This paper examines G. A. Cohen's final criticism of Ronald Dworkin's theory of equality of resources, which targets its treatment of inequalities that arise when some individuals make luckier choices than others make. Rebutting Cohen's argument that such option luck inequalities fail to be just in an unqualified sense, the paper argues that choice does not merely render inequality legitimate but instead can sometimes make inequality just. It also examines the relationship between Cohen's criticism and the conception of equality developed (...) in his earlier influential paper,. (shrink)
This article distinguishes between a telic and a deontic version of Derek Parfit's influential Priority View. Employing the distinction, it shows that the existence of variations in how intrapersonal and interpersonal conflicts should be resolved fails to provide a compelling case in favour of relational egalitarianism and against all pure versions of the Priority View. In addition, the article argues that those variations are better understood as providing counterevidence to certain distribution-sensitive versions of consequentialism.
The Architecture of Theology presents a fresh reading of Christian theology, re-interpreting discussions of theological method and considering them in light of contemporary philosophical debates. A. N. Williams re-evaluates the traditional theological warrants (scripture, tradition, and reason) and the concept of systematic theology, arguing that Christian theology is inherently systematic, reflecting the rationality and relationality of its two chief subjects, 'God and other things as they are related to God'(Aquinas). The roles of the theological warrants are assessed, showing how they (...) are necessarily interdependent. Contemporary philosophical discussions of the structure of reasoning are also examined; these have conventionally contrasted foundationalist and coherentist accounts. A contemporary consensus has emerged, however, of a chastened foundationalism or hybrid foundationalism-coherentism, in light of which arguments are understood both as reasoning from foundational propositions and as gaining plausibility from the coherence of claims with one another. -/- The Christian tradition anticipated these developments: theological arguments exhibit a dual structure, with propositions underwritten to some extent by their dependence on scripture and tradition and to some extent by their coherence with one another in integrated webs, or systems. Christian theology is therefore shown to be systematic in its fundamental structure, whether or not a given argument forms part of a 'systematic theology'. The systematicity of Christian theology is related to its subject matter, 'God and other things as they are related to God'. Theology's two chief subjects (God and humanity) are characterised by rationality and relationality. These are also the qualities of Christian theology itself: it is a double mimesis, reflecting in its very structures of reasoning its subject matter. -/- The order, harmony and coherence of those structures, however, have an aesthetic appeal which has the potential to appeal for its very beauty, rather than its truth. Williams presents a careful examination of the tradition of theological aesthetics, asking whether the beauty of systematic structures counts for or against theological truth. (shrink)
On 29 March 1744, Thomasin Grace, a 13-year-old girl, was the first inpatient admitted to the Northampton General Infirmary (later the Northampton General Hospital). Inpatient hospital diets, then and now, are mainstays of effective patient treatment. In the mid-18th century there were four prescribed diets at Northampton: ‘full’, ‘milk’, ‘dry’ and ‘low’. Previous opinions concerning these four diets were unfavourable, but had not been based upon an individual dietetic assessment. Thomasin would most likely have been given the milk diet, but (...) use of the full diet cannot be excluded. ‘Grace Everyman’ is Thomasin's modern equivalent. Under current NHS guidelines Thomasin would be considered a paediatric patient, but in 1744 she would have been considered as an adult. This study undertakes a full dietetic analysis of all the prescribed diets available for Thomasin in 1744 and compares this against random choices for Grace from the 2009 inpatient menu from the paediatric (Paddington) ward, and the adult ward inpatient menu at the Northampton General Hospital. The results show that, for Thomasin, the 1744 milk and full diets met the current advised nutritional requirements for adequate dietary intake. However, for Grace, the present 2009 Paddington and adult ward menu, although generally meeting nutritional requirements, could, if Grace or her carer consistently chose poorly during a prolonged inpatient stay, lead to inadequate nutrition. This challenges assumptions that hospital diets were historically inadequate, and that choice in present day equates with satisfactory nutritional intake. (shrink)
Machine generated contents note: 1. Introduction; 2. Peace; 3. Rule of law; 4. Human rights; 5. Democracy; 6. Liberty; 7. The institutional ethos of the EU; 8. Towards the EU as a just institution; 9. Concluding proposals.
