Search results for 'Academician I. A. Traehtenberg' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  6
    Academician I. A. Traehtenberg (1946). I. Soviet Economists on the Problem of Cycles and Crises. Synthese 5 (3-4):167 - 169.
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  2.  2
    Silvana Gabriela Di Camillo (2010). Las críticas de aristóteles a platón en metafísica I, 9. Philósophos - Revista de Filosofia 15 (1):169-195.
    The use of critical exposition of previous doctrines is a methodological procedure usual in Aristotle. But the distinctive characteristic of Book I of the Metaphysics is that, rather than to establish a new doctrine, a review of predecessors serves to confirm the own concepts to be used in the evaluation of the doctrines examined. This imposition of own terms has cost him the charge of distorting historical understanding. With the detailed analysis of the criticisms of Plato's theory of Ideas in (...)
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  3.  9
    Matthis Krischel (2010). Perceived Hereditary Effect of World War I: A Study of the Positions of Friedrich von Bernhardi and Vernon Kellogg. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 2 (2):139-150.
    This paper explores the question whether war was regarded as eugenic or dysgenic before, during and after the First World War. The main focus is on the positions of the German military officer and historian Friedrich von Bernhardi, who in Germany and the Next War, first published in 1912, argued for war as eugenic, and Vernon Kellogg’s Headquarters Nights, published in 1917, which marks an important work characterizing war as dysgenic. I argue that an international community of biologists and social (...)
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  4.  57
    David Schweickart, Economic Democracy: A W o R T H y S o C I a L I S M That Would Really Work.
    w a y s h a v e b e e n . W e a l l r e m e m b e r M a (...) r x ' s p o l e m i c a g a i n s t P r o u d h o n , t h e Manifesto's critique of "historical action [yielding] to personal inventive action, historically created conditions of emancipation to fantastic ones, and the gradual spontaneous class organizations of the proletariat to an organization of society specially contrived by these inventors" (Marx and Engels, 1986, 64), and the numerous other occasions when the fathers of "scientific socialism" went a f t e r t h e " u t o p i a n s . " I n general this Marxian aversion to drawing up blueprints has been healthy, fueled at least in part by a respect for the concrete specificity of the revolutionary situation and for the agents engaged in revolutionary activity: it is not the business of Marxist intellectuals to tell the agents of revolution how they are to construct their postrevolutionary economy. (shrink)
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  5. W. H. N. Hotopf & I. A. Richards (1967). Language, Thought and Comprehension: A Case Study of the Writings of I. A. Richards. British Journal of Educational Studies 15 (1):103-103.
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  6. I. A. Ilʹin (2007). I͡a Vgli͡adyvai͡usʹ V Zhiznʹ: Kniga Razdumiĭ.
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  7. Chetan Karnani & I. A. Richards (1980). Criticism, Aesthetics and Psychology: A Study of the Writings of I. A. Richards. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 39 (1):99-100.
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  8. I. A. Richards & Ann E. Berthoff (1991). Richards on Rhetoric I.A. Richards, Selected Essays, 1929-1974. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  9. I. A. Richards & Ann E. Berthoff (1991). Richards on Rhetoric I.A. Richards, Selected Essays. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  10. John Paul Russo (1982). I. A. Richards in Retrospect. Critical Inquiry 8 (4):743-760.
    I. A. Richards ushered the spirit of Cambridge realism into semantics and literary criticism. When he arrived as an undergraduate in 1911, Cambridge was in the midst of its finest philosophical flowering since the Puritanism and Platonism of the seventeenth century. The revolution of G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell against Hegelian idealism had already occurred; the Age of Principia was under way. There was a reassertion of native empiricism and a new interest in philosophical psychology, and the whole discussion (...)
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  11. Jerome P. Schiller & I. A. Richards (1970). I. A. Richards' Theory of Literature. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 29 (1):137-138.
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  12.  33
    Joachim Schummer (1998). The Chemical Core of Chemistry I: A Conceptual Approach. Hyle 4 (2):129 - 162.
