Search results for 'Adaptation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Philippe Huneman (2008). Emergence and Adaptation. Minds and Machines 18 (4):493-520.score: 24.0
    I investigate the relationship between adaptation, as defined in evolutionary theory through natural selection, and the concept of emergence. I argue that there is an essential correlation between the former, and “emergence” defined in the field of algorithmic simulations. I first show that the computational concept of emergence (in terms of incompressible simulation) can be correlated with a causal criterion of emergence (in terms of the specificity of the explanation of global patterns). On this ground, I argue that emergence (...)
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  2. Bence Nanay (2005). Can Cumulative Selection Explain Adaptation? Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1099-1112.score: 24.0
    Two strong arguments have been given in favor of the claim that no selection process can play a role in explaining adaptations. According to the first argument, selection is a negative force; it may explain why the eliminated individuals are eliminated, but it does not explain why the ones that survived (or their offspring) have the traits they have. The second argument points out that the explanandum and the explanans are phenomena at different levels: selection is a population-level phenomenon, whereas (...)
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  3. Samir Okasha & Cedric Paternotte (2012). Group Adaptation, Formal Darwinism and Contextual Analysis. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25 (6):1127–1139.score: 24.0
    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659–671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's ‘formal Darwinism’ project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the (...)
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  4. Alirio Rosales (2005). John Maynard Smith and the Natural Philosophy of␣Adaptation. Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):1027-1040.score: 24.0
    One of the most remarkable aspects of John Maynard Smith’s work was the fact that he devoted time both to doing science and to reflecting philosophically upon its methods and concepts. In this paper I offer a philosophical analysis of Maynard Smith’s approach to modelling phenotypic evolution in relation to three main themes. The first concerns the type of scientific understanding that ESS and optimality models give us. The second concerns the causal–historical aspect of stability analyses of adaptation. The (...)
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  5. Timothy Shanahan (2004). The Evolution of Darwinism: Selection, Adaptation, and Progress in Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    No other scientific theory has had as tremendous an impact on our understanding of the world as Darwin's theory as outlined in his Origin of Species, yet from the very beginning the theory has been subject to controversy. The Evolution of Darwinism focuses on three issues of debate - the nature of selection, the nature and scope of adaptation, and the question of evolutionary progress. It traces the varying interpretations to which these issues were subjected from the beginning and (...)
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  6. Till D. Frank, Julia J. C. Blau & Michael T. Turvey (2012). Symmetry Breaking Analysis of Prism Adaptation's Latent Aftereffect. Cognitive Science 36 (4):674-697.score: 24.0
    The effect of prism adaptation on movement is typically reduced when the movement at test (prisms off) differs on some dimension from the movement at training (prisms on). Some adaptation is latent, however, and only revealed through further testing in which the movement at training is fully reinstated. Applying a nonlinear attractor dynamic model (Frank, Blau, & Turvey, 2009) to available data (Blau, Stephen, Carello, & Turvey, 2009), we provide evidence for a causal link between the latent (or (...)
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  7. David Huepe & Natalia Salas (2013). Fluid Intelligence, Social Cognition, and Perspective Changing Abilities as Pointers of Psychosocial Adaptation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Fluid intelligence, social cognition, and perspective changing abilities as pointers of psychosocial adaptation.
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  8. John McKie, Rosalind Hurworth, Bradley Shrimpton, Jeff Richardson & Catherine Bell (2013). Priority Setting and Patient Adaptation to Disability and Illness: Outcomes of a Qualitative Study. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis (3):1-17.score: 24.0
    The study examined the question of who should make decisions for a National Health Scheme about the allocation of health resources when the health states of beneficiaries could change because of adaptation. Eight semi-structured small group discussions were conducted. Following focus group theory, interviews commenced with general questions followed by transition questions and ended with a ‘focus’ or ‘key’ question. Participants were presented with several scenarios in which patients adapted to their health states. They were then asked their views (...)