The Lisbon Treaty’s ratification is complete. This article makes two related claims, one ethical, the other empirical. First, the EU should now be developed with the aim of making it a (more) just institution; and second, the amendments to the Treaties now introduced provide the constitutional inspiration so that the EU can so develop. In particular, there is a prospect for appropriate standards of justice to be applied in part through a revised philosophy of EU law. The article argues that (...) a human rights based approach to values, although not without its difficulties, provides the least divisive and most effective means of achieving this revision. (shrink)
Edmund Husserl’s critique of using the natural scientific method to investigate meaningful human experience remains relevant to recent debates in psychology. Discursive Psychology (DP) claims to draw upon phenomenological insights to critique quantitative psychology for studying theoretical concepts rather than the actual practices of the lived social world. In this paper, I will argue that DP overlooks the important distinction that can be made between the theoretical attitude and the natural scientific attitude in Husserlian Phenomenology and hence, once again, loses (...) sight of the meaningfully constituted life-world. In doing so, I will demonstrate the continued relevance of Husserl’s critique of natural science to the discipline of psychology. (shrink)
The morning-after pill has been promoted as a solution to the growing teenage sexual health problem being witnessed in Scotland. The continuing increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs), recorded in recent reports of the Scottish Centre for Infections and Environmental Health2, has come as a shock to members of the health profession across Scotland. Documenting a marked increase in teenage sexual activity, the report raises urgent questions about the impact of the “safe sex” message in our classrooms and the Scottish (...) Executive’s overall approach to teenage sexual health. One specific feature of this approach that has prompted concern from General Practitioners (GPs), parents and educators (and others) has been the official policy on the promotion of the morning-after pill as a method of contraception. When appropriately initiated within 72 hours of unprotected coitus, emergency contraception will prevent approximately 80% of pregnancies in teens and young women who are mid-cycle and, thus, at risk of pregnancy.3 But this policy has not been based on a clear and rigorous understanding of the properties, the function and the efficacy of the morning-after pill. Neither has there been adequate and in-depth research on the short and long-term safety implications of the morning-after pill. In light of proposals to increase the availability of the morning-after pill, the overall aim of this Briefing Paper is: 1. to provide specific answers to the questions raised above, based on research evidence; and 2. to provide an independent source of information on the most recent research on the morning-after pill and STIs, for parents, teachers, politicians, members of the health and legal professions and other interested parties. (shrink)
This article argues that the existing philosophy of EU law, such as it may be perceived, is flawed. Through a series of propositions it claims that EU law is infected by an underlying indeterminacy of ideal that has deeply affected the appreciation and realization of stated values. These values, the most fundamental of which appear in Article 6(1) of the Treaty of European Union, have been applied in a haphazard fashion and without an understanding of normative content. The European Court (...) of Justice has instead adopted a largely pragmatic approach that has focused on principles or virtues of governance rather than attempting to offer a way of satisfactorily defining values or ensuring their realization. The underlying philosophy thus appears to be based on a theory of interpretation (of original political will) rather than a theory of justice. The recent decision in Kadi paradoxically offers not only confirmation of the argument presented but also a judicial appreciation that a new direction may be desirable, one inspired by a law based on the predominance of fundamental values with particular emphasis on respect for fundamental rights. (shrink)
The history of paediatrics and child health is increasingly recognised to be about children themselves and how they and their families cope and adapt to their medical condition rather than about medical practitioners and august institutions. This article considers two case studies, showing how two Georgian fathers cared for their children when sickness struck and their reactions when the children died. Davies (Giddy) Gilbert, FRS (1767–1840), was a member of Parliament first for Helston and later for Bodmin. (He married Ann (...) Mary Gilbert in 1808 and formally changed his name to Gilbert; the change received royal approbation in January 1817.) Gilbert recorded the birth and development of his son Charles (1810–1813), in one of the very earliest developmental chronicles. He regularly recorded his child’s progress, including height, weight, social interaction, communication skills and speech. Apparently in good health for most of his life, Charles developed an acute abdominal disorder and died unexpectedly. John Tremayne (1780–1851) was a member of Parliament for Cornwall. His son Harry (1814–1823) had increasing bilious attacks, headaches and a squint from the age of 6 years, and died despite the best medical advice available. Current medical opinion would presume an intracranial tumour. Tremayne graphically expressed his pain as he closely observed his son suffer, apparently as much from the treatments as from the disease itself. This study sheds light on clinical aspects of Georgian medical practice, the medical marketplace and the nature of relationships between these fathers and their children. (shrink)
