Search results for 'Achievement' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. J. Adam Carter & Duncan Pritchard (2014). Knowledge‐How and Cognitive Achievement. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 88 (1):181-199.
    According to reductive intellectualism, knowledge-how just is a kind of propositional knowledge (e.g., Stanley & Williamson 2001; Stanley 2011a, 2011b; Brogaard, 2008a, 2008b, 2009, 2011, 2009, 2011). This proposal has proved controversial because knowledge-how and propositional knowledge do not seem to share the same epistemic properties, particularly with regard to epistemic luck. Here we aim to move the argument forward by offering a positive account of knowledge-how. In particular, we propose a new kind of anti-intellectualism. Unlike neo-Rylean anti-intellectualist views, according (...)
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  2.  60
    Benjamin Jarvis (2013). Knowledge, Cognitive Achievement, and Environmental Luck. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 94 (4):529-551.
    This article defends the view that knowledge is type-identical to cognitive achievement. I argue, pace Duncan Pritchard, that not only knowledge, but also cognitive achievement is incompatible with environmental luck. I show that the performance of cognitive abilities in environmental luck cases does not distinguish them from non-abilities per se. For this reason, although the cognitive abilities of the subject are exercised in environmental luck cases, they are not manifested in any relevant sense. I conclude by showing that (...)
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  3. J. Adam Carter, Benjamin W. Jarvis & Katherine Rubin (2015). Varieties of Cognitive Achievement. Philosophical Studies 172 (6):1603-1623.
    According to robust virtue epistemology , knowledge is type-identical with a particular species of cognitive achievement. The identification itself is subject to some criticism on the grounds that it fails to account for the anti-luck features of knowledge. Although critics have largely focused on environmental luck, the fundamental philosophical problem facing RVE is that it is not clear why it should be a distinctive feature of cognitive abilities that they ordinarily produce beliefs in a way that is safe. We (...)
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  4. Douglas W. Portmore (2007). Welfare, Achievement, and Self-Sacrifice. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 2 (2):1-28.
    Many philosophers hold that the achievement of one’s goals can contribute to one’s welfare apart from whatever independent contributions that the objects of those goals, or the processes by which they are achieved, make. Call this the Achievement View, and call those who accept it achievementists. In this paper, I argue that achievementists should accept both (a) that one factor that affects how much the achievement of a goal contributes to one’s welfare is the amount that one (...)
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  5.  33
    Anthony Bolos (2015). Is Knowledge of God a Cognitive Achievement? Ratio 28 (3):184-201.
    This essay considers whether reformed epistemology is compatible with the claim that knowledge is a cognitive achievement. It is argued that knowledge of God is not only compatible with a more general achievement claim, but is also compatible with a much stronger achievement claim – namely, the strong achievement thesis where achievements are characterized by the overcoming of some obstacle. With respect to reformed epistemology, then, it is argued that the obstacle that is overcome is an (...)
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  6.  66
    Gwen Bradford (2015). Knowledge, Achievement, and Manifestation. Erkenntnis 80 (1):97-116.
    Virtue Epistemology appealingly characterizes knowledge as a kind of achievement, attributable to the exercise of cognitive virtues. But a more thorough understanding of the nature and value of achievements more broadly casts doubt on the view. In particular, it is argued that virtue epistemology’s answer to the Meno question is not as impressive as it purports to be, and that the favored analysis of ability is both problematic and irrelevant. However, considerations about achievements illuminate the best direction for the (...)
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  7.  14
    Guy Rohrbaugh (2015). Inner Achievement. Erkenntnis 80 (6):1191-1204.
    The appealing idea that knowledge is best understood as a kind of achievement faces significant criticisms, among them Matthew Chrisman’s charge that the whole project rests on a kind of ontological category mistake. Chrisman argues that while knowledge and belief are states, the kind of normativity found in, for example, Sosa’s famous ‘Triple-A’ structure of assessment is only applicable to performances, end-directed events that unfold over time, and never to states. What is overlooked, both by Chrisman and those he (...)
