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Profile: Asa Maria Wikforss (Stockholm University)
  1. Kathrin Glüer & Åsa Wikforss (forthcoming). Against Belief Normativity. In Timothy Chan (ed.), The Aim of Belief. Oxford University Press
    We have argued against the thesis that content is essentially normative (Glüer & Wikforss 2009). In the course of doing so, we also presented some considerations against the thesis that belief is essentially normative. In this paper we clarify and develop these considerations, thereby paving the road for a fully non-normative account of the nature of belief.
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  2. Kathrin Glüer & Åsa Wikforss (2015). Still No Guidance: Reply to Steglich‐Petersen. Theoria 81 (3):272-279.
    In a recent article in this journal, Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen criticizes an argument we have called the “no-guidance argument”. He claims that our argument fails because it “presupposes a much too narrow understanding of what it takes for a norm to influence behaviour” and “betrays a fundamental misunderstanding of the point of the truth norm”. If these claims could be substantiated, the no-guidance argument would lose all interest. But Steglich-Petersen's attempt at substantiating them fails. The suggested sense in which the truth (...)
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  3. A. Wikforss (2014). Concepts and Communication: Comments on Words and Images. An Essay on the Origin of Ideas. Analysis 75 (1):110-121.
    At the center of Gauker's book stands two inter-connected theses: First, that concepts are dependent on language; second, that this requires rejecting the traditional idea that linguistic communication involves a transmission of thoughts. I argue that we cannot afford to reject the traditional conception of communication and that Gauker's alternative ‘cooperative' conception is unsatisfactory. However, I also argue that Gauker is wrong to suggest that the language dependency thesis of concepts is incompatible with the traditional view of communication.
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  4. Åsa Wikforss (2014). Extended Belief and Extended Knowledge. Philosophical Issues 24 (1):460-481.
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  5. Kathrin Glüer & Åsa Wikforss (2013). Aiming at Truth: On The Role of Belief. Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 32 (3):137-162.
    We explore the possibility of characterizing belief wholly in terms of its first-order functional role, its input (evidence) and output (further beliefs and actions), by addressing some common challenges to the view. One challenge concerns the fact that not all belief is evidence-sensitive. In response to this, normativists and teleo-functionalists have concluded that something over and above functional role is needed, a norm or a telos. We argue that both allow for implausibly much divergence between belief and evidence. Others have (...)
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  6. Åsa Wikforss (2013). Bachelors, Energy, Cats and Water: Putnam on Kinds and Kind Terms. Theoria 79 (3):242-261.
    Since Hilary Putnam and Saul Kripke's first attacks on traditional, descriptivist theories of natural kind terms, it has become customary to speak of the ‘Putnam-Kripke’ view of meaning and reference. This article argues that this is a mistake, and that Putnam's account of natural kind terms is importantly different from that of Kripke. In particular, Putnam has from the very start been sceptical of Kripke's modal claims, and in later papers he explicitly rejects the proposal that theoretical identity statements are (...)
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  7. Åsa Wikforss (2013). Our Own Minds. Socio‐Cultural Grounds for Self‐Consciousness. By Radu J. Bogdan. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 63 (253):814-816.
  8. Åsa Wikforss (2013). Our Own Minds. Socio‐Cultural Grounds for Self‐Consciousness. Philosophical Quarterly 63 (253):814-816.
  9. Åsa Wikforss (2012). Color Terms and Semantic Externalism. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 12 (3):399-420.
    The paper discusses whether the color terms should be given an externalist semantics. In the literature on the semantics of color terms externalism is standardly taken for granted, and Twin Earth style arguments play a central role. This is notable given that few people would claim that semantic externalism applies across the board, to all types of terms. Why, then, should the color terms belong with this group of terms? I argue that the standard externalist strategies, introduced by Tyler Burge (...)
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  10. Gustaf Arrhenius, Ingar Brinck, Kathrin Glüer-Pagin, Lena Halldenius, Anna-Sofia Maurin, Folke Tersman & Åsa Wikforss (2011). To the Editor of Theoria. Theoria 77 (3):198-198.
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  11. K. Gluer & A. Wikforss (2010). The Truth Norm and Guidance: A Reply to Steglich-Petersen. Mind 119 (475):757-761.
    We have claimed that truth norms cannot provide genuine guidance for belief formation (Glüer and Wikforss 2009, pp. 43–4). Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen argues that our ‘no guidance argument’ fails because it conflates certain psychological states an agent must have in order to apply the truth norm with the condition under which the norm prescribes forming certain beliefs. We spell out the no guidance argument in more detail and show that there is no such conflation.
