Search results for 'Acquisition' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  12
    A. Magdalena Hurtado, Kim Hill, Ines Hurtado & Hillard Kaplan (1992). Trade-Offs Between Female Food Acquisition and Child Care Among Hiwi and Ache Foragers. Human Nature 3 (3):185-216.
    Even though female food acquisition is an area of considerable interest in hunter-gatherer research, the ecological determinants of women’s economic decisions in these populations are still poorly understood. The literature on female foraging behavior indicates that there is considerable variation within and across foraging societies in the amount of time that women spend foraging and in the amount and types of food that they acquire. It is possible that this heterogeneity reflects variation in the trade-offs between (...)
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  2. Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (2011). Learning Matters: The Role of Learning in Concept Acquisition. Mind and Language 26 (5):507-539.
    In LOT 2: The Language of Thought Revisited, Jerry Fodor argues that concept learning of any kind—even for complex concepts—is simply impossible. In order to avoid the conclusion that all concepts, primitive and complex, are innate, he argues that concept acquisition depends on purely noncognitive biological processes. In this paper, we show (1) that Fodor fails to establish that concept learning is impossible, (2) that his own biological account of concept acquisition is unworkable, and (3) that (...)
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  3.  23
    Nick Chater & Morten H. Christiansen (2010). Language Acquisition Meets Language Evolution. Cognitive Science 34 (7):1131-1157.
    Recent research suggests that language evolution is a process of cultural change, in which linguistic structures are shaped through repeated cycles of learning and use by domain-general mechanisms. This paper draws out the implications of this viewpoint for understanding the problem of language acquisition, which is cast in a new, and much more tractable, form. In essence, the child faces a problem of induction, where the objective is to coordinate with others (C-induction), rather than to model the structure of (...)
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  4.  21
    Anne S. Hsu & Nick Chater (2010). The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition: A Probabilistic Perspective. Cognitive Science 34 (6):972-1016.
    Natural language is full of patterns that appear to fit with general linguistic rules but are ungrammatical. There has been much debate over how children acquire these “linguistic restrictions,” and whether innate language knowledge is needed. Recently, it has been shown that restrictions in language can be learned asymptotically via probabilistic inference using the minimum description length (MDL) principle. Here, we extend the MDL approach to give a simple and practical methodology for estimating how much linguistic data are required to (...)
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  5.  34
    Alexander Clark & Shalom Lappin (2013). Complexity in Language Acquisition. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):89-110.
    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems—in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the (...)
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  6. John T. Sanders (1987). Justice and the Initial Acquisition of Property. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 10 (2):367-99.
    There is a great deal that might be said about justice in property claims. The strategy that I shall employ focuses attention upon the initial acquisition of property -- the most sensitive and most interesting area of property theory. Every theory that discusses property claims favorably assumes that there is some justification for transforming previously unowned resources into property. It is often this assumption which has seemed, to one extent or another, to be vulnerable (...)
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  7.  28
    Pola B. Gupta, Stephen J. Gould & Bharath Pola (2004). “To Pirate or Not to Pirate”: A Comparative Study of the Ethical Versus Other Influences on the Consumer's Software Acquisition-Mode Decision. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):255 - 274.
    Consumers of software often face an acquisition-mode decision, namely whether to purchase or pirate that software. In terms of consumer welfare, consumers who pirate software may stand in opposition to those who purchase it. Marketers also face a decision whether to attempt to thwart that piracy or to ignore, if not encourage it as an aid to their softwares diffusion, and policymakers face the decision whether to adopt interventionist policies, which are government-centric, or laissez faire policies, which are marketer-centric. (...)
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  8. Michael W. Kibby & William J. Rapaport (2014). Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition: From Algorithm to Curriculum. In Adriano Palma (ed.), Castañeda and His Guises: Essays on the Work of Hector-Neri Castañeda. De Gruyter 107-150.
