The purpose of this paper is to view Kant's approach to education in the broader context of Kant's philosophy of culture and history as a process whose direction should be reflectively assumed by human freedom, in the light of man's moral vocation. In this context, some characteristic tensions of his enlightened approach to education appear. Thus, while Kant takes the educational process to be a radically moral enterprise all the way through—and hence, placed in a relational context—he also aspires to (...) constitute education as a science, to be improved through experiments, thereby paving the way for a systemic approach to education; in spite of its moral inspiration, his systemic approach not only could enter into conflict with the moral demand of taking each individual subject as an end, but is also marked by an intrinsic paradox, already involved in the ambiguity of the term ‘humanity’, which might mean a) humanity as a moral disposition present in each individual human being or b) humanity as a whole, as the ‘human species’. (shrink)
La Ley Orgánica General Penitenciaria (en lo sucesivo LOGP) en el año 1979 creó la figura del juez de vigilancia penitenciaria, dedicándole 3 artículos (76,77 y 78). Fueron necesarios dos años más, para que un Acuerdo del Consejo General del Poder Judicial de 9 de julio de 1981, pusiera en funcionamiento esa clase de juzgados, los cuales se constituyeron formalmente el 1 de octubre de 1981.
Nuestro propósito se cifra en esta ocasión, en mostrar los motivos filosóficos que condujeron al Martin Heidegger a introducir la metafísica suareciana en la configuración de su ontología existenciaria. Tomaremos como hilo conductor la historia del ser y más en concreto, la de su olvido en favor del ente y que Heidegger desarrolló en diferentes escritos como un momento negativo, fundamental y previo a la exposición de su concepción de la Metafísica. En este relato dejaremos anotado, la función capital que (...) para el proyecto heideggeriano de reinterpetación de la Metafísica desempeñó, la idea de la metafísica griega y en particular de la aristotélica alcanzada por el pensador alemán. Abordaremos este problema con cierta extensión pues sostenemos que el concepto de la metafísica suareciana manejado por Heidegger está determinado por su comprensión de la Metafísica de Aristóteles. Y que se resume en su conocida interpretación onto-teológica. En último término, el peso de la reflexión heideggeriana sobre la metafísica de Suárez, recae sobre el concepto de existencia y su modo de aprehensión que es comprendido como un antecedente moderno e imperfecto del Dasein como vía de acceso al Ser. (shrink)
Apoyándome en las herramientas que ofrece la sociología de la filosofía -especialmente en las obras de Pierre Bourdieu y Randall Collins-, este artículo pretende reconstruir las relaciones de oposición y solidaridad entre las redes intelectuales del México liberal (1867-1910). Se entiende que los ag..
After many years drawing attention to the differences between Aristotelian and Kantian Ethics, recent scholarship tends to stress their commonalties instead. Among the authors representing this trend of contemporary moral philosophy, Christine Korsgaard has undoubtedly a leading role. Without denying the differences existing between them, Korsgaard has been particularly keen on calling our attention to their shared views.Yet Korsgaard herself has acknowledged an obvious difference between Aristotle and Kant, regarding their approach to emotions : unlike Kant, Aristotle does not think (...) of inclinations and emotions as mere feelings, but rather as valuable sources of information about morally salient aspects of our situation. In other words : they provide us with (germinal) reasons for action. Korsgaard, however, keeps this difference at the level of moral psychology, arguing that it does not make a great difference at the level of ethical theory. Now, this is precisely what I find controversial. My point is that this sort of difference imports a more fundamental one about practical reason in its entirety, a difference which used to be preserved in Kant’s own reference to a “pure practical reason” – against which Aristotle’s might be called “impure practical reason”. (shrink)
Although Kant is not usually counted among the forerunners of social sciences, any look at the work of the most prominent social theorists of the past century shows the pervasive influence of Kant's philosophy. This influence is obvious and crucial at the epistemological level, if only because Kant himself set the frame for subsequent discussion of the difference between human and natural sciences. Yet, Kant's work is also rich in substantive contributions to social theory, which may be articulated around his (...) conception of culture and cultural progress. (shrink)
I explore Hume’s argument for the existence of government, in which he articulates psychological and social elements. Given the human tendency to satisfy the proximate above the remote interests, the fulfilment of the rules of justice, which makes social cooperation possible, must be warranted by the artifice of government. Once the government is in place, it also performs a coordinating function, which strengthens preexistent activities, such as commerce. Indirectly, the government fulfils also a civilizing function.
