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Axel Cleeremans [103]A. CleeremAns [4]
  1. Axel Cleeremans, Dick J. Bierman.
    In this paper we explore the extent to which implicit learning is subtended by somatic markers, as evidenced by skin conductance measures. On each trial subjects were asked to decide which ‘word’ from a pair of ‘words’ was the ‘correct’ word. Unknown to subjects, each ‘word’ of a pair was constructed using a different set of rules (grammar ‘A’ and grammar ‘B’). A (monetary) reward was given if the subject choose the ‘word’ from grammar ‘A’. Choosing the grammar ‘B’ word (...)
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  2. Axel Cleeremans, Erebral Correlates of Explicit Sequence Learning.
    Using positron emission tomography (PET) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements, we investigated the cerebral correlates of consciousness in a sequence learning task through a novel application of the Process Dissociation Procedure, a behavioral paradigm that makes it possible to separately assess conscious and unconscious contributions to performance. Results show that the metabolic response in the anterior cingulate / mesial prefrontal cortex (ACC / MPFC) is exclusively and specifically correlated with the explicit component of performance during recollection of a (...)
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  3. Axel Cleeremans, Is It Better to Think Unconsciously or to Trust.
    According to unconscious thought theory, complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit ‘‘unconscious thought.’’ Here, the authors suggest instead that the superiority of decisions made after distraction results from the fact that conscious deliberation can deteriorate impressions formed on-line during information acquisition. The authors found that participants instructed to form an impression made better decisions after distraction than after deliberation, thereby replicating earlier findings. However, decisions made immediately were just as good as decisions made (...)
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  4. Axel Cleeremans, Incremental Sequence Learning.
    As linguistic competence so clearly illustrates, processing sequences of events is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. For this reason perhaps, sequence learning behavior currently attracts considerable attention in both cognitive psychology and computational theory. In typical sequence learning situations, participants are asked to react to each element of sequentially structured visual sequences of events. An important issue in this context is to determine whether essentially associative processes are sufficient to understand human performance, or whether more powerful learning mechanisms are (...)
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  5. Axel Cleeremans, No Matter Where You Go, There You Are.
    Axel Cleeremans Research Associate of the National Fund for Scientific Research (Belgium) Laboratoire de Psychologie Industrielle et Commerciale Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 122 Avenue F.-D. Roosevelt, 50 1050 Bruxelles..
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  6. Axel Cleeremans, Research.
    In two H215O PET scan experiments, we investigated the cerebral correlates of explicit and implicit knowledge in a serial reaction time (SRT) task. To do so, we used a novel application of the Process Dissociation Procedure, a behavioral paradigm that makes it possible to separately assess conscious and unconscious contributions to performance during a subsequent sequence generation task. To manipulate the extent to which the repeating sequential pattern was learned explicitly, we varied the pace of the choice reaction time task—a (...)
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  7. Astrid Vermeiren & Axel Cleeremans, The Validity of D9 Measures.
    Subliminal perception occurs when prime stimuli that participants claim not to be aware of nevertheless influence subsequent processing of a target. This claim, however, critically depends on correct methods to assess prime awareness. Typically, d9 (‘‘d prime’’) tasks administered after a priming task are used to establish that people are unable to discriminate between different primes. Here, we show that such d9 tasks are influenced by the nature of the target, by attentional factors, and by the delay between stimulus presentation (...)
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  8. Axel Cleeremans, A a A.
    While the study of implicit learning is nothing new, the field as a whole has come to embody — over the last decade or so — ongoing questioning about three of the most fundamental debates in the cognitive sciences: The nature of consciousness, the nature of mental representation (in particular the difficult issue of abstraction), and the role of experience in shaping the cognitive system. Our main goal in this chapter is to offer a framework that attempts to integrate current (...)
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  9. Axel Cleeremans, Applying Forward Models to Sequence Learning: A Connectionist Implementation.
