Search results for 'Activity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  8
    C. H. Vanderwolf & T. E. Robinson (1981). Reticulo-Cortical Activity and Behavior: A Critique of the Arousal Theory and a New Synthesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):459-476.
    It is traditionally believed that cerebral activation (the presence of low voltage fast electrical activity in the neocortex and rhythmical slow activity in the hippocampus) is correlated with arousal, while deactivation (the presence of large amplitude irregular slow waves or spindles in both the neocortex and the hippocampus) is correlated with sleep or coma. However, since there are many exceptions, these generalizations have only limited validity. Activated patterns occur in normal sleep (active or paradoxical sleep) and during states (...)
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  2.  44
    Stewart Duncan, Materialism and the Activity of Matter in Seventeenth-Century European Philosophy.
    Draft for Philosophy Compass. New version of 23 May 2016. Early modern debates about the nature of matter interacted with debates about whether matter could think. In particular, some philosophers (e.g., Cudworth and Leibniz) objected to materialism about the human mind on the grounds that matter is passive, thinking things are active, and one cannot make an active thing out of passive material. This paper begins by looking at two seventeenth-century materialist views (Hobbes’s, and one suggested but not endorsed by (...)
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  3. Matthew Boyle (2011). 'Making Up Your Mind' and the Activity of Reason. Philosophers' Imprint 11 (17).
    A venerable philosophical tradition holds that we rational creatures are distinguished by our capacity for a special sort of mental agency or self-determination: we can “make up” our minds about whether to accept a given proposition. But what sort of activity is this? Many contemporary philosophers accept a Process Theory of this activity, according to which a rational subject exercises her capacity for doxastic self-determination only on certain discrete occasions, when she goes through a process of consciously deliberating (...)
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  4.  48
    Pengmin Qin, Georg Northoff, Timothy Lane & et al (2016). Spontaneous Activity in Default-Mode Network Predicts Ascriptions of Self-Relatedness to Stimuli. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience:xx-yy.
    Spontaneous activity levels prior to stimulus presentation can determine how that stimulus will be perceived. It has also been proposed that such spontaneous activity, particularly in the default-mode network (DMN), is involved in self-related processing. We therefore hypothesised that pre-stimulus activity levels in the DMN predict whether a stimulus is judged as self-related or not. Method: Participants were presented in the MRI scanner with a white noise stimulus that they were instructed contained their name or another. They (...)
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  5. Patrick Haggard & Benjamin W. Libet (2001). Conscious Intention and Brain Activity. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (11):47-63.
    The problem of free will lies at the heart of modern scientific studies of consciousness. An influential series of experiments by Libet has suggested that conscious intentions arise as a result of brain activity. This contrasts with traditional concepts of free will, in which the mind controls the body. A more recent study by Haggard and Eimer has further examined the relation between intention and brain processes, concluding that conscious awareness of intention is linked to the choice or selection (...)
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  6.  3
    Jean-Rémy Martin (2013). Experiences of Activity and Causality in Schizophrenia: When Predictive Deficits Lead to a Retrospective Over-Binding. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1361-1374.
    In this paper I discuss an intriguing and relatively little studied symptomatic expression of schizophrenia known as experiences of activity in which patients form the delusion that they can control some external events by the sole means of their mind. I argue that experiences of activity result from patients being prone to aberrantly infer causal relations between unrelated events in a retrospective way owing to widespread predictive deficits. Moreover, I suggest that such deficits may, in addition, lead to (...)
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  7.  6
    Karen L. Kramer & Russell D. Greaves (2011). Juvenile Subsistence Effort, Activity Levels, and Growth Patterns. Human Nature 22 (3):303-326.
    Attention has been given to cross-cultural differences in adolescent growth, but far less is known about developmental variability during juvenility (ages 3–10). Previous research among the Pumé, a group of South American foragers, found that girls achieve a greater proportion of their adult stature during juvenility compared with normative growth expectations. To explain rapid juvenile growth, in this paper we consider girls’ activity levels and energy expended in subsistence effort. Results show that Pumé girls spend far less time in (...)
