Search results for 'Achim Hoffmann' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  56
    Achim Hoffmann (2010). Can Machines Think? An Old Question Reformulated. Minds and Machines 20 (2):203-212.
    This paper revisits the often debated question Can machines think? It is argued that the usual identification of machines with the notion of algorithm has been both counter-intuitive and counter-productive. This is based on the fact that the notion of algorithm just requires an algorithm to contain a finite but arbitrary number of rules. It is argued that intuitively people tend to think of an algorithm to have a rather limited number of rules. The paper will further propose a modification (...)
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  2.  1
    Bernhard Pfahringer, Geoffrey Holmes & Achim Hoffmann (eds.) (2010). Discovery Science: 13th International Conference, Ds 2010, Canberra, Australia, October 6-8, 2010: Proceedings. Springer.
    The LNAI series reports state-of-the-art results in artificial intelligence research, development, and education, at a high level and in both printed and electronic form.
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  3. Roald Hoffmann (2012). Roald Hoffmann on the Philosophy, Art, and Science of Chemistry. Oxford University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Introduction, by Michael Weisberg and Jeffrey Kovac. -- 1 Trying to Understand, Making Bonds, by Roald Hoffmann -- Part 1: Chemical Reasoning and Explanation -- 2. Why Buy That Theory?, by Roald Hoffmann. -- 3. What Might Philosophy of Science Look Like If Chemists Built It?, by Roald Hoffmann -- 4. Unstable, by Roald Hoffmann -- 5. Nearly Circular Reasoning, by Roald Hoffmann -- 6. Ockham's Razor (...)
     
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  4. Karl Hoffmann (1908). Hoffmann, Karl. Zur Literatur und Ideengeschichte. Kant-Studien 13 (1-3).
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  5. Ernst Hoffmann & Hans Georg Gadamer (1961). Platonismum Und Christliche Philosophie. [Gesammelte Abhandlungen Und Vorträge Zur Geschichte der Philosophie]. Artemis-Verlag.
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  6.  42
    Michael H. G. Hoffmann (2004). How to Get It. Diagrammatic Reasoning as a Tool of Knowledge Development and its Pragmatic Dimension. Foundations of Science 9 (3):285-305.
    Discussions concerning belief revision, theorydevelopment, and ``creativity'' in philosophy andAI, reveal a growing interest in Peirce'sconcept of abduction. Peirce introducedabduction in an attempt to providetheoretical dignity and clarification to thedifficult problem of knowledge generation. Hewrote that ``An Abduction is Originary inrespect to being the only kind of argumentwhich starts a new idea'' (Peirce, CP 2.26).These discussions, however, led to considerabledebates about the precise way in which Peirce'sabduction can be used to explain knowledgegeneration (cf. Magnani, 1999; Hoffmann, 1999).The crucial question (...)
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  7.  17
    Christoph Hoffmann & Jutta Schickore (2001). Secondary Matters: On Disturbances, Contamination, and Waste as Objects of Research. Perspectives on Science 9 (2):123-125.
    : The contributions to this volume originate from the workshop "Hauptsachen und Nebendinge—Pure Science and its Impurities," organized by Christoph Hoffmann, which took place at the Max-Planck-Institute for the History of Science (Berlin) in July 2000. We wish to thank all participants for rich and stimulating talks and discussions.
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  8.  6
    Christine Hoffmann & Helmut Crott (2004). Effects of Amount of Evidence and Range of Rule on the Use of Hypothesis and Target Tests by Groups in Rule-Discovery Tasks. Thinking and Reasoning 10 (4):321 – 354.
    This experiment investigated the use of positive and negative hypothesis and target tests by groups in an adaptation of the 2-4-6 Wason task. The experimental variables were range of rule (small vs large), amount of evidence (low vs high), and trial block (1 vs 2). The results were in accordance with Klayman and Ha's (1987) analysis of base rate probabilities of falsification and with additional theoretical considerations. Base rate probabilities were more descriptive of participants' behaviour in target than in hypothesis (...)