    The ability to process events in their temporal and sequential context is a fundamental skill made mandatory by constant interaction with a dynamic environment. Sequence learning studies have demonstrated that subjects exhibit detailed — and often implicit — sensitivity to the sequential structure of streams of stimuli. Current connectionist models of performance in the so-called Serial Reaction Time Task (SRT), however, fail to capture the fact that sequence learning can be based not only on sensitivity to the sequential associations between (...)
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  10. Axel Cleeremans, A Short Review of 'Consciousness in Action'.
    Consider Susan Hurley's depiction of mainstream views of the mind: "The mind is a kind of sandwich, and cognition is the filling" (p. 401). This particular sandwich (with perception as the bottom loaf and action as the top loaf) tastes foul to Hurley, who devotes most of "Consciousness in Action" to a systematic and sometimes extraordinarily detailed critique of what has otherwise been dubbed "classical" models of the mind. This critique then provides the basis for her alternative proposal, in which (...)
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  11. Axel Cleeremans, Change Blindness to Gradual Changes in Facial Expressions.
    Change blindness—our inability to detect changes in a stimulus—occurs even when the change takes place gradually, without disruption (Simons et al., 2000). Such gradual changes are more difficult to detect than changes that involve a disruption. In this experiment, we extend previous findings to the domain of facial expressions of emotions occurring in the context of a realistic scene. Even with changes occurring in central, highly relevant stimuli such as faces, gradual changes still produced high levels of change blindness: Detection (...)
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  12. Axel Cleeremans, Comparing Direct and Indirect Measures of Sequence Learning.
    Comparing the relative sensitivity of direct and indirect measures of learning is proposed as the best way to provide evidence for unconscious learning when both conceptual and operative definitions of awareness are lacking. This approach was first proposed by Reingold & Merikle (1988) in the context of subliminal perception. In this paper, we apply it to a choice reaction time task in which the material is generated based on a probabilistic finite-state grammar (Cleeremans, 1993). We show (1) that participants progressively (...)
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  13. Axel Cleeremans, Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger: A Review of “Computational Explorations in Cognitive Neuroscience”. [REVIEW]
    Just like the sequel to a successful movie, O’Reilly and Munakata’s “Computational Explorations in Cognitive Neuroscience” aims to follow up and expand on the original 1986 “Parallel Distributed Processing” volumes edited by James McClelland, David Rumelhart and the PDP research group. This kinship, which is explicitly recognized by the authors as the book is prefaced by Jay McClelland, is perceptible throughout Computational Explorations: Not only does this volume visit many of the problems and paradigms that the original books were focused (...)
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  14. Axel Cleeremans, Is It Better to Think Unconsciously or to Trust Your First Impression? A Reassessment of Unconscious Thought Theory.
    According to Unconscious Thought Theory (Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit “unconscious thought”. Here, we suggest instead that the superiority of decisions made after distraction results from the fact that conscious deliberation can deteriorate impressions formed online during information acquisition. We found that participants instructed to form an impression made better decisions after distraction than after deliberation, thereby replicating earlier findings. However, decisions made immediately were just as good as (...)
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  15. Axel Cleeremans, Implicit Learning in the Presence of Multiple Cues.
    In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1995.
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  16. Axel Cleeremans, Learned Material Content and Acquisition Level Modulate Cerebral Reactivation During Posttraining Rapid-Eye-Movements Sleep.
    We have previously shown that several brain areas are activated both during sequence learning at wake and during subsequent rapid-eye-movements (REM) sleep (Nat. Neurosci. 3 (2000) 831– 836), suggesting that REM sleep participates in the reprocessing of recent memory traces in humans. However, the nature of the reprocessed information remains open. Here, we show that regional cerebral reactivation during posttraining REM sleep is not merely related to the acquisition of basic visuomotor skills during prior practice of the serial reaction time (...)
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  17. Axel Cleeremans, Letter to Neuroscience Letter to Neuroscience.
    One function of sleep is hypothesized to be the reprocessparticipate in the optimization of the network that subing and consolidation of memory traces (Smith, 1995; Gais tends subject's visuo^motor response. The optimization of et al., 2000; McGaugh, 2000; Stickgold et al., 2000). At..
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  18. Axel Cleeremans, Measures of Awareness and of Sequence Knowledge.