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  8.  7
    James D. Marshall (2009). Revisiting the Task/Achievement Analysis of Teaching in Neo-Liberal Times. Educational Philosophy and Theory 41 (1):79-90.
    In 1975 I published an article on Gilbert Ryle's task/achievement analysis of teaching , arguing that teaching was in Ryle's sense of the distinction a task verb. Philosophers of education were appealing to a distinction between tasks and achievements in their discussions of teaching, but they were often also appealing to Ryle's work on the analysis of task and achievement verbs. Many philosophers of education misunderstood Ryle's distinction as teaching was often claimed to be a term with both (...)
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  9.  12
    Wally Morrow (1994). Entitlement and Achievement in Education. Studies in Philosophy and Education 13 (1):33-47.
    The central claim of this paper is that the culture of entitlement in education is incoherent to the extent to which it rejects: concepts of educational achievement. It gives an account of some of the conceptual features of achievement and educational achievement, and argues that although educational and academic achievement are closely linked with each other they are distinct. It tries to show why academic practices are central in our conceptions of the value of educational (...). In terms of the concept of epistemological access it argues that the agency of the learner is necessary to educational access, and, hence, educational achievement, but that the culture of entitlement in education has a strong tendency to deny this. The paper tries to show in what ways the culture of entitlement presupposes the concept of educational achievement. (shrink)
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  10. Gwen Bradford (2015). Achievement. OUP Oxford.
    Gwen Bradford presents the first systematic account of what achievements are, and why they are worth the effort. She argues that more things count as achievements than we might have thought, and offers a new perfectionist theory of value in which difficulty, perhaps surprisingly, plays a central part in characterizing achievements.
     
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  11.  10
    Jesús Navarro (2015). No Achievement Beyond Intention. Synthese 192 (10):3339-3369.
    According to robust versions of virtue epistemology, the reason why knowledge is incompatible with certain kinds of luck is that justified true beliefs must be achieved by the agent . In a recent set of papers, Pritchard has challenged these sorts of views, advancing different arguments against them. I confront one of them here, which is constructed upon scenarios affected by environmental luck, such as the fake barn cases. My objection to Pritchard differs from those offered until now by Carter (...)
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  12.  10
    John W. Atkinson (1953). The Achievement Motive and Recall of Interrupted and Completed Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (6):381.
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  13.  21
    Stanley Malinovich (1964). Perception: An Experience or an Achievement? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 25 (December):161-168.
  14.  2
    David C. McClelland, Russell A. Clark, Thornton B. Roby & John W. Atkinson (1949). The Projective Expression of Needs. IV. The Effect of the Need for Achievement on Thematic Apperception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (2):242.
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  15.  1
    Gail Corrado (forthcoming). Scripts, Tricks and Capability Theory: Using an Empirical Window Into the Logic of Achievement to Illustrate How a Critical Addition to Capability Theory Might Work to Guide Action. Studies in Philosophy and Education:1-16.
    Capability theory improves our understanding of well being because it takes account of the “conversion” problem: income/wealth/commodities. need to be made effectively available to really increase well being. However, just as IWCs need to be converted into functionings in order to be effective in bringing additional possibilities to a person, our institutions, abilities and environments need to be converted as well to allow them to be used effectively in the same pursuit. Freedom of the press and speech, education and certainly (...)
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  16.  1
    Alfred F. Smode (1958). Learning and Performance in a Tracking Task Under Two Levels of Achievement Information Feedback. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (4):297.
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  17.  3
    Elizabeth G. French (1955). Some Characteristics of Achievement Motivation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 50 (4):232.
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  18.  2
    Suzanne S. Eddinger (1985). The Effect of Different Question Sequences on Achievement in High School Social Studies. Journal of Social Studies Research 9 (1):17-29.
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  19.  2
    W. Schofield Jr (1943). An Attempt to Measure 'Persistence' in its Relationship to Scholastic Achievement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (5):440.