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  9. Stanley Hoffmann (1987). Superpower Ethics: The Rules of the Game. Ethics & International Affairs 1.
    Turning to a brief consideration of United States foreign policy, Hoffmann points to particular moral difficulties in U.S. stances and urges the development of superpower rules that are effective and ethical.
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  10.  2
    Peter Hoffmann & Byron Dorgan (2012). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. The MIT Press.
    In this new edition of his pioneering book "Tomorrow's Energy," Peter Hoffmann makes the case for hydrogen as the cornerstone of a new energy economy.
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  11.  80
    Vincent C. Müller & Matej Hoffmann (forthcoming). What is Morphological Computation? On How the Body Contributes to Cognition and Control. Artificial Life (2016/17).
    The contribution of the body to cognition and control in natural and artificial agents is increasingly described as “off-loading computation from the brain to the body”, where the body is said to perform “morphological computation”. Our investigation of four characteristic cases of morphological computation in animals and robots shows that the ‘off-loading’ perspective is misleading. Actually, the contribution of body morphology to cognition and control is rarely computational, in any useful sense of the word. We thus distinguish (1) morphology that (...)
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  12.  45
    Peter F. Dominey, Tony J. Prescott, Jeannette Bohg, Andreas K. Engel, Shaun Gallagher, Tobias Heed, Matej Hoffmann, Gunther Knoblich, Wolfgang Prinz & Andrew Schwartz (2016). Implications of Action-Oriented Paradigm Shifts in Cognitive Science. In Andreas K. Engel, Karl J. Friston & Danica Kragic (eds.), The Pragmatic Turn: Toward Action-Oriented Views in Cognitive Science. MIT Press 333-356.
    An action-oriented perspective changes the role of an individual from a passive observer to an actively engaged agent interacting in a closed loop with the world as well as with others. Cognition exists to serve action within a landscape that contains both. This chapter surveys this landscape and addresses the status of the pragmatic turn. Its potential influence on science and the study of cognition are considered (including perception, social cognition, social interaction, sensorimotor entrainment, and language acquisition) and its impact (...)
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  13. Matej Hoffmann & Vincent C. Müller (forthcoming). Simple or Complex Bodies? Trade-Offs in Exploiting Body Morphology for Control. In Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic & Raffaela Giovagnoli (eds.), Representation of Reality: Humans, Animals and Machines. Springer
    Engineers fine-tune the design of robot bodies for control purposes, however, a methodology or set of tools is largely absent, and optimization of morphology (shape, material properties of robot bodies, etc.) is lagging behind the development of controllers. This has become even more prominent with the advent of compliant, deformable or ”soft” bodies. These carry substantial potential regarding their exploitation for control—sometimes referred to as ”morphological computation”. In this article, we briefly review different notions of computation by physical systems and (...)
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  14. Shira Leibowitz & Roald Hoffmann (1991). Signs and Portents: No Parking in the Courtroom. Diacritics 21 (1):2-23.
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  15. Morag Goodwin, Felix Hanschmann, Hans Michael Heinig, Florian Hoffmann, Karen Kaiser, Alexandra Kemmerer, Malcolm MacLaren, Stefan Magen, Ralf Michaels & Betsy Baker (2000). Critical Legal Thought: An American‐German Debate. Legal Theory 34:57.
     
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  16.  82
    Matej Hoffmann & Vincent C. Müller (2014). Trade-Offs in Exploiting Body Morphology for Control: From Simple Bodies and Model-Based Control to Complex Ones with Model-Free Distributed Control Schemes. In Helmut Hauser, Rudolf M. Füchslin & Rolf Pfeifer (eds.), Opinions and Outlooks on Morphological Computation. E-Book 185-194.