    Jackson and Jackson (1995) argue that most current tests used to assess awareness of sequential material are flawed because of their emphasis on accuracy. They propose to distinguish two forms of sequence knowledge: Serial knowledge, that is, knowledge about the specific sequence that stimuli follow, which involves information about the statistical relationship between many sequence elements, and statistical knowledge, or knowledge about the probability of different transitions between adjacent sequence elements. Further, they suggest a new method to analyze generation performance, (...)
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  19. Axel Cleeremans, Onscience.
    ❚ EN DEUX MOTS ❚ Elles ont des noms impro- remettent en cause la vision unifiée du monde insu. À l’extrême, nos intentions d’agir seraient la nonçables – hémianopsie, akinétopsie... Elles se que nous offre notre conscience. Du reste, plu- conséquence de nos actions ! Mais attention : manifestent par des symptômes étonnants – voir sieurs expériences suggèrent que cette dernière pas question, pour autant, de considérer que pro- bien qu’étant aveugle, percevoir le monde sous serait fragmentée, et que de (...)
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  20. Axel Cleeremans, Computational Explorations in Cognitive Neuroscience: Understanding the Mind by Simulating the Brain.
    The goal of computational cognitive neuroscience is to understand how the brain embodies the mind by using biologically based computational models comprised of networks of neuronlike units. This text, based on a course taught by Randall O'Reilly and Yuko Munakata over the past several years, provides an in-depth introduction to the main ideas in the field. The neural units in the simulations use equations based directly on the ion channels that govern the behavior of real neurons and the neural networks (...)
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  21. Axel Cleeremans, Rules Vs. Statistics in Implicit Learning of Biconditional Grammars.
    A significant part of everyday learning occurs incidentally — a process typically described as implicit learning. A central issue in this domain and others, such as language acquisition, is the extent to which performance depends on the acquisition and deployment of abstract rules. Shanks and colleagues [22], [11] have suggested (1) that discrimination between grammatical and ungrammatical instances of a biconditional grammar requires the acquisition and use of abstract rules, and (2) that training conditions — in particular whether instructions orient (...)
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  22. Axel Cleeremans, Temporal Effects in Sequence Learning.
    Through the use of double task conditions, the sequence learning (SL) paradigm offers unique opportunities to study the relationships between learning and attention. In their original study, Nissen & Bullemer (1987) argued that a secondary tone-counting task prevents SL because it exhausts participants’ attentional resources. Other authors have instead suggested that the detrimental effects of tone-counting are due to scheduling conflicts between performing the main and secondary tasks rather than to attentional load. Frensch & Miner (1994), for instance, suggested that (...)
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  23. Axel Cleeremans & David Servan-Schreiber, Finite State Automata and Simple Recurrent Networks.
    We explore a network architecture introduced by Elman (1988) for predicting successive elements of a sequence. The network uses the pattern of activation over a set of hidden units from time-step 25-1, together with element t, to predict element t + 1. When the network is trained with strings from a particular finite-state grammar, it can learn to be a perfect finite-state recognizer for the grammar. When the network has a minimal number of hidden units, patterns on the hidden units (...)
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  24. Luis Jimenez, Castor Mendez & Axel Cleeremans, Measures of Awareness and of Sequence Knowledge.
    Jackson and Jackson (1995) argue that most current tests used to assess awareness of sequential material are flawed because of their emphasis on accuracy. They propose to distinguish two forms of sequence knowledge: Serial knowledge, that is, knowledge about the specific sequence that stimuli follow, which involves information about the statistical relationship between many sequence elements, and statistical knowledge, or knowledge about the probability of different transitions between adjacent sequence elements. Further, they suggest a new method to analyze generation performance, (...)
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  25. Bert Timmermans & Axel Cleeremans, Computing Consciousness.
    monsters, virtual legends such as 2001’s HAL or Demon Seed’s Proteus are actually scary because of their mind. Without lingering on the philosophical debates on whether a certain type of mind can exist independent of its specific embodiment or whether any creature can understand a consciousness that is not like his own (recall Lem’s Solaris), the thing that makes HAL and Proteus so human is not so much their ability to think as their possessing something resembling human consciousness. The point (...)