    Given the rich diversity of research fields usually ascribed to chemistry in a broad sense, the present paper tries to dig our characteristic parts of chemistry that can be conceptually distinguished from interdisciplinary, applied, and specialized subfields of chemistry, and that may be called chemistry in a very narrow sense, or 'the chemical core of chemistry'. Unlike historical, ontological, and 'anti-reductive' approaches, I use a conceptual approach together with some methodological implications that allow to develop step by step a kind (...)
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  13.  32
    Neil Tennant (2014). Logic, Mathematics, and the A Priori, Part I: A Problem for Realism. Philosophia Mathematica 22 (3):308-320.
    This is Part I of a two-part study of the foundations of mathematics through the lenses of (i) apriority and analyticity, and (ii) the resources supplied by Core Logic. Here we explain what is meant by apriority, as the notion applies to knowledge and possibly also to truths in general. We distinguish grounds for knowledge from grounds of truth, in light of our recent work on truthmakers. We then examine the role of apriority in the realism/anti-realism debate. We raise a (...)
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  14.  28
    Koen Vermeir (2004). The 'Physical Prophet' and the Powers of the Imagination. Part I: A Case-Study on Prophecy, Vapours and the Imagination (1685–1710). [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 35 (4):561-591.
    I argue that the imagination was a crucial concept for the understanding of marvellous phenomena, divination and magic in general. Exploring a debate on prophecy at the turn of the seventeenth century, I show that four explanatory categories were consistently evoked and I elucidate the role of the imagination in each of them. I introduce the term ‘floating concept’ to conceptualise the different ways in which the imagination and the related ‘animal spirits’ were understood in diverse discourses. My argument is (...)
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  15.  92
    Bill Wringe (2014). May I Treat A Collective As A Mere Means. American Philosophical Quarterly 51 (3):273-284.
    According to Kant, it is impermissible to treat humanity as a mere means. If we accept Kant's equation of humanity with rational agency, and are literalists about ascriptions of agency to collectives it appears to follow that we may not treat collectives as mere means. On most standard accounts of what it is to treat something as a means this conclusion seems highly implausible. I conclude that we are faced with a range of options. One would be to rethink the (...)
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  16.  98
    Jens Johansson (2009). Am I a Series? Theoria 75 (3):196-205.
    Scott Campbell has recently defended the psychological approach to personal identity over time by arguing that a person is literally a series of mental events. Rejecting four-dimensionalism about the persistence of physical objects, Campbell regards constitutionalism as the main rival version of the psychological approach. He argues that his "series view" has two clear advantages over constitutionalism: it avoids the "two thinkers" objection and it allows a person to change bodies. In addition, Campbell suggests a reply to the objection, often (...)
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  17.  23
    Erling Skjei (1985). I. A Comment on Performative, Subject, and Proposition in Habermas's Theory of Communication. Inquiry 28 (1-4):87 – 105.
    Habermas claims that the concept of ?communicative action? can be explained by illocutionary acts alone. It appears tó me that his explanation collapses into a sort of intentional theory (2[i]). Habermas maintains further that a speech act consists of three components which are ?correlated? to three worlds and to three validity claims. However, he also seems to mean that all worlds and validity claims are correlated to just one; the so?called propositional component. One consequence is that the propositional content, not (...)
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  18.  17
    Mark R. Reiff (2015). On Unemployment: Volume I: A Micro-Theory of Distributive Justice. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Unemployment has been at historically high rates for an extended period, and while it has recently improved in certain countries, the unemployment that remains may be becoming structural. Aside from inequality, unemployment is accordingly the problem that is most likely to put critical pressure on our political institutions, disrupt the social fabric of our way of life, and even threaten the continuation of liberalism itself. Despite the obvious importance of the problem of unemployment, however, there has been a curious lack (...)
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  19. S. V. Soplenkov & A. M. Petrov (eds.) (2006). Glerii͡u Shirokovu: I͡a Khotel by s Toboĭ Pogovoritʹ. Akademii͡a Gumanitarnykh Issledovaniĭ.
  20.  37
    Helen Steward (2015). I—What is a Continuant? Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 89 (1):109-123.
    In this paper, I explore the question what a continuant is, in the context of a very interesting suggestion recently made by Rowland Stout, as part of his attempt to develop a coherent ontology of processes. Stout claims that a continuant is best thought of as something that primarily has its properties at times, rather than atemporally—and that on this construal, processes should count as continuants. While accepting that Stout is onto something here, I reject his suggestion that we should (...)