    Tailoring the design of robot bodies for control purposes is implicitly performed by engineers, however, a methodology or set of tools is largely absent and optimization of morphology (shape, material properties of robot bodies, etc.) is lag- ging behind the development of controllers. This has become even more prominent with the advent of compliant, deformable or "soft" bodies. These carry substantial potential regarding their exploitation for control – sometimes referred to as "mor- phological computation" in the sense of offloading computation (...)
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  17. Stanley Hoffmann (2004). Thoughts on Fear in Global Society. Social Research: An International Quarterly 71 (4):1023-1036.
     
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  18.  2
    C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Hoffmann (2014). Swap Logic. Logic Journal of the IGPL 22 (2):309-332.
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  19. Daniel Schneider, Sven Hoffmann & Edmund Wascher (2014). Sustained Posterior Contralateral Activity Indicates Re-Entrant Target Processing in Visual Change Detection: An EEG Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  20.  7
    Daniel Sullivan & Stephan Achim, Existential Feelings in Virtue: A Philosophical-Psychological Investigation.
    This presentation was delivered at the Self, Motivation & Virtue Project's 2015 Interdisciplinary Moral Forum, held at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
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  21.  25
    Andrea Kiesel, Annika Wagener, Wilfried Kunde, Joachim Hoffmann, Andreas J. Fallgatter & Christian Stöcker (2006). Unconscious Manipulation of Free Choice in Humans. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):397-408.
    Previous research has shown that subliminally presented stimuli accelerate or delay responses afforded by supraliminally presented stimuli. Our experiments extend these findings by showing that unconscious stimuli even affect free choices between responses. Thus, actions that are phenomenally experienced as freely chosen are influenced without the actor becoming aware of the manipulation. However, the unconscious influence is limited to a response bias, as participants chose the primed response only in up to 60% of the trials. LRP data in free choice (...)
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  22. Glen Hoffmann (2011). Two Kinds of A Priori Infallibility. Synthese 181 (2):241-253.
    On rationalist infallibilism, a wide range of both (i) analytic and (ii) synthetic a priori propositions can be infallibly justified (or absolutely warranted), i.e., justified to a degree that entails their truth and precludes their falsity. Though rationalist infallibilism is indisputably running its course, adherence to at least one of the two species of infallible a priori justification refuses to disappear from mainstream epistemology. Among others, Putnam (1978) still professes the a priori infallibility of some category (i) propositions, while Burge (...)
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  23. Glen Hoffmann (2012). Infallible A Priori Self-Justifying Propositions. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 12 (1):55-68.
    On rationalist infallibilism, a wide range of both (i) analytic and (ii) synthetic a priori propositions can be infallibly justified, i.e., justified in a way that is truth-entailing. In this paper, I examine the second thesis of rationalist infallibilism, what might be called ‘synthetic a priori infallibilism’. Exploring the seemingly only potentially plausible species of synthetic a priori infallibility, I reject the infallible justification of so-called self-justifying propositions.
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  24.  63
    Michael Hg Hoffmann & Wolff-Michael Roth (2007). The Complementarity of a Representational and an Epistemological Function of Signs in Scientific Activity. Semiotica 164 (1/4):101-121.
    Signs do not only “represent” something for somebody, as Peirce’s definition goes, but also “mediate” relations between us and our world, including ourselves, as has been elaborated by Vygotsky. We call the first the representational function of a sign and the second the epistemological function since in using signs we make distinctions, specify objects and relations, structure our observations, and organize societal and cognitive activity. The goal of this paper is, on the one hand, to develop a model in which (...)
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  25.  20
    Wilfried Kunde, Andrea Kiesel & Joachim Hoffmann (2005). On the Masking and Disclosure of Unconscious Elaborate Processing. A Reply to Van Opstal, Reynvoet, and Verguts (2005). Cognition 97 (1):99-105.