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  9. Korbinian Moeller, Elise Klein & Hans-Christoph Nuerk (2013). Influences of Cognitive Control on Numerical Cognition—Adaptation by Binding for Implicit Learning. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (2):335-353.score: 24.0
    Recently, an associative learning account of cognitive control has been suggested (Verguts & Notebaert, 2009). In this so-called adaptation by binding theory, Hebbian learning of stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response associations is assumed to drive the adaptation of human behavior. In this study, we evaluated the validity of the adaptation-by-binding account for the case of implicit learning of regularities within a stimulus set (i.e., the frequency of specific unit digit combinations in a two-digit number magnitude comparison task) and their (...)
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  10. Jordi Navarra, Joel García-Morera & Charles Spence (2012). Temporal Adaptation to Audiovisual Asynchrony Generalizes Across Different Sound Frequencies. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The human brain exhibits a highly-adaptive ability to reduce natural asynchronies between visual and auditory signals. Even though this mechanism robustly modulates the subsequent perception of sounds and visual stimuli, it is still unclear how such a temporal realignment is attained. In the present study, we investigated whether or not temporal adaptation generalizes across different sound frequencies. In a first exposure phase, participants adapted to a fixed 220-ms audiovisual asynchrony or else to synchrony for 3min. In a second phase, (...)
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  11. N. Onyekuru & Rob Marchant (2012). Nigeria's Response to the Impacts of Climate Change: Developing Resilient and Ethical Adaptation Options. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (4):585-595.score: 24.0
    Abstract Global climate change will have a strong impact on Nigeria, particularly on agricultural production and associated livelihoods. Although there is a growing scientific consensus about the impact of climate change, efforts so far in Nigeria to deal with these impacts are still rudimentary and not properly coordinated. There is little evidence of any pragmatic approach towards tracking climate change in order to develop an evidence base on which to formulate national adaptation strategies. Although Nigeria is not alone in (...)
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  12. N. E. Barraclough B. D. Keefe, M. Dzhelyova, D. I. Perrett (2013). Adaptation Improves Face Trustworthiness Discrimination. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted (...)
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  13. Nuala Brady Brendan Rooney, Helen Keyes (2012). Shared or Separate Mechanisms for Self-Face and Other-Face Processing? Evidence From Adaptation. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Evidence that self-face recognition is dissociable from general face recognition has important implications both for models of social cognition and for our understanding of face recognition. In two studies, we examine how adaptation affects the perception of personally familiar faces, and we use a visual adaptation paradigm to investigate whether the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of one’s own and other faces are shared or separate. In Study 1 we show that the representation of personally familiar faces is (...)
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  14. Martina Linnenluecke & Andrew Griffiths (2010). Beyond Adaptation: Resilience for Business in Light of Climate Change and Weather Extremes. Business and Society 49 (3):477-511.score: 24.0
    Scientific findings forecast that one of the major consequences of human-induced climate change and global warming is a greater occurrence of extreme weather events with potentially catastrophic effects for organizations, industries, and society. Current management and adaptation approaches typically focus on economic factors of competition, such as technology and innovation. Although offering useful insights, these approaches are potentially ill equipped to deal with any increases in drastic changes in the natural environment. This article argues that discussions on organizational (...) need to be broadened and that new conceptual and practical approaches are needed to incorporate the effects of climate change and a greater occurrence of weather extremes into corporate strategy and decision making. The authors advance the notion that a resilience framework might provide insights into dealing with new types of environmental change. They contend that by developing resilience, organizations can develop resources and capabilities to avoid or minimize organizational collapse and to reorganize in light of discontinuities associated with climate change and weather extremes. Implications for organizational practice and research are discussed. © 2010 SAGE Publications. (shrink)
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  15. Roger Newport Rachel J. Scriven (2013). Spatial Compression Impairs Prism Adaptation in Healthy Individuals. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviours, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control processes in prism-adaptation may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to (...)
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  16. Cees van Leeuwen Ilias Rentzeperis, Andrey R. Nikolaev, Daniel C. Kiper (2012). Relationship Between Neural Response and Adaptation Selectivity to Form and Color: An ERP Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Adaptation is widely used as a tool for studying selectivity to visual features. In these studies it is usually assumed that the loci of feature selective neural responses and adaptation coincide. We used an adaptation paradigm to investigate the relationship between response and adaptation selectivity in event-related potentials (ERP). ERPs were evoked by the presentation of colored Glass patterns in a form discrimination task. Response selectivities to form and, to some extent, color of the patterns were (...)