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  12. Kathrin Glüer & Åsa Wikforss (2010). Es Braucht Die Regel Nicht: Wittgenstein on Rules and Meaning. In Daniel Whiting (ed.), The Later Wittgenstein on Language. Palgrave Macmillan
    According to the received view the later Wittgenstein subscribed to the thesis that speaking a language requires being guided by rules (thesis RG). In this paper we question the received view. On its most intuitive reading, we argue, (RG) is very much at odds with central tenets of the later Wittgenstein. Giving up on this reading, however, threatens to deprive the notion of rule-following of any real substance. Consequently, the rule-following considerations cannot charitably be read as a deep and subtle (...)
     
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  13. Kathrin Glüer & Asa Wikforss, The Normativity of Meaning and Content. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    There is a long tradition of thinking of language as conventional in its nature, dating back at least to Aristotle De Interpretatione ). By appealing to the role of conventions, it is thought, we can distinguish linguistic signs, the meaningful use of words, from mere natural ‘signs’. During the last century the thesis that language is essentially conventional has played a central role within philosophy of language, and has even been called a platitude (Lewis 1969). More recently, the focus has (...)
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  14. Åsa Wikforss (2010). Are Natural Kind Terms Special? In Helen Beebee & Nigel Sabbarton-Leary (eds.), The Semantics and Metaphysics of Natural Kinds. Routledge
     
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  15. Åsa Wikforss (2010). Are There Understanding-Assent Links? The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 5 (1):12.
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  16. Kathrin Glüer & Åsa Wikforss (2009). Against Content Normativity. Mind 118 (469):31-70.
    As meaning's claim to normativity has grown increasingly suspect the normativity thesis has shifted to mental content. In this paper, we distinguish two versions of content normativism: 'CE normativism', according to which it is essential to content that certain 'oughts' can be derived from it, and 'CD normativism', according to which content is determined by norms in the first place. We argue that neither type of normativism withstands scrutiny. CE normativism appeals to the fact that there is an essential connection (...)
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  17. Åsa Wikforss (2009). Are There Understanding-Assent Links?: It is Commonly Held That There Are Internal Links Between Understanding and Assent Such That Being Semantically Competent with an Expression Requires Accepting Certain Sentences as True. The Paper Discusses a Recent Challenge to This Conception of Semantic Competence, Posed by Timothy Williamson . According to Williamson There Are No Understanding-Assent Links of the Suggested Sort, No Internal Connection Between Semantic Competence and Belief. I Suggest That Williamson is Quite Right to Question the Claim That Being Semantically Competent with an Expression E Requires Accepting a Certain Sentence S as True. However, Williamson Does Not Merely Wish to Reject This Version of the Understanding-Assent View, but the Very Idea That the Connection with Belief Provides Constitutive Constraints on Linguistic Understanding and Concept Possession. This Further Move, I Argue, is Very Problematic. Giving a Plausible Account of Semantic Competence Requires Acc. [REVIEW] The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 5.
  18. Åsa Wikforss (2009). Om termer för naturliga sorter. Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 1.
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  19. Ã sa Wikforss (2008). Review of Gillian Russell, Truth in Virtue of Meaning: A Defence of the Analytic/Synthetic Distinction. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (12).
  20. Åsa Wikforss (2008). Review of'Truth in Virtue of Meaning: A Defence of the Analytic/Synthetic Distinction', by Gillian Russell. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 12 (10).
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  21. Asa Maria Wikforss (2008). Self-Knowledge and Knowledge of Content. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (3):399-424.
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  22. Sören Häggqvist & Åsa Wikforss (2007). Externalism and a Posteriori Semantics. Erkenntnis 67 (3):373 - 386.
    It is widely held that the meaning of certain types of terms, such as natural kind terms, is individuated externalistically, in terms of the individual's external environment. Recently a more radical thesis has emerged, a thesis we dub 'a posteriori semantics.' The suggestion is that not only does a term's meaning depend on the external environment, but so does its semantics. One motivation for this is the aim to account for cases where a putative natural kind term fails to pick (...)
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  23. Åsa Wikforss (2007). Semantic Externalism and Psychological Externalism. Philosophy Compass 3 (1):158-181.