  26. Michael Hoffmann (1999). Problems with Peirce's Concept of Abduction. Foundations of Science 4 (3):271-305.
    Abductive reasoning takes place in forming``hypotheses'''' in order to explain ``facts.'''' Thus, theconcept of abduction promises an understanding ofcreativity in science and learning. It raises,however, also a lot of problems. Some of them will bediscussed in this paper. After analyzing thedifference between induction and abduction (1), Ishall discuss Peirce''s claim that there is a ``logic''''of abduction (2). The thesis is that this claim can beunderstood, if we make a clear distinction between inferential elements and perceptive elements of abductive reasoning. For (...)
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  27. Glen Hoffmann (2010). The Minimalist Theory of Truth: Challenges and Concerns. Philosophy Compass 5 (10):938-949.
    Minimalism is currently the received deflationary theory of truth. On minimalism, truth is a transparent concept and a deflated property of truth bearers. In this paper, I situate minimalism within current deflationary debate about truth by contrasting it with its main alternative―the redundancy theory of truth. I also outline three of the primary challenges facing minimalism, its formulation, explanatory adequacy and stability, and draw some lessons for the soundness of its conception of truth.
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  28.  6
    Michael Hoffmann & Jason Borenstein (2014). Understanding Ill-Structured Engineering Ethics Problems Through a Collaborative Learning and Argument Visualization Approach. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):261-276.
    As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE’s insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports (...)
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  29. A. Hoffmann (2012). Are Propositions Sets of Possible Worlds? Analysis 72 (3):449-455.
    The possible-worlds analysis of propositions identifies a proposition with the set of possible worlds where it is true. This analysis has the hitherto unnoticed consequence that a proposition depends for its existence on the existence of every proposition that entails it. This peculiar consequence places the possible-worlds analysis in conflict with the conjunction of two compelling theses. One thesis is that a phrase of the form ‘the proposition that S’ is a rigid designator. The other thesis is that a proposition (...)
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  30.  13
    Andrea Kiesel, Wilfried Kunde & Joachim Hoffmann (2007). Unconscious Priming According to Multiple s-R Rules. Cognition 104 (1):89-105.
  31.  28
    Michael H. G. Hoffmann (2010). "Theoric Transformations" and a New Classification of Abductive Inferences. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 46 (4):570-590.
    Among the many problems posed by Peirce's concept of abduction is how to determine the scope of this form of inference, and how to distinguish different types of abduction. This problem can be illustrated by taking a look at one of his best known definitions of the term:Abduction is the process of forming an explanatory hypothesis. It is the only logical operation which introduces any new idea; for induction does nothing but determine a value, and deduction merely evolves the necessary (...)
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  32.  7
    Volker Hoffmann, Kirsten Probst & Anja Christinck (2007). Farmers and Researchers: How Can Collaborative Advantages Be Created in Participatory Research and Technology Development? [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 24 (3):355-368.
    This article examines differences in the research approaches of farmers and scientists and analyzes how these differences are related to the conditions under which both groups engage in experimental work. Theoretical considerations as well as practical experiences are presented to emphasize the great potential of farmer–researcher collaboration for rural innovation. In the first part of the article, the innovative power of farmer research and experimentation is acknowledged by presenting examples such as crop and animal breeding, development of new production systems, (...)
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  33. Roald Hoffmann (2007). What Might Philosophy of Science Look Like If Chemists Built It? Synthese 155 (3):321 - 336.
    Had more philosophers of science come from chemistry, their thinking would have been different. I begin by looking at a typical chemical paper, in which making something is the leitmotif, and conjecture/refutation is pretty much irrelevant. What in fact might have been, might be, different? The realism of chemists is reinforced by their remarkable ability to transform matter; they buy into reductionism where it serves them, but make no real use of it. Incommensurability is taken without a blink, and actually (...)
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  34.  16
    Michael H. G. Hoffmann (forthcoming). Reflective Argumentation: A Cognitive Function of Arguing. Argumentation:1-33.