    Deliberate contextual vocabulary acquisition (CVA) is a reader’s ability to figure out a (not the) meaning for an unknown word from its “context”, without external sources of help such as dictionaries or people. The appropriate context for such CVA is the “belief-revised integration” of the reader’s prior knowledge with the reader’s “internalization” of the text. We discuss unwarranted assumptions behind some classic objections to CVA, and present and defend a computational theory of CVA that we have adapted to a (...)
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  9.  33
    Aarre Laakso & Paco Calvo (2011). How Many Mechanisms Are Needed to Analyze Speech? A Connectionist Simulation of Structural Rule Learning in Artificial Language Acquisition. Cognitive Science 35 (7):1243-1281.
    Some empirical evidence in the artificial language acquisition literature has been taken to suggest that statistical learning mechanisms are insufficient for extracting structural information from an artificial language. According to the more than one mechanism (MOM) hypothesis, at least two mechanisms are required in order to acquire language from speech: (a) a statistical mechanism for speech segmentation; and (b) an additional rule-following mechanism in order to induce grammatical regularities. In this article, we present a set of neural network studies (...)
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  10.  48
    Dario D. Salvucci (2013). Integration and Reuse in Cognitive Skill Acquisition. Cognitive Science 37 (5):829-860.
    Previous accounts of cognitive skill acquisition have demonstrated how procedural knowledge can be obtained and transformed over time into skilled task performance. This article focuses on a complementary aspect of skill acquisition, namely the integration and reuse of previously known component skills. The article posits that, in addition to mechanisms that proceduralize knowledge into more efficient forms, skill acquisition requires tight integration of newly acquired knowledge and previously learned knowledge. Skill acquisition also benefits from reuse of (...)
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  11.  13
    Lieske Voget-Kleschin & Setareh Stephan (2013). The Potential of Standards and Codes of Conduct in Governing Large-Scale Land Acquisition in Developing Countries Towards Sustainability. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (6):1157-1179.
    Commercial interest in land (large-scale land acquisition, LaSLA) in developing countries is a hot topic for debate and its potential consequences are contentious: proponents conceive of it as much needed investment into the formerly neglected agricultural sector while opponents point to severe social and environmental effects. This contribution discusses, if and how sustainability standards and codes of conduct can contribute towards governing LaSLA. Based on the WCED-definition we develop a conception of sustainability that allows framing potential negative effects as (...)
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  12.  10
    Lieske Voget-Kleschin (2013). Large-Scale Land Acquisition: Evaluating its Environmental Aspects Against the Background of Strong Sustainability. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (6):1105-1126.
    Large-scale land acquisition (LaSLA) in developing countries is discussed controversially in both the media as well as academia: Opponents point to negative social and environmental consequences. By contrast, proponents conceive of LaSLA as much needed investment into the formerly neglected agricultural sector. This contribution aims at analyzing LaSLA’s environmental dimension against the background of strong sustainability. To this end, I will first introduce sustainable development as a normative concept based on claims for intra- and intergenerational justice. Subsequently, I will (...)
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  13.  8
    Stella Frank, Sharon Goldwater & Frank Keller (2013). Adding Sentence Types to a Model of Syntactic Category Acquisition. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):495-521.
    The acquisition of syntactic categories is a crucial step in the process of acquiring syntax. At this stage, before a full grammar is available, only surface cues are available to the learner. Previous computational models have demonstrated that local contexts are informative for syntactic categorization. However, local contexts are affected by sentence-level structure. In this paper, we add sentence type as an observed feature to a model of syntactic category acquisition, based on experimental evidence showing that pre-syntactic children (...)
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  14.  21
    David Ellerman, Four Ways From Universal to Particular: How Chomsky's Language-Acquisition Faculty is Not Selectionist.
    Following the development of the selectionist theory of the immune system, there was an attempt to characterize many biological mechanisms as being "selectionist" as juxtaposed to "instructionist." But this broad definition would group Darwinian evolution, the immune system, embryonic development, and Chomsky's language-acquisition mechanism as all being "selectionist." Yet Chomsky's mechanism (and embryonic development) are significantly different from the selectionist mechanisms of biological evolution or the immune system. Surprisingly, there is a very abstract way using two dual mathematical logics (...)