In Rescuing Justice and Equality , G. A. Cohen reiterates his critique of John Rawls's difference principle as a justification for inequality-generating incentives, and also argues that Rawls's ambition to provide a constructivist defence of the first principles of justice is doomed. Cohen's arguments also suggest a natural response to my earlier attempt to defend the basic structure objection to Cohen's critique, which I term the alien factors reply. This paper criticises the reply, and Cohen's more general argument against Rawls's (...) constructivism. 1. (shrink)
It is often forgotten that the philosopher John Locke (1632–1704) was a highly regarded physician with a lifelong interest in medicine and was frequently consulted on medical matters, including the health of children. This child health aspect in Locke’s history has been largely ignored, with even modern commentaries on Locke and medicine giving it only a cursory mention. However, it is clear that, in child health, Locke’s influence is far more substantial than GF Still’s and George Jackson’s opinions, which limited (...) Locke solely to Thoughts concerning education (1692/3). That a fundamental reappraisal of Locke’s role in child healthcare is necessary and that his place as a pioneer of modern child healthcare needs to be proclaimed are emphasised here. As modern day child healthcare has evolved to embrace advocacy and learning disability, Locke’s importance through his influence on paediatrics, child healthcare and human rights becomes more evident. Locke’s influence in child healthcare comes not only through his other celebrated philosophical writings, but also through extensive personal correspondence and case records. As well as throwing light onto the 17th century aspects of child healthcare, Locke, through his enquiry and self-evident humility in his correspondence on medical matters, inspires and educates us with his pragmatic approach to the practice of medicine. (shrink)
Denys Turner argues that there are reasons of faith why the existence of God should be thought rationally demonstrable and that it is worthwhile revisiting the theology of Thomas Aquinas to see why. The proposition that the existence of God is demonstrable by rational argument is doubted by nearly all philosophical opinion today and is thought by most Christian theologians to be incompatible with Christian faith. Turner's robust challenge to the prevailing orthodoxies will be of interest to believers as well (...) as non-believers. (shrink)
This paper will explore the notion of ?poetic enthusiasm? in early 18th-century verse. The representation of poetic enthusiasm?the claim to false inspiration, and the fanaticism that was perceived to accompany it?was frequently politicized in this period. Through a conflation of religious and literary discourses, poetic enthusiasm was seen to represent the sae kind of anarchy in the realm of literature that the religious enthusiasm associated with Dissent did in the context of the established church. This paper will establish first of (...) all the way in which Tory and Royalist authors such as John Oldham, John Dryden, and Alexander pope used the established satirical caricature of the religious enthusiast to attack their Whig contemporaries. It will go on to suggest, however, that the relationship between politics and enthusiasm is more complex than this equation between Toryism and anti-enthusiasm suggests. While the Tory attack on literary enthusiasm was premised on an elision of political and literary codes, writers such as Dryden and Pope were also trying to separate out an exclusively poetic meaning for the term. Enthusiasm remained and unstable term because although writers recognized that its religious and political applications were different from its literary sense, they could not easily keep the two apart. (shrink)
[Andrew Williams] It is difficult for prioritarians to explain the degree to which justice requires redress for misfortune in a way that avoids imposing unreasonably high costs on more advantaged individuals whilst also economising on intuitionist appeals to judgment. An appeal to hypothetical insurance may be able to solve the problems of cost and judgment more successfully, and can also be defended from critics who claim that resource egalitarianism is best understood to favour the ex post elimination of envy over (...) individual endowments. /// [Michael Otsuka] Inequality is intrinsically bad when and because it is unfair. It follows that the ideal of equality is not necessarily realised by a distribution of resources which is envy-free prior to the resolution of risks against which people have an equal opportunity to insure. Even if the upshot of such an ex ante envyfree distribution is just, it is not necessarily fair. (shrink)
Philippe Van Parijs's Real Freedom for All is widely acclaimed for providing not only the most sophisticated defense of unconditional basic income, but also a rigorous examination of many central issues within contemporary political theory. This collection, including a response by Van Parijs, provides a comprehensive assessment of his "real libertarian" vision of radical social change. The contributors include Richard Arneson, Brian Barry, Thomas Christiano, John Cunliffe, Guido Erreygers, Hillel Steiner, Peter Vallentyne, Robert van der Veen, and Stuart White.