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  8.  5
    Peter Jones (2009). Breaking Away From Capital? Theorising Activity in the Shadow of Marx. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 11 (1):45-58.
    The paper reflects on the relationship between the understanding of human activity which Marx expresses in Capital and the theoretical model of activity offered by an influential contemporary variant of Activity Theory. The paper argues that this variant departs significantly from Marx’s conception of human activity and its role in what he calls the ‘labour process’. In particular, Activity Theory has failed to distinguish between the labour process and the valorization process, a distinction which is (...)
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  9.  39
    Alexandre Muzy, Franck Varenne, Bernard P. Zeigler, Jonathan Caux, Patrick Coquillard, Luc Touraille, Dominique Prunetti, Philippe Caillou, Olivier Michel & David R. C. Hill (2013). Refounding of the Activity Concept? Towards a Federative Paradigm for Modeling and Simulation. Simulation - Transactions of the Society for Modeling and Simulation International 89 (2):156-177.
    Currently, the widely used notion of activity is increasingly present in computer science. However, because this notion is used in specific contexts, it becomes vague. Here, the notion of activity is scrutinized in various contexts and, accordingly, put in perspective. It is discussed through four scientific disciplines: computer science, biology, economics, and epistemology. The definition of activity usually used in simulation is extended to new qualitative and quantitative definitions. In computer science, biology and economics disciplines, the new (...)
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  10.  4
    Andy Blunden (2009). An Interdisciplinary Concept of Activity. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 11 (1):1-26.
    It is suggested that if Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is to fulfil its potential as an approach to cultural and historical science in general, then an interdisciplinary concept of activity is needed. Such a concept of activity would provide a common foundation for all the human sciences, underpinning concepts of, for example, state and social movement equally as, for example, learning and personality. For this is needed a clear conception of the ‘unit of analysis’ of activity, (...)
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  11.  1
    Harry Daniels (2006). Analysing Institutional Effects in Activity Theory: First Steps in the Development of a Language of Description. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 8 (2):43-58.
    This paper explores the benefits that might arise from an appropriate fusion of the version of Activity Theory being developed by Yrjo Engestrom and the sociology of the late Basil Bernstein. It explores the common roots of the two traditions and on the basis of empirical work carried out in British special schools formulates an approach to the development of a language of description which would extend the analytical power of Activity Theory.
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  12.  32
    Richard Alterman (2008). Activity and Convention. Topoi 27 (1-2):127-138.
    This paper develops Lewis’ notion of convention within a framework that mixes cognitive science with some more social theories of activity like distributed cognition and activity theory. The close examination of everyday situations of convention-based activity will produce some interesting issues for a cognitive theory of behavior. Uncertainty, dynamics, and the complexities of the performance of convention-based activities that are distributed over time and/or place, are driving factors in the analysis that is presented. How the actors reason (...)
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  13.  5
    Marina Santi (2015). Doing Philosophy in the Classroom as Community Activity: A Cultural-Historical Approach. Childhood and Philosophy 10 (20):283-304.
    One of the most traditional ways to teach philosophy in secondary school is a historical approach”, which takes a historicist view of philosophy and uses teaching practice based on teacher-centred lessons and textbook study by students. Only recently a debate on different approaches to teach philosophy is developing, considering the discipline as practical and dialogical activity to be fostered in the classroom. What could mean “doing philosophy” in the classroom from an instructional perspective? What are the premises and constraints (...)
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  14.  19
    Lorraine Besser-Jones (2011). Drawn to the Good? Brewer on Dialectical Activity. Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (4):621-631.
    In The Retrieval of Ethics, Talbot Brewer defends an Aristotelian-inspired understanding of the good life, in which living the good life is conceived of in terms of engaging in a unified dialectical activity. In this essay, I explore the assumptions at work in Brewer's understanding of dialectical activity and raise some concerns about whether or not we have reason to embrace them. I argue that his conception of human nature and that towards which we are drawn stands in (...)
