8
    Alan Baker (2002). The Foundations of Mathematics in the Theory of Sets. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80 (4):533-534.
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  35.  24
    Alan Baker (2005). Malebranche's Occasionalism. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 79 (2):251-272.
    The core thesis of Malebranche’s doctrine of occasionalism is that God is the sole true cause, where a true cause is one that has the power to initiate change and for which the mind perceives a necessary connection between it and its effects. Malebranche gives two separate arguments for his core thesis, T, based on necessary connection and on divine power respectively. The standard view is that these two arguments are necessary to establish T. I argue for a reinterpretation of (...)
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  36.  28
    A. J. Baker (1972). Syllogistic with Complex Terms. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 13 (1):69-87.
  37.  7
    Alan Baker (2010). A Medley of Philosophy of Mathematics. Metascience 19 (2):221-224.
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  38.  15
    A. J. Baker (1977). Classical Logical Relations. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 18 (1):164-168.
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  39. A. J. Baker (1979). Anderson's Social Philosophy. Angus & Robertson.
  40.  20
    Aaron Baker & Gavin Phillipson (2011). Policing, Profiling and Discrimination Law: US and European Approaches Compared. Journal of Global Ethics 7 (1):105 - 124.
    Counter-terrorism officials in the USA and the UK responded to the events of 11 September 2001 and 7 July 2005 with an increasing resort to the use of ?intelligence-led policing? methods such as racial and religious profiling. Reliance on intelligence, to the effect that most people who commit a certain crime have a certain ethnicity, can lead to less favourable treatment of an individual with that ethnicity because of his membership in that group, not because of any act he is (...)
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  41.  29
    Alan Baker (2007). Putting Expectations in Order. Philosophy of Science 74 (5):692-700.
    In their paper, “Vexing Expectations,” Nover and Hájek (2004) present an allegedly paradoxical betting scenario which they call the Pasadena Game (PG). They argue that the silence of standard decision theory concerning the value of playing PG poses a serious problem. This paper provides a threefold response. First, I argue that the real problem is not that decision theory is “silent” concerning PG, but that it delivers multiple conflicting verdicts. Second, I offer a diagnosis of the problem based on the (...)
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  42.  1
    Alfreda Baker (1988). Perkins, From P. 5. Inquiry 1 (4):9-9.
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  43.  25
    A. G. Baker, Irina Baetu & Robin A. Murphy (2009). Propositional Learning is a Useful Research Heuristic but It is Not a Theoretical Algorithm. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):199-200.
    Mitchell et al.'s claim, that their propositional theory is a single-process theory, is illusory because they relegate some learning to a secondary memory process. This renders the single-process theory untestable. The propositional account is not a process theory of learning, but rather, a heuristic that has led to interesting research.
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  44.  17
    Alan Baker (2006). Book Review: Charles S. Chihara. A Structural Account of Mathematics. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 47 (3):435-442.
  45.  23
    A. J. Baker (1953). Logic and Singular Propositions. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):155 – 169.
    The author contends that the analogies between "the logical roles of singular and universal statements" are important but do not "justify the conclusion that singular statements are reducible to propositions" of the forms a, E, I, And o. (staff).
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  46.  15
    A. J. Baker (1966). Non-Empty Complex Terms. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 7 (1):48-56.
  47.  4
    Irina Baetu, Itxaso Barberia, Robin A. Murphy & A. G. Baker (2011). Maybe This Old Dinosaur Isn't Extinct: What Does Bayesian Modeling Add to Associationism? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):190-191.
    We agree with Jones & Love (J&L) that much of Bayesian modeling has taken a fundamentalist approach to cognition; but we do not believe in the potential of Bayesianism to provide insights into psychological processes. We discuss the advantages of associative explanations over Bayesian approaches to causal induction, and argue that Bayesian models have added little to our understanding of human causal reasoning.
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  48.  3
    Al Baker (2013). Meskin, Aaron and Roy T. Cook, Eds. The Art of Comics: A Philosophical Approach. Chichester, UK: Wiley‐Blackwell, 2012 , Xli + 202 Pp., $63.40 Cloth. [REVIEW] Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 71 (4):383-385.
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  49.  6
    A. J. Baker (1956). Category Mistakes. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 34 (1):13 – 26.
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  50.  4
    Andrea J. Baker (2009). Mick or Keith: Blended Identity of Online Rock Fans. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 2 (1):7-21.
    This paper discusses the “blended identity” of online rock fans to show that the standard dichotomy between anonymous and real life personas is an inadequate description of self-presentation in online communities. Using data from an ethnographic, exploratory study of an online community and comparison groups including interviews, an online questionnaire, fan discussion boards, and participant/observation, the research analyzes fan identity online and then offline. Rolling Stones fans often adopt names that illustrate their allegiance to the band, along with avatars. Issues (...)
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