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  26. Axel Cleeremans (forthcoming). Attention and Awareness in Sequence Learning. Proceedings of the Fiftheenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society:227-232.
    referred to as implicit learning (Reber, 1989). Implicit learning contrasts with explicit learning (exhibited for.
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  27. Axel Cleeremans (2014). Connecting Conscious and Unconscious Processing. Cognitive Science 38 (6):1286-1315.
    Consciousness remains a mystery—“a phenomenon that people do not know how to think about—yet” (Dennett, , p. 21). Here, I consider how the connectionist perspective on information processing may help us progress toward the goal of understanding the computational principles through which conscious and unconscious processing differ. I begin by delineating the conceptual challenges associated with classical approaches to cognition insofar as understanding unconscious information processing is concerned, and to highlight several contrasting computational principles that are constitutive of the connectionist (...)
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  28. Laurent Waroquier, Marlène Abadie, Olivier Klein & Axel Cleeremans (2014). The Effect of the Cognitive Demands of the Distraction Task on Unconscious Thought. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (1):44-45.
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  29. Michał Wierzchoń, Borysław Paulewicz, Dariusz Asanowicz, Bert Timmermans & Axel Cleeremans (2014). Different Subjective Awareness Measures Demonstrate the Influence of Visual Identification on Perceptual Awareness Ratings. Consciousness and Cognition 27:109-120.
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  30. Michał Wierzchoń, Remigiusz Szczepanowski, Anna Anzulewicz & Axel Cleeremans (2014). When a (Precise) Awareness Measure Became a (Sketchy) Introspective Report. Consciousness and Cognition 26:1-2.
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  31. Anne Atas, Astrid Vermeiren & Axel Cleeremans (2013). Repeating a Strongly Masked Stimulus Increases Priming and Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1422-1430.
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  32. Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara, Axel Cleeremans & Xavier Noel (2013). Iowa Gambling Task (IGT): Twenty Years After – Gambling Disorder and IGT. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) involves probabilistic learning via monetary rewards and punishments, where advantageous task performance requires subjects to forego potential large immediate rewards for small longer-term rewards to avoid larger losses. Pathological gamblers perform worse on the IGT compared to controls, relating to their persistent preference toward high, immediate and uncertain rewards despite experiencing larger losses. In this contribution, we review studies that investigated processes associated with poor IGT performance in pathological gamblers. Findings from these studies seem to (...)
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  33. Remigiusz Szczepanowski, Jakub Traczyk, Michał Wierzchoń & Axel Cleeremans (2013). The Perception of Visual Emotion: Comparing Different Measures of Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):212-220.
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  34. Bert Windey, Wim Gevers & Axel Cleeremans (2013). Subjective Visibility Depends on Level of Processing. Cognition 129 (2):404-409.
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  35. Vinciane Gaillard, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Axel Cleeremans (2012). The Influence of Articulatory Suppression on the Control of Implicit Sequence Knowledge. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.
    The present study investigated the consciousness-control relationship by suppressing the possibility to exert executive control on incidentally acquired knowledge. Participants performed a serial reaction time (SRT) task, followed by a sequence generation task under inclusion and exclusion instructions and a sequence recognition task. The generation task requires control on the sequential knowledge that has been incidentally acquired. We manipulated the possibility for participants to recruit control processes in the generation task in three different conditions. In addition to a control condition, (...)
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  36. Michał Wierzchoń, Dariusz Asanowicz, Borysław Paulewicz & Axel Cleeremans (2012). Subjective Measures of Consciousness in Artificial Grammar Learning Task. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1141-1153.
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  37. Axel Cleeremans (2011). The Radical Plasticity Thesis: How the Brain Learns to Be Conscious. Frontiers in Psychology 2.
    In this paper, I explore the idea that consciousness is something that the brain learns to do rather than an intrinsic property of certain neural states and not others. Starting from the idea that neural activity is inherently unconscious, the question thus becomes: How does the brain learn to be conscious? I suggest that consciousness arises as a result of the brain's continuous attempts at predicting not only the consequences of its actions on the world and on other agents, but (...)