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  20.  1
    Donald H. Kausler & E. Philip Trapp (1958). Achievement Motivation and Goal-Setting Behavior on a Learning Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):575.
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  21.  1
    Lyle R. Smith (1985). The Effect of Teacher Uncertainty and Student Ability Level on Achievement in Social Studies. Journal of Social Studies Research 9 (1):30-40.
  22. Saul S. Leshner (1961). Effects of Aspiration and Achievement on Muscular Tensions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (2):133.
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  23. Ramon J. Rhine (1959). The Relation of Achievement in Problem Solving to Rate and Kind of Hypotheses Produced. Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (4):253.
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  24.  2
    Martyn Hammersley (2001). Interpreting Achievement Gaps: Some Comments on a Dispute. British Journal of Educational Studies 49 (3):285-298.
    This is a response to an article by Stephen Gorard in a previous issue of the journal. It addresses the issue of how achievement gaps in educational performance between ethnic and other groups, and changes in these, can best be measured. The approach recommended by Gorard is compared with that of the authors he criticises. The conclusion reached is that both approaches are of value: that they provide different kinds of information. Which is the most useful on any (...)
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  25.  36
    Samuel H. Baker (2015). The Concept of Ergon: Towards An Achievement Interpretation of Aristotle's 'Function Argument'. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 48:227-266.
    In Nicomachean Ethics 1. 7, Aristotle gives a definition of the human good, and he does so by means of the “ ergon argument.” I clear the way for a new interpretation of this argument by arguing that Aristotle does not think that the ergon of something is always the proper activity of that thing. Though he has a single concept of an ergon, Aristotle identifies the ergon of an X as an activity in some cases but a product in (...)
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  26.  12
    Shu Ching Yang, Chiao-Ling Huang & An-Sing Chen (2013). An Investigation of College Students' Perceptions of Academic Dishonesty, Reasons for Dishonesty, Achievement Goals, and Willingness to Report Dishonest Behavior. Ethics and Behavior 23 (6):501-522.
    This study investigated students? perceptions of their own and their peers? academic dishonesty (AD), their reasons for this dishonesty, their achievement goals, and their willingness to report AD (WRAD) within a Chinese cultural context. The results identified students? belief that their peers had a greater likelihood of engaging in AD and had more motivation to do so than did the students themselves. Gender and academic major did not affect students? WRAD. However, students were significantly more willing to report classmates (...)
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  27. Daniel Whiting (2012). Epistemic Value and Achievement. Ratio 25 (2):216-230.
    Knowledge seems to be a good thing, or at least better than epistemic states that fall short of it, such as true belief. Understanding too seems to be a good thing, perhaps better even than knowledge. In a number of recent publications, Duncan Pritchard tries to account for the value of understanding by claiming that understanding is a cognitive achievement and that achievements in general are valuable. In this paper, I argue that coming to understand something need not be (...)
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  28.  71
    Nicky Jacobs & David Harvey (2005). Do Parents Make a Difference to Children's Academic Achievement? Differences Between Parents of Higher and Lower Achieving Students. Educational Studies 31 (4):431-448.
    Differences in family factors in determining academic achievement were investigated by testing 432 parents in nine independent, coeducational Melbourne schools. Schools were ranked and categorized into three groups , based on student achievement scores in their final year of secondary school and school improvement indexes. Parents completed a questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards the school environment, their aspirations, expectations, encouragement and interest in their child’s education . They also responded to six open‐ended questions on their attitudes to (...) and to their school. Multiple regression analyses revealed that parental expectations of their children’s educational level made the strongest unique prediction of high achievement followed by the length of time they had maintained their expectations. Limitations discussed include the disparity in meaning associated with the definition of school success and whether these results can be generalized to all students considering the biased sample. (shrink)
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  29.  66
    Piller (2012). Knowledge as Achievement -- Greco's Double Mistake. In C. Jaeger & W. Loeffler (ed.), Epistemology: Contexts, Values Disagreement.