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  21.  18
    Leslie A. Howe (2008). On Competing Against Oneself, or 'I Need to Get a Different Voice in My Head'. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 2 (3):353 – 366.
    In a recent paper, Kevin Krein argues that the notion of self-competition is misplaced in adventure sports and of only limited application altogether, for two main reasons: (i) the need for a consistent and repeatable measure of performance; and (ii) the requirement of multiple competitors. Moreover, where an individual is engaged in a sport in which the primary feature with which they are engaged is a natural one, Krein argues that the more accurate description of their activity is not 'competition', (...)
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  22.  41
    Diederik Aerts & Liane Gabora (2005). A Theory of Concepts and Their Combinations I: The Structure of the Sets of Contexts and Properties. Aerts, Diederik and Gabora, Liane (2005) a Theory of Concepts and Their Combinations I.
    We propose a theory for modeling concepts that uses the state-context-property theory (SCOP), a generalization of the quantum formalism, whose basic notions are states, contexts and properties. This theory enables us to incorporate context into the mathematical structure used to describe a concept, and thereby model how context influences the typicality of a single exemplar and the applicability of a single property of a concept. We introduce the notion `state of a concept' to account for this contextual influence, and show (...)
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  23.  1
    Larry A. Herzberg (forthcoming). On Knowing How I Feel About That—A Process-Reliabilist Approach. Acta Analytica:1-20.
    Human subjects seem to have a type of introspective access to their mental states that allows them to immediately judge the types and intensities of their occurrent emotions, as well as what those emotions are about or “directed at”. Such judgments manifest what I call “emotion-direction beliefs”, which, if reliably produced, may constitute emotion-direction knowledge. Many psychologists have argued that the “directed emotions” such beliefs represent have a componential structure, one that includes feelings of emotional responses and related but independent (...)
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  24.  9
    Marcin Cichosz (2010). Iluzja sprawczej funkcji intencji działania a mechanizm ustanawiania i osiągania celu. Studia Z Kognitywistyki I Filozofii Umysłu 4.
    W 1983 roku Benjamin Libet wraz ze współpracownikami po raz pierwszy wykazał, że w prostym działaniu dobrowolnym świadoma intencja nie pełni funkcji inicjującej. Czasowy przebieg tego typu działania wskazuje również, że intencja oraz samo działanie to produkty procesów nieświadomych. Na podstawie wyniku Libeta oraz wybranych koncepcji psychologicznych Daniel Wegner zaproponował teorię pozornej mentalnej przyczynowości, w ramach której intencja to rodzaj konstruktu umożliwiającego agentowi zrozumienie własnego zachowania w kategoriach przyczynowych, gdzie jego stan mentalny (intencja) jawi mu się jako przyczyna, a działanie (...)
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  25. Jonathan D. Jacobs (2010). A Powers Theory of Modality: Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Reject Possible Worlds. Philosophical Studies 151 (2):227-248.
    Possible worlds, concrete or abstract as you like, are irrelevant to the truthmakers for modality—or so I shall argue in this paper. First, I present the neo-Humean picture of modality, and explain why those who accept it deny a common sense view of modality. Second, I present what I take to be the most pressing objection to the neo-Humean account, one that, I argue, applies equally well to any theory that grounds modality in possible worlds. Third, I present an alternative, (...)
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  26.  4
    A. L. Peck (1931). Anaxagoras: Predication as a Problem in Physics: I. Classical Quarterly 25 (1):27-37.
    The present essay is intended to supply amplification, and where necessary correction, to my previous article on Anaxagoras' philosophy. Since its publication important essays on the same subject have been written by Mr. Cyril Bailey and by Mr. F. M. Cornford, and the present essay is also an attempt to examine some of the theories put forward in them. There are one or two points which may be stated at the outset. The conclusions which I put forward five years ago (...)
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  27.  2
    Paul Kalligas (2007). Kieran McGroarty, Plotinus on Eudaimonia: A Commentary on Ennead I. 4. Rhizai. A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science 2:369-373.