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  38. Ana Franco, Axel Cleeremans & Arnaud Destrebecqz (2011). Statistical Learning of Two Artificial Languages Presented Successively: How Conscious? Frontiers in Psychology 2.
    Statistical learning is assumed to occur automatically and implicitly, but little is known about the extent to which the representations acquired over training are available to conscious awareness. In this study, we focus whether the knowledge acquired in a statistical learning situation is conscious or not. Here, participants were first exposed to an artificial language presented auditorily. Immediately thereafter, they were exposed to a second artificial language. . Both languages were composed of the same corpus of syllables and differed only (...)
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  39. L. Legrain, A. Cleeremans & A. Destrebecqz (2011). Distinguishing Three Levels in Explicit Self-Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):578-585.
  40. Kristian Sandberg, Bo Martin Bibby, Bert Timmermans, Axel Cleeremans & Morten Overgaard (2011). Measuring Consciousness: Task Accuracy and Awareness as Sigmoid Functions of Stimulus Duration. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1659-1675.
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  41. Bruno Berberian, Stephanie Chambaron-Ginhac & Axel Cleeremans (2010). Action Blindness in Response to Gradual Changes. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):152-171.
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  42. Bruno Berberian & Axel Cleeremans (2010). Endogenous Versus Exogenous Change: Change Detection, Self and Agency. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):198-214.
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  43. Axel Cleeremans (2010). Action Blindness in Response to Gradual Changes. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):152-171.
    The goal of this study is to characterize observers’ abilities to detect gradual changes and to explore putative dissociations between conscious experience of change and behavioral adaptation to a changing stimulus. We developed a new experimental paradigm in which, on each trial, participants were shown a dot pattern on the screen. Next, the pattern disappeared and participants had to reproduce it. In some conditions, the target pattern was incrementally rotated over successive trials and participants were either informed or not of (...)
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  44. Axel Cleeremans (2010). Endogenous Versus Exogenous Change: Change Detection, Self and Agency. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):198-214.
    The goal of this study is to characterize observers’ abilities to discriminate between endogenous (i.e., self-produced) and exogenous changes. To do so, we developed a new experimental paradigm. On each trial, participants were shown a dot pattern on the screen. Next, the pattern disappeared and participants were to reproduce it. Changes were surreptuously introduced in the stimulus, either by presenting participants anew with the dot pattern they had themselves produced on the previous trial (endogenous change) or by presenting participants with (...)
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  45. Axel Cleeremans (2010). The Grand Challenge for Psychology: Integrate and Fire! Frontiers in Psychology 1 (12):1-2.
    The grand challenge for psychology: integrate and fire!
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  46. Morten Overgaard, Bert Timmermans, Kristian Sandberg & Axel Cleeremans (2010). Optimizing Subjective Measures of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):682-684.
    Dienes and Seth (2010) conclude that confidence ratings and post-decision wagering are two comparable and recommendable measures of conscious experience. In a recently submitted paper, we have however found that both methods are problematic and seem less suited to measure consciousness than a direct introspective measure. Here, we discuss the methodology and conclusions put forward by Dienes and Seth, and why we think the two experiments end up with so different recommendations.
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  47. Antoine Pasquali, Bert Timmermans & Axel Cleeremans (2010). Know Thyself: Metacognitive Networks and Measures of Consciousness. Cognition 117 (2):182-190.
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  48. Kristian Sandberg, Bert Timmermans, Morten Overgaard & Axel Cleeremans (2010). Measuring Consciousness: Is One Measure Better Than the Other? Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1069-1078.
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  49. Bert Timmermans, Kristian Sandberg, Axel Cleeremans & Morten Overgaard (2010). Partial Awareness Distinguishes Between Measuring Conscious Perception and Conscious Content: Reply to Dienes and Seth. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1081-1083.
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  50. Tim Bayne, Axel Cleeremans & Patrick Wilken (eds.) (2009). The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
    Five years in the making and including over 250 concise entries written by leaders in the field, the volume covers both fundamental knowledge as well as more ...
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