    Externalism is widely endorsed within contemporary philosophy of mind and language. Despite this, it is far from clear how the externalist thesis should be construed and, indeed, why we should accept it. In this entry I distinguish and examine three central types of externalism: what I call foundational externalism, externalist semantics, and psychological externalism. I suggest that the most plausible version of externalism is not in fact a very radical thesis and does not have any terribly interesting implications for philosophy (...)
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  24. Asa Maria Wikforss (2006). Content Externalism and Fregean Sense. In P. Marvan (ed.), What Determines Content? The Internalism/Externalism Dispute. Cambridge Scholars Press
    Can externalist concepts really capture an individual.
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  25. Asa Maria Wikforss (2005). Naming Natural Kinds. Synthese 145 (1):65-87.
    This paper discusses whether it can be known a priori that a particular term, such as water, is a natural kind term, and how this problem relates to Putnams claim that natural kind terms require an externalist semantics. Two conceptions of natural kind terms are contrasted: The first holds that whether water is a natural kind term depends on its a priori knowable semantic features. The second.
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  26. Asa Maria Wikforss (2004). Direct Knowledge and Other Minds. Theoria 70 (2-3):271-293.
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  27. Asa Maria Wikforss (2004). Externalism and Incomplete Understanding. Philosophical Quarterly 54 (215):287-294.
    Sarah Sawyer has challenged my claim that social externalism depends on the assumption that individuals have an incomplete grasp of their own concepts. Sawyer denies that Burge's later sofa thought-experiment relies on this assumption: the unifying principle behind the thought-experiments supporting social externalism, she argues, is just that referents play a role in the individuation of concepts. I argue that Sawyer fails to show that social externalism need not rely on the assumption of incomplete understanding. To establish the content externalist (...)
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  28. Åsa Maria Wikforss (2003). An a Posteriori Conception of Analyticity? Grazer Philosophische Studien 66 (1):119-139.
    At the time that Quine wrote "Two Dogmas" an attack on analyticity was considered a simultaneous attack on the very idea of necessary truth. This all changed with Kripke's revival of a non-epistemic, non-linguistic notion of necessity. My paper discusses the question whether we can take Kripke one step further and free analyticity from its epistemic ties, thereby reinstating a notion of analyticity that is immune to Quine's attack, and compatible with his epistemic holism. I discuss this question by examining (...)
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  29. L. H. Davis, R. Daw, D. A. Denby, M. Gómez-Torrente, ÅM Wikforss & S. Yalowitz (2001). Alspector-Kelly, M., 93 Alter, T., 345 Ben-Yami, H., 155 Bernstein, M., 329. Philosophical Studies 102 (360).
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  30. Asa Maria Wikforss (2001). On Self-Knowledge and Grasping the Content of One's Own Thoughts. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 9 (2):229-260.
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  31. Asa Maria Wikforss (2001). Social Externalism and Conceptual Errors. Philosophical Quarterly 51 (203):217-31.
    Ever since Putnam and Burge launched their respective attacks on individualist accounts of meaning the individualist has felt squeezed for space.1 Very little maneuvering room, it seems, is left for the philosopher who wants to deny that meaning and mental content depend on the speaker's social environment. One option, popular amongst individualists, is to grant that reference is socially determined but argue that there is nevertheless a notion of meaning or content that can be understood individualistically. That is, the individualist (...)
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  32. Asa Maria Wikforss (2001). Semantic Normativity. Philosophical Studies 102 (2):203-26.
  33. A. Wikforss (2000). Andre Gallois, The World Without. The Mind Within. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 8:135-137.
     
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  34. Asa Maria Wikforss (1996). Linguistic Freedom: An Essay on Meaning and Rules. Dissertation, Columbia University
    The thesis examines a central and controversial question in the philosophy of mind and language: Is meaning normative? Are there rules we must follow for our words to have meaning? ;Philosophers are sharply divided over this question. One side, often associated with Wittgenstein and more recently Kripke, sees meaning as essentially normative. If a sign is to be meaningful, then surely, it is argued, there must be a distinction between the correct and incorrect use of that sign. The other side (...)
     
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  35. Asa Wikforss, Review of Jessica Brown, Anti-Individualism and Knowledge. [REVIEW]
    During the last decade Jessica Brown has been one of the main participants in the on-going debate over the compatibility of anti-individualism and self-knowledge. It is therefore of great interest that she is now publishing a book examining the various epistemological consequences of anti-individualism. The book is divided into three sections. The first discusses the question of whether a subject can have privileged access to her own thoughts, even if the content of her thoughts is construed anti-individualistically. This section contains (...)
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