    Review on Kieran McGroarty, Plotinus on Eudaimonia: A Commentary on Ennead I.4, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006.
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  28. I. M. Crombie (1989). A Dream of Socrates: I. M. Crombie. Philosophy 64 (247):29-38.
    The other night I had a very strange, and strangely coherent, dream. Socrates and Meno appeared to be arguing with each other in my presence. They talked English, I suppose, since I clearly thought I followed them; but I seem to remember that Greek words occurred from time to time. When I woke it seemed to me that the dream had some bearing on disputed matters of Platonic interpretation, so I shall try to reconstruct it here. Meno speaks first: Tell (...)
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  29.  53
    Steven French (2003). A Model‐Theoretic Account of Representation (or, I Don't Know Much About Art…but I Know It Involves Isomorphism). Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1472-1483.
    Discussions of representation in science tend to draw on examples from art. However, such examples need to be handled with care given a) the differences between works of art and scientific theories and b) the accommodation of these examples within certain philosophies of art. I shall examine the claim that isomorphism is neither necessary nor sufficient for representation and I shall argue that there exist accounts of representation in both art and science involving isomorphism which accommodate the apparent counterexamples and, (...)
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  30.  64
    Luce Irigaray (1996). I Love to You: Sketch for a Felicity Within History. Routledge.
    In I Love to You , Luce Irigaray moves from the critique of patriarchy to an exploration of the ground for a possible inter-subjectivity between the two sexes. Continuing her rejection of demands for equality, Irigaray poses the question: how can we move to a new era of sexual difference in which women and men establish lasting relations with one another without reducing the other to the status of object? Drawing upon Hegel, Irigaray proposes a dialectic appropriate to each sex (...)
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  31.  1
    William E. Connolly (2000). Why I Am Not a Secularist. Univ of Minnesota Press.
    But in Why I Am Not a Secularist, distinguished political theorist William E. Connolly argues that secularism, although admirable in its pursuit of freedom and diversity, too often undercuts these goals through its narrow and intolerant ...
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  32. Holly Andersen (2014). A Field Guide to Mechanisms: Part I. Philosophy Compass 9 (4):274-283.
    In this field guide, I distinguish five separate senses with which the term ‘mechanism’ is used in contemporary philosophy of science. Many of these senses have overlapping areas of application but involve distinct philosophical claims and characterize the target mechanisms in relevantly different ways. This field guide will clarify the key features of each sense and introduce some main debates, distinguishing those that transpire within a given sense from those that are best understood as concerning distinct senses. The ‘new mechanisms’ (...)
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  33.  58
    Steven French (2003). A Model-Theoretic Account of Representation (Or, I Don't Know Much About Art...But I Know It Involves Isomorphism). Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1472-1483.
    Recent discussions of the nature of representation in science have tended to import pre-established decompositions from analyses of representation in the arts, language, cognition and so forth. Which of these analyses one favours will depend on how one conceives of theories in the first place. If one thinks of them in terms of an axiomatised set of logico-linguistic statements, then one might be naturally drawn to accounts of linguistic representation in which notions of denotation, for example, feature prominently. If, on (...)
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  34.  28
    Lorenzo Sacconi (2006). A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance (I): Rational Bargaining and Justification. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):259 - 281.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. It focuses on justification according to the contractarian point of view (leaving compliance and implementation problems to a related article, [Sacconi 2004b, forthcoming in the Journal of Business Ethics]). It begins by providing a definition of CSR as an extended model of corporate governance, based on the fiduciary duties owed to all the (...)
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  35. Glenn Carruthers (2015). Who Am I in Out of Body Experiences? Implications From OBEs for the Explanandum of a Theory of Self-Consciousness. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (1):183-197.
    Contemporary theories of self-consciousness typically begin by dividing experiences of the self into types, each requiring separate explanation. The stereotypical case of an out of body experience may be seen to suggest a distinction between the sense of oneself as an experiencing subject, a mental entity, and a sense of oneself as an embodied person, a bodily entity. Point of view, in the sense of the place from which the subject seems to experience the world, in this case is tied (...)
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  36. John Earman & John T. Roberts (2005). Contact with the Nomic: A Challenge for Deniers of Humean Supervenience About Laws of Nature Part I: Humean Supervenience. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (1):1–22.