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  15. Fiona Cowie (1997). The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition. Synthese 111 (1):17-51.
    Arguments from the Logical Problem of Language Acquisition suggest that since linguistic experience provides few negative data that would falsify overgeneral grammatical hypotheses, innate knowledge of the principles of Universal Grammar must constrain learners hypothesis formulation. Although this argument indicates a need for domain-specific constraints, it does not support their innateness. Learning from mostly positive data proceeds unproblematically in virtually all domains. Since not every domain can plausibly be accorded its own special faculty, the probative value of the argument (...)
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  16.  23
    Martin Jones & Robert Sugden (2001). Positive Confirmation Bias in the Acquisition of Information. Theory and Decision 50 (1):59-99.
    An experiment is reported which tests for positive confirmation bias in a setting in which individuals choose what information to buy, prior to making a decision. The design – an adaptation of Wason's selection task – reveals the use that subjects make of information after buying it. Strong evidence of positive confirmation bias, in both information acquisition and information use, is found; and this bias is found to be robust to experience. It is suggested that the bias results from (...)
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  17.  16
    Samuel David Epstein, Suzanne Flynn & Gita Martohardjono (1996). Second Language Acquisition: Theoretical and Experimental Issues in Contemporary Research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):677-714.
    To what extent, if any, does Universal Grammar (UG) constrain second language (L2) acquisition? This is not only an empirical question, but one which is currently investigable. In this context, L2 acquisition is emerging as an important new domain of psycholinguistic research. Three logical possibilities have been articulated regarding the role of UG in L2 acquisition: The first is the hypothesis that claims that no aspect of UG is available to the L2 learner. The second is the (...)
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  18.  1
    S. M. Holtslag-Broekhof, R. Van Marwijk, R. Beunen & J. S. C. Wiskerke (forthcoming). Perceived Justice of Public Land Acquisition. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics:1-18.
    Many studies have addressed the justice of public land acquisition, but few studies have addressed the question of what landowners perceive as just. Individual perceptions drive an important part of the social and scientific debates on legitimate and just land acquisition. This article addresses this gap by studying landowners’ and land purchasers’ perceptions of just land acquisition. We did this by uncovering the prevailing discourse on just land acquisition and studying the values that shaped people’s perceptions (...)
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  19.  3
    Cory Bill, Jacopo Romoli, Florian Schwarz & Stephen Crain (forthcoming). Scalar Implicatures Versus Presuppositions: The View From Acquisition. Topoi:1-15.
    This paper reports an experimental investigation of presuppositions and scalar implicatures in language acquisition. Recent proposals posit the same mechanisms for generating both types of inferences, in contrast to the traditional view. We used a Covered Box picture selection task to compare the interpretations assigned by two groups of children and by adults, in response to sentences with presuppositions and ones with either ‘direct’ or ‘indirect’ scalar implicatures. The main finding was that the behavior of children and adults differed (...)
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  20.  52
    John Sarnecki (2006). Retracing Our Steps: Fodor's New Old Way with Concept Acquisition. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 21 (40):41-73.
    The acquisition of concepts has proven especially difficult for philosophers and psychologists to explain. In this paper, I examine Jerry Fodor’s most recent attempt to explain the acquisition of concepts relative to experiences of their referents. In reevaluating his earlier position, Fodor attempts to co-opt informational semantics into an account of concept acquisition that avoids the radical nativism of his earlier views. I argue that Fodor’s attempts ultimately fail to be persuasive. He must either accept his earlier (...)
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  21.  11
    Anne Pirrie (1999). 'Supposing': Reading Between the Lines: An Allegorical Account of Contemporary Debates on Literacy Acquisition. British Journal of Educational Studies 47 (4):348 - 363.