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  15.  17
    M. Joseph Sirgy, Grace B. Yu, Dong-Jin Lee, Shuqin Wei & Ming-Wei Huang (2012). Does Marketing Activity Contribute to a Society's Well-Being? The Role of Economic Efficiency. Journal of Business Ethics 107 (2):91-102.
    Does the level of marketing activity in a country contribute to societal well-being or quality of life? Does economic efficiency also play a positive role in societal well-being? Does economic efficiency also moderate or mediate the marketing activity effect on societal well-being? Marketing activity refers to the pervasiveness of promotion expenditures and number of retail outlets per capita in a country. Economic efficiency refers to the extent to which the economy is unhampered by corruption, burdensome government regulation, (...)
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  16.  5
    Livia Scheller (2014). Activity Clinic and Affects in Workplace Conflicts: Transformation Through Transferential Activity. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 15 (2):74-92.
    This paper presents some reflections about an approach in work psychology: the Activity Clinic. After a brief introduction to the conceptual background of the “Activity Clinic”, it covers three deeply interconnected themes. The first concerns the meaning attributed to the development of the affects present in the work situation under analysis; the second discusses the reasons for the conflicts that are ultimately due to these affects; the third considers how a method of co-analysis of the activity can (...)
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  17.  11
    Nils O. Larsson (2000). Decision Settings Analysis €“ a Tool for Analysis and Design of Human Activity Systems. Theory and Decision 49 (4):339-360.
    The paper describes a methodology to be used for analysis and design of human activity systems. The methodology is based on an analysis of the decision settings whereas most other decision analysis methodologies are analysing the process. The decision concept is analysed and discussed. A distinction between programmed and programmable as well as non-programmed and non-programmable decisions is proposed. A classification of different information types for decision making is presented. A methodology based on a systemic and systematic analysis of (...)
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  18.  4
    Alanah Kazlauskas & Kathryn Crawford (2004). The Contribution of a Community Event to Expert Work: An Activity Theoretical Perspective. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 6 (2):63-74.
    Becoming an expert in any knowledge domain takes time and a great deal of learning, both theoretical and experiential. The individual’s knowledge is often supplemented through knowledge exchanges with other experts. Such exchanges are facilitated by events such as conferences or meetings. For two years we have been investigating the high profile work of scientists who work in the accredited anti-doping laboratories that are located in various countries around the world. These scientists work to curb doping in sport by conducting (...)
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  19.  5
    Tracey Crosbie (2006). Using Activity Diaries: Some Methodological Lessons. Journal of Research Practice 2 (1):Article D1.
    Descriptions of how people use time can tell us much about quality of life, social and economic well-being, and patterns of leisure, work, travel, and communication. Self-administered activity diaries are one of the main methods available for capturing data on time use. This paper discusses some of the methodological issues surrounding the use of self-administered activity diaries as a tool for capturing data on communication and travel activities. Its main concern is to highlight the lessons learnt from the (...)
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  20.  5
    Ines Langemeyer & Wolf-Michael Roth (2006). Is Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Threatened to Fall Short of its Own Principles and Possibilities as a Dialectical Social Science? Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 8 (2):20-42.
    In recent years, many researchers engaged in diverse areas and approaches of “cultural-historical activity theory” (CHAT) realized an increasing international interest in Lev S. Vygotsky’s, A. N. Leont’ev’s, and A. Luria’s work and its continuations. Not so long ago, Yrjö Engeström noted that the activity approach was still “the best-held secret of academia” (p. 64) and highlighted the “impressive dimension of theorizing behind” it. Certainly, this remark reflects a time when CHAT was off the beaten tracks. But if (...)
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  21.  9
    Pavel Prudkov (2010). A View on Human Goal-Directed Activity and the Construction of Artificial Intelligence. Minds and Machines 20 (3):363-383.