    This is the first part of a two-part article in which we defend the thesis of Humean Supervenience about Laws of Nature (HS). According to this thesis, two possible worlds cannot differ on what is a law of nature unless they also differ on the Humean base. The Humean base is easy to characterize intuitively, but there is no consensus on how, precisely, it should be defined. Here in Part I, we present and motivate a characterization of the Humean base (...)
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  37.  34
    Reinhard Steurer, Markus E. Langer, Astrid Konrad & André Martinuzzi (2005). Corporations, Stakeholders and Sustainable Development I: A Theoretical Exploration of Business–Society Relations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 61 (3):263 - 281.
    Sustainable development (SD) – that is, “Development that meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs and aspirations” – can be pursued in many different ways. Stakeholder relations management (SRM) is one such way, through which corporations are confronted with economic, social, and environmental stakeholder claims. This paper lays the groundwork for an empirical analysis of the question of how far SD can be achieved through SRM. It describes the so-called SD–SRM (...)
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  38.  31
    Michel Henry (2003). I Am the Truth: Toward a Philosophy of Christianity. Stanford University Press.
    A part of the “return to religion” now evident in European philosophy, this book represents the culmination of the career of a leading phenomenological thinker whose earlier works trace a trajectory from Marx through a genealogy of psychoanalysis that interprets Descartes’s “I think, I am” as “I feel myself thinking, I am.” In this book, Henry does not ask whether Christianity is “true” or “false.” Rather, what is in question here is what Christianity considers as truth, what kind of truth (...)
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  39. John R. Searle (2002). Why I Am Not a Property Dualist. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (12):57-64.
    I have argued in a number of writings[1] that the philosophical part (though not the neurobiological part) of the traditional mind-body problem has a fairly simple and obvious solution: All of our mental phenomena are caused by lower level neuronal processes in the brain and are themselves realized in the brain as higher level, or system, features. The form of causation is.
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  40.  1
    Svetlana Malakhova & Valentina Tokareva (2015). Методи та критерії iндивiдуaльнoї тa гpупoвoї оцінки персоналу в державних установах. Схід 6:36-39.
    The article considers the concept of staff assessment. Being eligible to evaluating the personnel in public institutions, the methods and criteria are summarized, being based on the analysis of the classification of areas of business entities personnel evaluation and on the approaches and methods of this assessment described in the literature. The paper argues that incomprehensive and unsystematic personnel evaluation assessment procedures are typical in the domestic practice. The authors claim that effective system of personnel estimation in public institutions should (...)
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  41.  58
    Charles Whitehead (2004). Everything I Believe Might Be a Delusion. Whoa! Tucson 2004: Ten Years on, and Are We Any Nearer to a Science of Consciousness? Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (12):68-88.
    Having agreed to review Tucson 2004, I am embarrassed to admit that I fell asleep eight times during the conference. This cannot have been entirely due to jet lag as I only fell asleep once in 1998, twice in 2000, and four times in 2002. It seems to be a geometric progression correlating with elapsed time. As this was the tenth anniversary conference several speakers indulged in nostalgic reminiscences, but I thought that readers of JCS might prefer a less rose-tinted (...)
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  42.  23
    Felix Pinkert (2015). What If I Cannot Make a Difference (and Know It). Ethics 125 (4):971-998.
    When several agents together produce suboptimal outcomes, yet no individual could have made a difference for the better, Act Consequentialism counterintuitively judges that all involved agents act rightly. I address this problem by supplementing Act Consequentialism with a requirement of modal robustness: Agents not only ought to produce best consequences in the actual world, but they also ought to be such that they would act optimally in certain counterfactual scenarios. I interpret this Modally Robust Act Consequentialism as Act Consequentialism plus (...)
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  43.  18
    Louis Marchildon (2015). Why I Am Not a QBist. Foundations of Physics 45 (7):754-761.
    Quantum Bayesianism, or QBism, is a recent development of the epistemic view of quantum states, according to which the state vector represents knowledge about a quantum system, rather than the true state of the system. QBism explicitly adopts the subjective view of probability, wherein probability assignments express an agent’s personal degrees of belief about an event. QBists claim that most if not all conceptual problems of quantum mechanics vanish if we simply take a proper epistemic and probabilistic perspective. Although this (...)