    John Greco claims that knowledge is a kind of achievement. The value achievements have (as such) shows, according to Greco, why knowledge is better than mere true belief. I argue that, for a variety of reasons, it is not always good to know. Furthermore, it is wrong to think that achievements are always good – think of achieving what is bad. Greco is mistaken twice; this leaves the idea that knowledge is a kind of achievement intact.
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  30.  98
    Laurence James (2005). Achievement and the Meaningfulness of Life. Philosophical Papers 34 (3):429-442.
    In this paper I present a novel account of achievement and I argue that, all other things being equal, the presence of this particular type of achievement in a person’s life makes that life more meaningful. In arguing for this conclusion, I explore the connections between m-achievements and a person’s self-conception and especially the idea that m-achievements provide a reason for the revision of one’s self-conception.
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  31.  82
    Josep E. Corbí (2010). First-Person Authority and Self-Knowledge as an Achievement. European Journal of Philosophy 18 (3):325-362.
    Abstract: There is much that I admire in Richard Moran's account of how first-person authority may be consistent with self-knowledge as an achievement. In this paper, I examine his attempt to characterize the goal of psychoanalytic treatment, which is surely that the patient should go beyond the mere theoretical acceptance of the analyst's interpretation, and requires instead a more intimate, first-personal, awareness by the patient of their psychological condition.I object, however, that the way in which Moran distinguishes between the (...)
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  32. David Mcnaughton & Piers Rawling (2001). Achievement, Welfare and Consequentialism. Analysis 61 (2):156–162.
    significant role for accomplishment thereby admits a ‘Trojan Horse’ (267).1 To abandon hedonism in favour of a conception of well-being that incorporates achievement is to take the first step down a slippery slope toward the collapse of the other two pillars of utilitarian morality: welfarism and consequentialism. We shall argue that Crisp’s arguments do not support these conclusions. We begin with welfarism. Crisp defines it thus: ‘Well-being is the only value. Everything good must be good for some being or (...)
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  33.  2
    Ellen P. W. A. Jansen & Cor J. M. Suhre (2010). The Effect of Secondary School Study Skills Preparation on First‐Year University Achievement. Educational Studies 36 (5):569-580.
    Although many studies have revealed the importance of study skills for students' first?year performance and college retention, the extent of the impact of study skills preparation on students' academic achievement is less clear. This paper explores the impact of pre?university study skills preparation on students' first?year study experiences, academic achievement and persistence. The setting for this study is a large law school in the Netherlands which attracts students from more than 100 schools for secondary education. The results show (...)
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  34.  19
    Avery Kolers (2012). Attachment to Territory: Status or Achievement? Canadian Journal of Philosophy 42 (2):101-123.
    It is by now widely agreed that a theory of territorial rights must be able to explain attachment or particularity: what can link a particular group to a particular place with the kind of normative force necessary to forbid encroachment or colonization?1 Attachment is one of the pillars on which any successful theory of territory will have to stand. But the notion of attachment is not yet well understood, and such agreement as does exist relies on unexamined assumptions. One such (...)
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  35.  2
    Jelena Teodorović (2012). Student Background Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Serbia. Educational Studies 38 (1):89-110.
    This paper describes student‐level findings of the first large‐scale comprehensive school effectiveness study of the primary education in Serbia. Twenty‐five student‐level variables were examined in a three‐level HLM model using a study sample of almost 5000 students, over 250 classrooms and over 100 schools. Differences between the students were in large part responsible for differences in achievement scores in mathematics and Serbian language. Parental education, Roma minority status, developmental or family problems, gender, student motivation, parental involvement in student work (...)
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  36.  6
    Yann Allard-Tremblay (2015). Trust and Distrust in the Achievement of Popular Control. The Monist 98 (4):375-390.
    This paper aims to deflate the idea that democracy would be in essence a privileged locus of civic trust. Three claims are defended: (1) there is nothing specific to democracy regarding the affirmation that trust is required for social cooperation; (2) democracy, when conceived discursively, depends on guarded epistemic trust and; (3) popular control may require, in some contexts, institutions that express and foster distrust towards a specific section of the population. The conclusion to be drawn is that the appropriateness (...)