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  17. Giuseppe Vallar Nadia Bolognini, Debora Casanova, Angelo Maravita (2012). Bisecting Real and Fake Body Parts: Effects of Prism Adaptation After Right Brain Damage. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    The representation of body parts holds a special status in the brain, due to their prototypical shape and the contribution of multisensory (visual and somatosensory-proprioceptive) information. In a previous study (Sposito et al., 2010), we showed that patients with left unilateral spatial neglect exhibit a rightward bias in setting the mid-point of their left forearm, which becomes larger when bisecting a cylindrical object comparable in size. This body part advantage, found also in control participants, suggests partly different processes for computing (...)
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  18. Ilias Rentzeperis, Andrey R. Nikolaev, Daniel C. Kiper & Cees Van Leeuwen (2012). Relationship Between Neural Response and Adaptation Selectivity to Form and Color: An ERP Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Adaptation is widely used as a tool for studying selectivity to visual features. In these studies it is usually assumed that the loci of feature selective neural responses and adaptation coincide. We used an adaptation paradigm to investigate the relationship between response and adaptation selectivity in event-related potentials (ERP). ERPs were evoked by the presentation of colored Glass patterns in a form discrimination task. Response selectivities to form and, to some extent, color of the patterns were (...)
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  19. Sahotra Sarkar (1990). On Adaptation: A Reduction of the Kauffman-Levin Model to a Problem in Graph Theory and its Consequences. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 5 (2):127-148.score: 24.0
    It is shown that complex adaptations are best modelled as discrete processes represented on directed weighted graphs. Such a representation captures the idea that problems of adaptation in evolutionary biology are problems in a discrete space, something that the conventional representations using continuous adaptive landscapes does not. Further, this representation allows the utilization of well-known algorithms for the computation of several biologically interesting results such as the accessibility of one allele from another by a specified number of point mutations, (...)
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  20. M. Deric Bownds & Vadim Y. Arshavsky (1995). What Are the Mechanisms of Photoreceptor Adaptation? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):415-424.score: 24.0
    This article evaluates each of the reactions known to be involved in visual transduction as a potential site for the regulation of light adaptation. Extensive evidence suggests that calcium acts as a feedback messenger at several different points and recent work suggests a role for cGMP in regulating the primary excitatory pathway. A conclusion is that adaptation is likely to be regulated by multiple and redundant mechanisms. The goal of future experimentation will be to determine the relative importance (...)
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  21. Olivier Dufor & Brenda Rapp (2013). Letter Representations in Writing: An fMRI Adaptation Approach. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    : Behavioral and neuropsychological research in reading and spelling has provided evidence for the role of the following types of orthographic representations in letter writing: letter forms, letter case, and abstract letter identities. We report on the results of an fMRI investigation designed to identify the neural substrates of these different representational types. Using a neural adaptation paradigm we examined the neural distribution of inhibition and release from inhibition in a letter-writing task in which, on every trial, participants produced (...)
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  22. Andrea M. Loftus, Michael E. R. Nicholls, Jason B. Mattingley & John L. Bradshaw (2008). Left to Right: Representational Biases for Numbers and the Effect of Visuomotor Adaptation. Cognition 107 (3):1048-1058.score: 24.0
    Adaptation to right-shifting prisms improves left neglect for mental number line bisection. This study examined whether adaptation affects the mental number line in normal participants. Thirty-six participants completed a mental number line task before and after adaptation to either: left-shifting prisms, right-shifting prisms or control spectacles that did not shift the visual scene. Participants viewed number triplets (e.g. 16, 36, 55) and determined whether the numerical distance was greater on the left or right side of the inner (...)
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  23. Cedric Paternotte (forthcoming). Shared Adaptiveness is Not Group Adaptation - Commentary of E. Van der Vliert's 'Climato-Economic Habitats Support Patterns of Human Needs, Stresses, and Freedoms'. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.score: 24.0
    Climate stresses and monetary resources seem to lead to different collective adaptations. However, the reference to adaptation and to ambiguous collective dimensions appears premature; populations may entertain nothing more than shared adaptiveness. At this point, the intricacy of the underlying evolutionary processes (cultural selection, fitness-utility decoupling) very much obscures any diagnosis based on correlations.