    Why do we formulate arguments? Usually, things such as persuading opponents, finding consensus, and justifying knowledge are listed as functions of arguments. But arguments can also be used to stimulate reflection on one’s own reasoning. Since this cognitive function of arguments should be important to improve the quality of people’s arguments and reasoning, for learning processes, for coping with “wicked problems,” and for the resolution of conflicts, it deserves to be studied in its own right. This contribution develops first steps (...)
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  35.  26
    Timo Busch & Volker H. Hoffmann (2009). Ecology-Driven Real Options: An Investment Framework for Incorporating Uncertainties in the Context of the Natural Environment. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):295 - 310.
    The role of uncertainty within an organization’s environment features prominently in the business ethics and management literature, but how corporate investment decisions should proceed in the face of uncertainties relating to the natural environment is less discussed. From the perspective of ecological economics, the salience of ecology-induced issues challenges management to address new types of uncertainties. These pertain to constraints within the natural environment as well as to institutional action aimed at conserving the natural environment. We derive six areas of (...)
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  36. Glen Hoffmann (2008). Truth, Superassertability, and Conceivability. Journal of Value Inquiry 42 (3):287-299.
    The superassertability theory of truth, inspired by Crispin Wright (1992, 2003), holds that a statement is true if and only if it is superassertable in the following sense: it possesses warrant that cannot be defeated by any improvement of our information. While initially promising, the superassertability theory of truth is vulnerable to a persistent difficulty highlighted by James Van Cleve (1996) and Terrence Horgan (1995) but not properly fleshed out: it is formally illegitimate in a similar sense that unsophisticated epistemic (...)
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  37. Glen Hoffmann (2009). Nativism: In Defense of the Representational Interpretation. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 9 (27):303-315.
    Linguistic competence, in general terms, involves the ability to learn, understand, and speak a language. The nativist view in the philosophy of linguistics holds that the principal foundation of linguistic competence is an innate faculty of linguistic cognition. In this paper, close scrutiny is given to nativism's fundamental commitments in the area of metaphysics. In the course of this exploration it is argued that any minimally defensible variety of nativism is, for better or worse, married to two theses: linguistic competence (...)
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  38. Roald Hoffmann (1990). Molecular Beauty. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 48 (3):191-204.
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  39.  50
    Vera Hoffmann & Albert Newen (2007). Supervenience of Extrinsic Properties. Erkenntnis 67 (2):305 - 319.
    The aim of this paper is to define a notion of supervenience which can adequately describe the systematic dependence of extrinsic as well as of intrinsic higher-level properties on base-level features. We argue that none of the standard notions of supervenience—the concepts of weak, strong and global supervenience—fulfil this function. The concept of regional supervenience, which is purported to improve on the standard conceptions, turns out to be problematic as well. As a new approach, we develop the notion of property-dependent (...)
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  40.  36
    Christoph Hoffmann (2013). Superpositions Ludwig Mach and Étienne-Jules Marey's Studies in Streamline Photography. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):1-11.
    In the 1890s Ludwig Mach employed photography for visualizing streamlines in the emerging field of aerodynamic research. Étienne-Jules Marey developed a similar approach at the turn of the century. The two projects can be related to a number of current discussions on the history of scientific photography. The case of Ludwig Mach demonstrates how the collection of numerical data became both the subject and the challenge of a line of research intimately linked to the capacities of photography. At the end (...)
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  41.  5
    Stefan‐Ludwig Hoffmann (2010). Koselleck, Arendt, and the Anthropology of Historical Experience. History and Theory 49 (2):212-236.
    This essay is the first attempt to compare Reinhart Koselleck's Historik with Hannah Arendt's political anthropology and her critique of the modern concept of history. Koselleck is well-known for his work on conceptual history as well as for his theory of historical time. It is my contention that these different projects are bound together by Koselleck's Historik, that is, his theory of possible histories. This can be shown through an examination of his writings from Critique and Crisis to his final (...)