    Telling stories is a basic human activity. It enables us to organise, evaluate and transform what we see going on around us. It allows us to make sense of what is happening, to defy what is ephemeral in our experience. In short, it helps us to read the signs and between the lines. In the story that follows, we shall watch how Little Monster struggles with the apparently random and inexplicable and strives to make order out of chaos. He is (...)
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  22.  8
    Martial Mermillod, Patrick Bonin, Alain Méot, Ludovic Ferrand & Michel Paindavoine (2012). Computational Evidence That Frequency Trajectory Theory Does Not Oppose But Emerges From Age‐of‐Acquisition Theory. Cognitive Science 36 (8):1499-1531.
    According to the age-of-acquisition hypothesis, words acquired early in life are processed faster and more accurately than words acquired later. Connectionist models have begun to explore the influence of the age/order of acquisition of items (and also their frequency of encounter). This study attempts to reconcile two different methodological and theoretical approaches (proposed by Lambon Ralph & Ehsan, 2006 and Zevin & Seidenberg, 2002) to age-limited learning effects. The current simulations extend the findings reported by Zevin and Seidenberg (...)
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  23.  12
    Steven Walczak (2002). A Context-Based Computational Model of Language Acquisition by Infants and Children. Foundations of Science 7 (4):393-411.
    This research attempts to understand howchildren learn to use language. Instead ofusing syntax-based grammar rules to model thedifferences between children''s language andadult language, as has been done in the past, anew model is proposed. In the new researchmodel, children acquire language by listeningto the examples of speech that they hear intheir environment and subsequently use thespeech examples that have been previously heardin similar contextual situations. A computermodel is generated to simulate this new modelof language acquisition. The MALL computerprogram will (...)
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  24.  14
    Lawrence D. Roberts (2004). The Relation of Children's Early Word Acquisition to Abduction. Foundations of Science 9 (3):307-320.
    The paper discusses how abduction relates tochildren's early acquisition of words, and has three sections: (a) a brief description of Peirce's notion of abduction; (b) a developmentof a hypothesis for the content-related symbolic functioning of words; and (c)arguments that children's knowledge of such functioning involves two kinds of abduction. In (b), children's knowledge of the content-related symbolic functioning of words is argued to consist in practical knowledge ofhow to use words to direct attention to kindsof things. (...)
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  25.  1
    Lawrence Phillips & Lisa Pearl (2015). The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation. Cognitive Science 39 (8):1824-1854.
    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility. We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition model can aim to be cognitively plausible in multiple ways. We discuss these cognitive plausibility checkpoints generally and then apply them to a case study in word segmentation, investigating a promising Bayesian (...)
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  26.  1
    Yoshihiro Sato (1995). Requirement Acquisition in System Development: A Human-Centred Perspective of the Tacit Requirements. [REVIEW] AI and Society 9 (2-3):208-217.
    Specification acquisition in the system design process has been improved since the middle of the 1980s when the upper CASE tools appeared. On the contrary the quality of requirement acquisition in the upper processes of system design has not been enhanced as much as specification acquisition. Understanding the user's requirements is indispensable as one of the basic conditions for building systems that can really satisfy users.This article discusses obtaining requirement knowledge, in terms of human-centred design. The focus (...)
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  27. Dinah Baer‐Henney, Frank Kügler & Ruben Vijver (2015). The Interaction of Language‐Specific and Universal Factors During the Acquisition of Morphophonemic Alternations With Exceptions. Cognitive Science 39 (7):1537-1569.
    Using the artificial language paradigm, we studied the acquisition of morphophonemic alternations with exceptions by 160 German adult learners. We tested the acquisition of two types of alternations in two regularity conditions while additionally varying length of training. In the first alternation, a vowel harmony, backness of the stem vowel determines backness of the suffix. This process is grounded in substance, and this universal phonetic factor bolsters learning a generalization. In the second alternation, tenseness of the stem vowel (...)