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  37.  9
    Thérèse Bouffard & Nathalie Couture (2003). Motivational Profile and Academic Achievement Among Students Enrolled in Different Schooling Tracks. Educational Studies 29 (1):19-38.
    From the contextual perspective, researchers argue that the relevance and weight of motivational variables of students' functioning vary depending on different dimensions related to individual, cultural or situational characteristics. The first objective of this study examined this contention by comparing self-perceptions of competence, learning goals and judgments of usefulness of school subjects as motivational determinants of high school students' commitment and achievement according to their assignment to their learning abilities. The second objective was to compare how these variables related (...)
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  38.  1
    Feyisa Demie, Rebecca Butler & Anne Taplin (2002). Educational Achievement and the Disadvantage Factor: Empirical Evidence. Educational Studies 28 (2):101-110.
    This study examines the relationship between social background factors and educational achievements. It draws on unique data from London LEAs. The paper illustrates detail analysis on levels of disadvantage in schools and the complexities of judging school performance including discussion on the potential of z-score indicators to measure the levels of deprivation in urban area schools. Overall, the findings from the empirical evidence suggests that there is a strong relationship between disadvantage and examination success, with LEAs located in non-deprived areas (...)
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  39.  7
    Mieke Van Houtte * (2004). Gender Context of the School and Study Culture, or How the Presence of Girls Affects the Achievement of Boys. Educational Studies 30 (4):409-423.
    This paper builds on my previous research, explaining the differential achievement of boys and girls in secondary education by the fact that boys' culture is less study orientated than girls' culture. The central question of the present paper is whether the presence of girls at school affects the boys' study culture and, by consequence, boys' achievement. The research is based on data of 877 boys and 714 girls, attending the fifth year of a sample of 15 general secondary (...)
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  40.  4
    Marjolein Torenbeek, Ellen Jansen & Adriaan Hofman (2011). The Relationship Between First‐Year Achievement and the Pedagogical‐Didactical Fit Between Secondary School and University. Educational Studies 37 (5):557-568.
    (2011). The relationship between first‐year achievement and the pedagogical‐didactical fit between secondary school and university. Educational Studies: Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 557-568.
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  41.  25
    Eddy H. De Bruyn (2005). Role Strain, Engagement and Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence. Educational Studies 31 (1):15-27.
    The present study was designed to investigate the relationships between role strains following the transition to secondary school and academic achievement. Academic engagement was hypothesized to mediate between role strain and achievement. The sample consisted of 749 students in their first year of secondary school. Four types of role strain were investigated: parent, teacher, school and peer. Parent and teacher role strains appeared to be negatively associated with academic achievement, as mediated through academic engagement. Parent and school (...)
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  42.  13
    Joshua M. Feinberg (2009). Perception of Cheaters: The Role of Past and Present Academic Achievement. Ethics and Behavior 19 (4):310 – 322.
    Participants ( N = 151) rated a fictitious student who may have cheated on an exam. The student's description varied on prior academic performance (low achieving, average achieving, or high achieving) and exam grade (65 or 95). Participants' attitudes were most negative toward the low-achieving student who was also most likely to be perceived as cheating. However, participants recommended harsher punishments for students who scored a 95 regardless of prior academic achievement. Finally, a significant interaction indicated more negative attitudes (...)
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  43.  1
    Nicky Jacobs & David Harvey (2010). The Extent to Which Teacher Attitudes and Expectations Predict Academic Achievement of Final Year Students. Educational Studies 36 (2):195-206.
    Competition in the market is a perennial and ever‐increasing problem for independent schools. How schools can meet this pressure and find ways to attract students is a continuing question and one that will get more onerous as the government funding for education is, in relative terms, decreasing. One of the ways in which schools can show their worth is the attraction of the best teachers and being able to show potential clients how their staff contribute to the academic success of (...)