    Although activity aimed at the construction of artificial intelligence started about 60 years ago however, contemporary intelligent systems are effective in very narrow domains only. One of the reasons for this situation appears to be serious problems in the theory of intelligence. Intelligence is a characteristic of goal-directed systems and two classes of goal-directed systems can be derived from observations on animals and humans, one class is systems with innately and jointly determined goals and means. The other class contains (...)
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  22.  3
    May Britt Postholm (2008). Cultural Historical Activity Theory and Dewey's Idea-Based Social Constructivism: Consequences for Educational Research. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 10 (1):37-48.
    Background: Our theoretical perspectives direct our research processes. The article contributes to the debate on Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and Dewey’s idea-based social constructivism, and to the debate on methodology and how the researcher’s theoretical stance guides the researcher in his or her work. Purpose: The article presents fundamental ideas within CHAT and Dewey’s idea-based social constructivism. The purpose of the text is to discuss and examine how ideas in these two theories guide educational research conducted within the (...)
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  23.  2
    Paul Warmington (2008). From 'Activity' to 'Labour': Commodification, Labourpower and Contradiction in Engeström's Activity Theory. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 10 (2):4-19.
    Engeström’s (1987, 1999) innovations in cultural-historical activity theory emphasise the role of contradictions in analysing and transforming learning in practice. This paper considers some of the problems and possibilities contained in his analytical understanding of contradictions, in relation to activity and to what he terms ‘expansive learning’ (Engeström, 2001, 2004, 2007). In doing so, it builds upon Engeström’s stated concern with theorising activities ‘in capitalism’. Its goal is to problematise the underlying practical definition of contradictions and the claims (...)
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  24.  2
    Joanne Hardman (2007). An Activity Theory Approach to Surfacing the Pedagogical Object in a Primary School Mathematics Classroom. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 9 (1):53-69.
    This paper develops a methodology for using Activity Theory (AT) to investigate pedagogical practices in primary school mathematics classrooms by selecting object-oriented pedagogical activity as the unit of analysis. While an understanding of object-oriented activity is central to Activity Theory (AT), the notion of object is a frequently debated and often misunderstood one. The conceptual confusion surrounding the object arises both from difficulties related to translating the original Russian conceptualisation of object-oriented activity into English as (...)
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  25. Wesley Buckwalter (2014). Intuition Fail: Philosophical Activity and the Limits of Expertise. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (2):378-410.
    Experimental philosophers have empirically challenged the connection between intuition and philosophical expertise. This paper reviews these challenges alongside other research findings in cognitive science on expert performance and argues for three claims. First, evidence taken to challenge philosophical expertise may also be explained by the well-researched failures and limitations of genuine expertise. Second, studying the failures and limitations of experts across many fields provides a promising research program upon which to base a new model of philosophical expertise. Third, a model (...)
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  26.  56
    Robert J. Williams & J. Douglas Barrett (2000). Corporate Philanthropy, Criminal Activity, and Firm Reputation: Is There a Link? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 26 (4):341 - 350.
    This study examined the influence of corporate giving programs on the link between certain categories of corporate crime and corporate reputation. Specifically, firms that violate EPA and OSHA regulations should, to some extent, experience a decline in their reputations, while firms that contribute to charitable causes should see their reputations enhanced. The results of this study support both of these contentions. Further, the results suggest that corporate giving significantly moderates the link between the number of EPA and OSHA violations committed (...)
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  27.  19
    Antonia LoLordo (2005). The Activity of Matter in Gassendi's Physics. Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 2:75-103.
    Gassendi holds that matter is intrinsically active - it possesses an innate active force or power. This paper explains what that active power consists in and why Gassendi adopted this view.
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  28.  1
    Timo Maran (2011). Becoming a Sign: The Mimic's Activity in Biological Mimicry. Biosemiotics 4 (2):243-257.
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  29.  15
    William Dement & Nathaniel Kleitman (1957). The Relation of Eye Movements During Sleep to Dream Activity: An Objective Method for the Study of Dreaming. Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (5):339.