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  28.  2
    Christina E. Erneling (1993). Understanding Language Acquisition: The Framework of Learning. State University of New York Press.
    She challenges the usefulness of the concept of a language of thought in explaining language acquisition, and draws on the later work of Wittgen.
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  29.  9
    Stephen Crain (1991). Language Acquisition in the Absence of Experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):597-612.
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  30. C. L. Baker & John J. Mccarthy (1981). The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  31.  2
    Chen Yu, Dana H. Ballard & Richard N. Aslin (2005). The Role of Embodied Intention in Early Lexical Acquisition. Cognitive Science 29 (6):961-1005.
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  32.  10
    Martin Rohrmeier & Patrick Rebuschat (2012). Implicit Learning and Acquisition of Music. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):525-553.
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  33.  4
    Afra Alishahi & Suzanne Stevenson (2008). A Computational Model of Early Argument Structure Acquisition. Cognitive Science 32 (5):789-834.
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  34.  7
    Michael Ramscar & Daniel Yarlett (2007). Linguistic Self‐Correction in the Absence of Feedback: A New Approach to the Logical Problem of Language Acquisition. Cognitive Science 31 (6):927-960.
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  35.  6
    Niels Taatgen (2005). Modeling Parallelization and Flexibility Improvements in Skill Acquisition: From Dual Tasks to Complex Dynamic Skills. Cognitive Science 29 (3):421-455.
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  36.  6
    Kirsten Abbot‐Smith & Heike Behrens (2006). How Known Constructions Influence the Acquisition of Other Constructions: The German Passive and Future Constructions. Cognitive Science 30 (6):995-1026.
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  37. Norman E. Spear, Winfred F. Hill & Denis J. O'Sullivan (1965). Acquisition and Extinction After Initial Trials Without Reward. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (1):25.
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  38.  1
    Darryl Bruce & Charles N. Cofer (1967). An Examination of Recognition and Free Recall as Measures of Acquisition and Long-Term Retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (3):283.
  39. Harry I. Kalish (1954). Strength of Fear as a Function of the Number of Acquisition and Extinction Trials. Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (1):1-9.
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  40. Donald A. Norman (1966). Acquisition and Retention in Short-Term Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (3):369.
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  41.  7
    Edward Gibson & Neal J. Pearlmutter (eds.) (2011). The Processing and Acquisition of Reference. The MIT Press.
    How people refer to objects in the world, how people comprehend reference, and how children acquire an understanding of and an ability to use reference.
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  42.  2
    Jill Lany, Rebecca L. Gómez & Lou Ann Gerken (2007). The Role of Prior Experience in Language Acquisition. Cognitive Science 31 (3):481-507.
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  43.  4
    Judson S. Brown & Alfred Jacobs (1949). The Role of Fear in the Motivation and Acquisition of Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (6):747.
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  44.  32
    Rodrigo Ribeiro (2013). Remarks on Explicit Knowledge and Expertise Acquisition. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):431-435.
  45. Melvin L. Goldstein (1960). Acquired Drive Strength as a Joint Function of Shock Intensity and Number of Acquisition Trials. Journal of Experimental Psychology 60 (6):349.
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  46.  4
    Donald H. Deane, Kenneth R. Hammond & David A. Summers (1972). Acquisition and Application of Knowledge in Complex Inference Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (1):20.
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  47. Dunja Jutronic (2001). Is There a Third Way of Concept Acquisition? Acta Analytica 16 (26):97-108.
  48.  1
    N. Jack Kanak & Sharon D. Neuner (1970). Associative Symmetry and Item Availablity as a Function of Five Methods of Paired-Associate Acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2):288.
  49. C. F. Schramm & H. D. Kimmel (1970). Resistance to Extinction in GSR Conditioning Following Different Numbers of Postpeak Acquisition Trials. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (2):239.
  50.  8
    R. Wayne Jones & Norman R. Ellis (1962). Inhibitory Potential in Rotary Pursuit Acquisition by Normal and Defective Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (6):534.
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