The two authors of this paper have diametrically opposed views of the prevalence and strength of adaptation in nature. Hendry believes that adaptation can be seen almost everywhere and that evidence for it is overwhelming and ubiquitous. Gonzalez believes that adaptation is uncommon and that evidence for it is ambiguous at best. Neither author is certifiable to the knowledge of the other, leaving each to wonder where the other has his head buried. Extensive argument has revealed that each author thinks (...) his own view is amply supported by both theory and empirical evidence. Further reflection has revealed that the differences in opinion may start with the different disciplines in which we work: evolutionary ecology for Hendry and community ecology for Gonzalez. In the present paper, we each present devastating evidence supporting our own position and thus refuting that of the other. We then identify the critical differences that led to such opposing views. We close by combining our two perspectives into a common framework based on the adaptive landscape, and thereby suggest means by which to assess the prevalence and strength of adaptation. (shrink)
Epistemologists and philosophers of science have often attempted to express formally the impact of a piece of evidence on the credibility of a hypothesis. In this paper we will focus on the Bayesian approach to evidential support. We will propose a new formal treatment of the notion of degree of confirmation and we will argue that it overcomes some limitations of the currently available approaches on two grounds: (i) a theoretical analysis of the confirmation relation seen as an extension of (...) logical deduction and (ii) an empirical comparison of competing measures in an experimental inquiry concerning inductive reasoning in a probabilistic setting. (shrink)
Synaesthesia is a condition in which one type of stimulation evokes the sensation of another, as when the hearing of a sound produces photisms, i.e. mental percepts of colours. R is a 20 year old colour blind subject who, in addition to the relatively common grapheme-colour synaesthesia, presents a rarely reported cross modal perception in which a variety of visual stimuli elicit aura-like percepts of colour. In R, photisms seem to be closely related to the affective valence of stimuli and (...) typically bring out a consistent pattern of emotional responses. The present case study suggests that colours might be an intrinsic category of the human brain. We developed an empirical methodology that allowed us to study the subject's otherwise inaccessible phenomenological experience. First, we found that R shows a Stroop effect (delayed response due to interference) elicited by photisms despite the fact that he does not show a regular Stroop with real colours. Secondly, by manipulating the colour context we confirmed that colours can alter R's emotional evaluation of the stimuli. Furthermore, we demonstrated that R's auras may actually lead to a partially inverted emotional spectrum where certain stimuli bring out emotional reactions opposite to the normal ones. These findings can only be accounted for by considering R's subjective colour experience or qualia. Therefore the present paper defends the view that qualia are a useful scientific concept that can be approached and studied by experimental methods. (shrink)
En este artículo se propone una línea de continuidad entre el pensamiento de Zubiri y el de Ellacuría en lo que se refiere a la ¿realidad histórica¿, partiendo de la crítica que hace el primero a una concepción aristotelizante de la historia, que caracterizaría al pensamiento moderno, entendida como actualización de posibilidades. A este respecto, se analiza la fecundidad de la perspectiva de Ellacuría respecto del significado de la globalización y su tesis de la civilización de la pobreza contrastándola con (...) el análisis de Karl Otto Apel. (shrink)
The contemporary confluence of globalization and ethical pluralism is at the origin of many ethical challenges that confront business nowadays, both in practice and in theory. One of the challenges arising from the development of globalization has to do with respect for cultural diversity. It is often said that the success of economic globalization tends towards social and cultural homogeneity. To the extent that cultural diversity is usually seen as a valuable reality, that global trend seems to contradict our efforts (...) to respect ethical pluralism, both personal and cultural, within society. In this paper I argue that (a) ethical minimalism, despite its emphasis on tolerance and justice, does not take pluralism seriously into account in present-day society, and (b) ethical minimalism is not suited to balancing the homogenizing trend of globalization. Certainly ethical norms are necessary, but by no means are they sufficient in themselves to encourage either justice or tolerance; nor are they sufficient to inspire and encourage good practices and sound regulations. Instead, virtue-based ethics has the capacity of inspiring and encouraging good practices. Particularly, virtue-based ethics is able to inspire a serious dialogue about ethical and legal issues both in the public arena and within organizations. (shrink)
From pluralism to consensus on terms of reference for the philosophy of education -- Approaches to a philosophy of education in the Philippine setting -- A philosophy of education based on a hermeneutics of retrieval -- A philosophy of education based on a hermeneutics of retrieval, the immediate past -- A philosophy of education based on a hermeneutics of the present -- A philosophy of education based on a hermeneutics of the potential, the future -- Integration.
This article is an attempt to understand the historical origins of the conceptual distinction between "ethics" and "morals" -as we can find it, for instance, in Habermas. I show also how such a distinction works on the contemporary ethical discussion, not only framing the controversy between liberals and communitarians, but also limiting our possibilities to overcome that controversy.
This paper focuses on the third chapter of Fides et ratio, entitled Intellego ut credam This sentence is usually connected with the preambula fidei, truths which are supposed to prepare human mind to receive the gift of faith. But in this case, Pope John Paul II develops this sentence in a different, more existential way according to which the real preambula fidei are not so much a set of truths as the real man who seeks the truth with his entire (...) life. This interpretation remarks the practical dimmension of the relationship between man and truth. (shrink)
In order to clarify the status of morality, this paper tries to answer the following questions: 1. Which is the difference between morality and happiness in Aristotle? 2. How does Thomas Aquinas assume the aristotelian ethics whithin a christian frame? 3. What has aristotelian and thomistic ethics in common? 4. Which is the main difference between their concept of morality and the modern one.
Polo's anthropology differs both from aristotelian and modern anthropology in his concept of person. In this paper, I explore the ethical relevance of this concept and its conection with the concept of "human nature", which Polo assumes making a distinction between "essence" and "type". This distinction is important in order to focus the ethical aspect of the relationship between nature and culture correctly.
Farmers are experts on their natural environment and are innate experimenters. However they do not know everything. Filling in gaps of missing farmer knowledge can help them improve their experiments. The authors designed and taught a course to Honduran farmers that effectively covered a number of key points on insect ecology and biology that farmers had not understood. After receiving the course many farmers did experiments to solve pest problems without synthetic pesticides.