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  44.  4
    Mark H. Bickhard (2015). Toward a Model of Functional Brain Processes I: Central Nervous System Functional Micro-Architecture. Axiomathes 25 (3):217-238.
    Standard semantic information processing models—information in; information processed; information out —lend themselves to standard models of the functioning of the brain in terms, e.g., of threshold-switch neurons connected via classical synapses. That is, in terms of sophisticated descendants of McCulloch and Pitts models. I argue that both the cognition and the brain sides of this framework are incorrect: cognition and thought are not constituted as forms of semantic information processing, and the brain does not function in terms of passive input (...)
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  45. Marek Piechowiak (2009). Klauzula limitacyjna a nienaruszalność praw i godności [Limitation Clause and the Inviolability of Rights and Dignity]. Przegląd Sejmowy 17 (2 (91)):55-77.
    The author examines the arguments for applicability of the limitation clause which specifies the requirements for limitation of constitutional freedoms and rights (Article 31 para. 3 of the Constitution) to the right to protection of life (Article 38). Even if there is almost a general acceptance of such applicability, this approach does not hold up to criticism based on the rule existing in the Polish legal order that treaty commitments concerning human rights have supremacy over national statutory regulations. (...)
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  46. Philip Goff (2012). Does Mary Know I Experience Plus Rather Than Quus? A New Hard Problem. Philosophical Studies 160 (2):223-235.
    Realism about cognitive or semantic phenomenology, the view that certain conscious states are intrinsically such as to ground thought or understanding, is increasingly being taken seriously in analytic philosophy. The principle aim of this paper is to argue that it is extremely difficult to be a physicalist about cognitive phenomenology. The general trend in later 20th century/early 21st century philosophy of mind has been to account for the content of thought in terms of facts outside the head of the thinker (...)
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  47.  19
    William A. Dembski, Random Predicate Logic I: A Probabilistic Approach to Vagueness.
    Predicates are supposed to slice reality neatly in two halves, one for which the predicate holds, the other for which it fails. Yet far from being razors, predicates tend to be dull knives that mangle reality. If reality is a tomato and predicates are knives, then when these knives divide the tomato, plenty of mush remains unaccounted for. Of course some knives are sharper than others, just as some predicates are less vague than others. “x is water” is certainly sharper (...)
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  48.  9
    Ross T. Brady (1988). A Content Semantics for Quantified Relevant Logics. I. Studia Logica 47 (2):111 - 127.
    We present an algebraic-style of semantics, which we call a content semantics, for quantified relevant logics based on the weak system BBQ. We show soundness and completeness for all quantificational logics extending BBQ and also treat reduced modelling for all systems containing BB d Q. The key idea of content semantics is that true entailments AB are represented under interpretation I as content containments, i.e. I(A)I(B) (or, the content of A contains that of B). This is opposed to the truth-functional (...)
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  49.  1
    Paola D'Aquino (2001). Quotient Fields of a Model of IΔ0 + Ω1. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 47 (3):305-314.
    In [4] the authors studied the residue field of a model M of IΔ0 + Ω1 for the principal ideal generated by a prime p. One of the main results is that M/ has a unique extension of each finite degree. In this paper we are interested in understanding the structure of any quotient field of M, i.e. we will study the quotient M/I for I a maximal ideal of M. We prove that any quotient field of M satisfies the (...)
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  50.  7
    I. Walker (1978). The Evolution of Sexual Reproduction as a Repair Mechanism. Part I. A Model for Self-Repair and its Biological Implications. Acta Biotheoretica 27 (3-4):133-158.
    The theory is presented that the sexual process is a repair mechanism which maintains redundancy within the sub-structure of hierarchical, self-reproducing organisms. In order to keep the problems within mathematically tractable limits , a simple model is introduced: a wheel with 6 spokes, 3 of them vital and 3 redundant, symbolizes the individual . Random accidents destroy spokes; the wheels replicate at regular cycles and engage periodically in pairing and repair phases during which missing spokes are copy-reproduced along the intact (...)
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