This paper proposes that human expression of pain in the presence or absence of caregivers, and the detection of pain by observers, arises from evolved propensities. The function of pain is to demand attention and prioritise escape, recovery, and healing; where others can help achieve these goals, effective communication of pain is required. Evidence is reviewed of a distinct and specific facial expression of pain from infancy to old age, consistent across stimuli, and recognizable as pain by observers. Voluntary control (...) over amplitude is incomplete, and observers can better detect pain that the individual attempts to suppress rather than amplify or simulate. In many clinical and experimental settings, the facial expression of pain is incorporated with verbal and nonverbal vocal activity, posture, and movement in an overall category of pain behaviour. This is assumed by clinicians to be under operant control of social contingencies such as sympathy, caregiving, and practical help; thus, strong facial expression is presumed to constitute an attempt to manipulate these contingencies by amplification of the normal expression. Operant formulations support skepticism about the presence or extent of pain, judgments of malingering, and sometimes the withholding of caregiving and help. To the extent that pain expression is influenced by environmental contingencies, however, could equally plausibly constitute the release of suppression according to evolved contingent propensities that guide behaviour. Pain has been largely neglected in the evolutionary literature and the literature on expression of emotion, but an evolutionary account can generate improved assessment of pain and reactions to it. (shrink)
According to John Rawls's ideal of liberal public reason, comprehensive moral, religious and philosophical doctrines should play no more than an auxiliary or marginal role in the political life of constitutional democracies. David Reidy has recently claimed that since liberal public reason is incomplete, comprehensive doctrines, and non-public reasons, must play a wider role than Rawls admits. In response, I argue that Reidy's arguments do not establish that liberal public reason is incomplete. Furthermore, even if the substantive values embodied in (...) liberal public reason were insufficient to determine certain fundamental decisions, such indeterminacy need not be eliminated by recourse to comprehensive doctrines. (shrink)
In the popular folklore three-score-years-and-ten is treated as a fair innings for people, and thereby serves as an informal reference point for judgements about distributive justice within a community. But length of life alone is an insufficient basis for such judgements - a person's health-related quality-of-life also needs to be taken into account. If one of the objectives of public policy is to reduce inequalities in lifetime health, it will be demonstrated that this is very likely to require systematic discrimination (...) against the older members of a community. The notion of community solidatity will also be tested, because a decision will need to be made as to whether the same fair innings applies to all members of the community, or whether some are entitled to more than others. The strength of the fair innings principle is that it brings these issues to the fore in a systematic way which should ais their resolition in a practical context. (shrink)
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This paper draws on research undertaken by the authors in community well woman clinics and hospital settings. Discussion focuses on issues around informed consent and participant observation. The authors are concerned to highlight the complexity of decision-making where researchers hold dual or multiple agendas, which are sometimes in conflict. Further situational factors which affect decision-making in research settings are explored. In particular, the complexity of gaining informed consent throughout the research process is addressed. The intention is not to point to (...) definitive resolutions to the problems posed, but rather to prompt debate about the often taken for granted meaning of 'informed' consent in relationship to participant observation. Cet article est basé sur les recherches que les auteurs avaient entrepris dans des polycliniques de santé de femmes et des hôpitaux. La discussion est concentré sur les thèmes du consentement informé et l'observation participante. Les auteurs sont inquiets de montrer la complexité du processus de se décider quant les chercheurs ont un rôle double ou multiple qui peut être en conflit. D'autres éléments qui influencent la prise de décisions dans des cadres de recherche sont aussi étudiés. En particulier, la compléxité de l'acquisition du consentement informé est adressée. L'intention n'est pas d'amener à une résolution définitive du problème posé, mais plutôt d'inviter á une discussion sur le sens (trop souvent pris pour réalité) du consentment 'informé' quant il s'agit de l'observation participante. Dieser Artikel stützt auf Forschungen, die die Autoren in Frauengesundheits-Kliniken und Spitälern unternommen hatten. Die Diskussion ist hier über die Themen Informierte Zustimmung und Mitteilende Beobachtung. Die Autoren befassen sich mit der Vielschichtigkeit der Entscheidungskräfte wenn die Forscher doppelte oder mehrfache Rollen haben, die manchmal im Konflikt sein können. Andere Faktoren, die die Entscheidungsmöglichkeit beeinflussen, sind auch untersucht. Besonders wird hier die Komplexität des erhalten von informierter Zustimmungung während des Forschungsprozesses angesprochen. Die Absicht ist nicht, eine definitive Lösung des Problems zu finden, sondern eher zu einer Debatte einzuladen über die zu oft als selbstverständlich betrachtete Bedeutung der 'informierten' Zustimmung auf der Ebene der mitteilenden Beobachtung. (shrink)