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  30. Jirí Wackerman, Peter Pütz, Simone Büchi, Inge Strauch & Dietrich Lehmann (2002). Brain Electrical Activity and Subjective Experience During Altered States of Consciousness: Ganzfeld and Hypnagogic States. International Journal of Psychophysiology 46 (2):123-146.
  31.  22
    Christopher Summerfield, Anthony Ian Jack & Adrian Philip Burgess (2002). Induced Gamma Activity is Associated with Conscious Awareness of Pattern Masked Nouns. International Journal of Psychophysiology 44 (2):93-100.
  32.  11
    Adrian P. Burgess & Lia Ali (2002). Functional Connectivity of Gamma EEG Activity is Modulated at Low Frequency During Conscious Recollection. International Journal of Psychophysiology 46 (2):91-100.
  33.  29
    E. Barnes (1991). The Causal History of Computational Activity: Maudlin and Olympia. Journal of Philosophy 88 (6):304-16.
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  34. Sebastián Briceño (2015). Action, Activity, Agent. In Patricia Hanna (ed.), An Anthology of Philosophical Studies: Volume 9. Athens Institute for Education and Research 15–27.
    How is it that someone is an agent, an active being? According to a common and dominant opinion, it is in virtue of performing actions. Within this dominant trend, some claim that actions are acts of will while others claim that actions are identical with certain basic bodily movements. First I make an assessment of these traditional accounts of action and argue that neither of them can make sense of how is it that someone is an agent. Then I offer (...)
     
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  35.  3
    Céline Scola, Marie Bourjade & Marianne Jover (2015). Social Interaction is Associated with Changes in Infants’ Motor Activity. Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 5.
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  36.  24
    David LaBerge (2001). Attention, Consciousness, and Electrical Wave Activity Within the Cortical Column. International Journal of Psychophysiology 43 (1):5-24.
  37.  4
    Y. Baumstimler & J. Parrot (1971). Stimulus Generalization and Spontaneous Blinking in Man Involved in a Voluntary Activity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (1):95.
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  38.  7
    Michael G. Coles (1972). Cardiac and Respiratory Activity During Visual Search. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (2):371.
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  39.  6
    Lewis E. Albright, C. Robert Borresen & Melvin H. Marx (1956). Reactive Inhibition as a Function of Same-Hand and Opposite-Hand Intertrial Activity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (5):353.
  40.  6
    Michael Cole (2011). Book Review: Blunden (2010): An Interdisciplinary Theory of Activity. [REVIEW] Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 13 (1):46-52.
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  41.  6
    Murray Glanzer, Robert M. Chapman, William H. Clark & Henry R. Bragdon (1964). Changes in Two EEG Rhythms During Mental Activity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (3):273.
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  42.  3
    W. A. Bousfield & F. A. Mote Jr (1943). The Construction of a Tilting Activity Cage. Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (5):450.
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  43.  1
    Paul E. Baer & Marcus J. Fuhrer (1970). Cognitive Processes in the Differential Trace Conditioning of Electrodermal and Vasomotor Activity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (1):176.
  44.  4
    Kenneth A. Blick & Edward A. Bilodeau (1963). Interpolated Activity and the Learning of a Simple Skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (5):515.
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  45. Francisco Javier López Frías (1988). La actuación política de Unamuno y Ortega / The Political Activity of Unamuno and Ortega. Cuadernos Salmantinos de Filosofía 15:307-326.
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  46.  2
    W. W. Tuttle (1924). The Effect of Attention or Mental Activity on the Patellar Tendon Reflex. Journal of Experimental Psychology 7 (6):401.
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  47.  1
    R. Millisen & C. Van Riper (1939). Differential Transfer of Training in a Rotary Activity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (6):640.
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  48.  3
    Vratislav Moudr (2013). Evolutionary-Ontological Reflection on Physical Activity of Man in Culture. Human Affairs 23 (4):542-555.
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  49.  3
    G. L. Freeman (1940). The Relationship Between Performance Level and Bodily Activity Level. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26 (6):602.
  50.  2
    R. A. Champion & D. A. McBride (1962). Activity During Delay of Reinforcement in Human Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (6):589.
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