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  42. Vera Hoffmann (2006). Can Heil's Ontological Conception Accommodate Complex Properties? In Michael Esfeld (ed.), John Heil. Symposium on his Ontological Point of View. Ontos Verlag
    A central tenet of Heil's ontological conception is a no-levels account of reality, according to which there is just one class of basic properties and relations, while all higher-level entities are configurations of these base-level entities. I argue that if this picture is not to collapse into an eliminativist picture of the world – which, I contend, should be avoided –, Heil's ontological framework has to be supplemented by an independent theory of which configurations of basic entities should count as (...)
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  43.  73
    M. Hoffmann (1990). A Local Realistic Explanation of EPR Correlations. Foundations of Physics 20 (8):991-1003.
    The reality of physical properties is divided into two types: “relatively” and “absolutely” real. Concerning the reality of spatial observables, it is proposed to drop the concept of an absolute reality of spatial observables. The resulting relative reality then isnot the observer-dependent reality of the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, but rather the reference frame-dependent reality implied by the principle of relativity. Within the frame of this relative reality, it is then shown that a local explanation for the existence of (...)
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  44. Nathan Houser, Don D. Roberts, James Van Evra & Michael H. G. Hoffmann (1997). Studies in the Logic of Charles Sanders Peirce. Philosophische Rundschau 51 (3):193-211.
    This volume represents an important contribution to Peirce’s work in mathematics and formal logic. An internationally recognized group of scholars explores and extends understandings of Peirce’s most advanced work. The stimulating depth and originality of Peirce’s thought and the continuing relevance of his ideas are brought out by this major book.
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  45.  84
    R. Hoffmann & P. Laszlo (1989). Representation in Chemistry. Diogenes 37 (147):23-51.
  46. Glen Hoffmann (2007). The Semantic Theory of Truth: Field's Incompleteness Objection. Philosophia 35 (2):161-170.
    According to Field’s influential incompleteness objection, Tarski’s semantic theory of truth is unsatisfactory since the definition that forms its basis is incomplete in two distinct senses: (1) it is physicalistically inadequate, and for this reason, (2) it is conceptually deficient. In this paper, I defend the semantic theory of truth against the incompleteness objection by conceding (1) but rejecting (2). After arguing that Davidson and McDowell’s reply to the incompleteness objection fails to pass muster, I argue that, within the constraints (...)
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  47.  92
    Aviv Hoffmann (2003). A Puzzle About Truth and Singular Propositions. Mind 112 (448):635-651.
    It seems that every singular proposition implies that the object it is singular with respect to exists. It also seems that some propositions are true with respect to possible worlds in which they do not exist. The puzzle is that it can be argued that there is contradiction between these two principles. In this paper, I explain the puzzle and consider some of the ways one might attempt to resolve it. The puzzle is important because it has implications concerning the (...)
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  48. Glen Hoffmann (2007). A Dilemma for the Weak Deflationist About Truth. Sorites 18:129-137.
    The weak deflationist about truth is committed to two theses: one conceptual, the other ontological. On the conceptual thesis (what might be called a ‘triviality thesis’), the content of the truth predicate is exhausted by its involvement in some version of the ‘truth-schema’. On the ontological thesis, truth is a deflated property of truth bearers. In this paper, I focus on weak deflationism’s ontological thesis, arguing that it generates an instability in its view of truth: the view threatens to collapse (...)
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  49.  38
    Michael H. G. Hoffmann (2007). Learning From People, Things, and Signs. Studies in Philosophy and Education 26 (3):185-204.
    Starting from the observation that small children can count more objects than numbers—a phenomenon that I am calling the “lifeworld dependency of cognition”—and an analysis of finger calculation, the paper shows how learning can be explained as the development of cognitive systems. Parts of those systems are not only an individual’s different forms of knowledge and cognitive abilities, but also other people, things, and signs. The paper argues that cognitive systems are first of all semiotic systems since they are dependent (...)
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  50.  2
    Carlos Areces, Raul Fervari & Guillaume Hoffmann (2015). Relation-Changing Modal Operators: Fig. 1. Logic Journal of the IGPL 23 (4):601-627.
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