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  44.  12
    Robert W. Howard (2005). Are Gender Differences in High Achievement Disappearing? A Test in One Intellectual Domain. Journal of Biosocial Science 37 (3):371-380.
    Males traditionally predominate at upper achievement levels. One general view holds that this is due only to various social factors such as the and lack of female role models. Another view holds that it occurs partly because of innate ability differences, with more males being at upper ability levels. In the last few decades, women have become more achievement focused and competitive and have gained many more opportunities to achieve. The present study examined one intellectual domain, international chess, (...)
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  45.  1
    Anthony Bolos (2016). Is Knowledge of God a Cognitive Achievement? Ratio 29 (2):184-201.
    This essay considers whether reformed epistemology is compatible with the claim that knowledge is a cognitive achievement. It is argued that knowledge of God is not only compatible with a more general achievement claim, but is also compatible with a much stronger achievement claim – namely, the strong achievement thesis where achievements are characterized by the overcoming of some obstacle. With respect to reformed epistemology, then, it is argued that the obstacle that is overcome is an (...)
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  46.  10
    Tina Vršnik Perše, Ana Kozina & Tina Rutar Leban (2010). Negative School Factors and Their Influence on Math and Science Achievement in TIMSS 2003. Educational Studies 37 (3):265-276.
    The aim of the present study was to conduct an analysis of TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) 2003 database and to determine how negative school factors, such as aggression, are associated to the mathematical and science achievement of students. The analyses were conducted separately for national and international data. National analyses for Slovenia show significant associations between math and science achievement and the experience of aggressive behaviour. Students who experienced aggressive behaviour scored lower in math (...)
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  47.  4
    Eva Myrberg (2007). The Effect of Formal Teacher Education on Reading Achievement of 3rd‐Grade Students in Public and Independent Schools in Sweden. Educational Studies 33 (2):145-162.
    This study investigates the influence of teacher competence on 3rd?grade students? reading achievement in public and independent schools in Sweden. The data come from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 (Progress in Reading Literacy Study 2001) and comprise some 10,000 students. Students in independent schools achieved better on the reading test than did students in public schools, but when parents? education was controlled for, the effect on students? achievement of school type disappeared. Teacher certification for teaching in the (...)
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  48.  17
    Carolyn Baker & Jayne Keogh (1995). Accounting for Achievement in Parent-Teacher Interviews. Human Studies 18 (2-3):263 - 300.
    This paper examines features of the talk in a number of teacher-parent interviews recently audio-recorded in a secondary school in Brisbane, Australia. The central topic of the talk is the academic achievement of the student. In offering accounts of the student's achievement, participants offer moral versions of themselves as parents and teachers. These institutional identities are oriented to and elaborated in the course and in the organisation of this talk. The student about whom the talk is done is (...)
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  49.  2
    Joep Bakker, Eddie Denessen & Mariël Brus‐Laeven (2007). Socio‐Economic Background, Parental Involvement and Teacher Perceptions of These in Relation to Pupil Achievement. Educational Studies 33 (2):177-192.
    Parental involvement and teacher perceptions of parental involvement in the education of children were studied in relation to level of parental education and pupil achievement. A questionnaire was administered to 218 parents and 60 teachers. Correlational analyses and paired?sample analyses showed teacher perceptions to be weakly related to parental reports of their own involvement and to operate at a different level. Regression analyses and analyses of variance showed teacher perceptions of parental involvement to affect pupil achievement more strongly (...)
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  50. Becky Francis (2000). Boys, Girls and Achievement: Addressing the Classroom Issues. Routledge.
    Girls are now out-performing boys at GCSE level, giving rise to a debate in the media on boys' underachievement. However, often such work has been a 'knee-jerk' response, led by media, not based on solid research. _Boys, Girls and Achievement - Addressing the Classroom Issues_ fills that gap and: *provides a critical overview of the current debate on achievement; *Focuses on interviews with young people and classroom observations to examine how boys and girls see themselves as learners; *analyses (...)
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