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  24. M. Rabuffetti, A. Folegatti, L. Spinazzola, R. Ricci, M. Ferrarin, A. Berti & M. Neppi-Modona (2012). Long-Lasting Amelioration of Walking Trajectory in Neglect After Prismatic Adaptation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:382-382.score: 24.0
    In the present investigation we explored the effect of prismatic adaptation (PA) applied to the upper right limb on the walking trajectory of a neglect patient with more severe neglect in far than in near space. The patient was asked to bisect a line fixed to the floor by walking across it before and after four sessions of PA distributed over a time frame of 67 days. Gait path was analysed by means of an optoelectronic motion analysis system. The (...)
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  25. Daphne Roumani & Konstantinos Moutoussis (2012). Binocular Rivalry Alternations and Their Relation to Visual Adaptation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    When different stimuli are presented dichoptically, perception alternates between the two in a stochastic manner. After a long-lasting and rigorous debate, there is growing consensus that this phenomenon, known as binocular rivalry, is the result of a dynamic competition occurring at multiple levels of the visual hierarchy. The role of low- and high-level adaptation mechanisms in controlling these perceptual alternations has been a key issue in the rivalry literature. Both types of adaptation are dispersed throughout the visual system (...)
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  26. Christopher Striemer & James Danckert (2013). The Influence of Prism Adaptation on Perceptual and Motor Components of Neglect: A Reply to Saevarsson and Kristjansson. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    The Influence of Prism Adaptation on Perceptual and Motor Components of Neglect: A Reply to Saevarsson and Kristjansson.
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  27. Hirokazu Tanaka, Kazuhiro Homma & Hiroshi Imamizu (2012). Illusory Reversal of Causality Between Touch and Vision has No Effect on Prism Adaptation Rate. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is “to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc.” In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between actions and consequences. In motor adaptation, causality between action and consequence is implicitly assumed so that a subject adapts to a new environment based on the consequence caused by her (...)
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  28. Panagiota Theodoni, Theofanis I. Panagiotaropoulos, Vishal Kapoor, Nikos K. Logothetis & Gustavo Deco (2011). Cortical Microcircuit Dynamics Mediating Binocular Rivalry: The Role of Adaptation in Inhibition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 24.0
    Perceptual bistability arises when two conflicting interpretations of an ambiguous stimulus or images in binocular rivalry (BR) compete for perceptual dominance. From a computational point of view competition models based on cross-inhibition and adaptation have shown that noise is a crucial force for rivalry and operates in balance with adaptation in order to explain the observed alternations in perception. In particular, noise-driven transitions and adaptation-driven oscillations define two dynamical regimes and the system operates near its boundary. In (...)
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  29. Adrian M. Haith Tomoko Kitago, Sophia L. Ryan, Pietro Mazzoni, John W. Krakauer (2013). Unlearning Versus Savings in Visuomotor Adaptation: Comparing Effects of Washout, Passage of Time, and Removal of Errors on Motor Memory. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Humans are able to rapidly adapt their movements when a visuomotor or other systematic perturbation is imposed. However, the adaptation is forgotten or unlearned equally rapidly once the perturbation is removed. The ultimate cause of this unlearning remains poorly understood. Unlearning is often considered to be a passive process due to inability to retain an internal model. However, we have recently suggested that it may instead be a process of reversion to habit, without necessarily any forgetting per se. We (...)
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  30. Benedict C. Jones Anthony C. Little, Peter J. B. Hancock, Lisa M. DeBruine (2012). Adaptation to Antifaces and the Perception of Correct Famous Identity in an Average Face. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Previous experiments have examined exposure to anti-identities (faces that possess traits opposite to an identity through a population average), finding that exposure to antifaces enhances recognition of the plus-identity images. Here we examine adaptation to antifaces using famous female celebrities. We demonstrate: that exposure to a color and shape transformed antiface of a celebrity increases the likelihood of perceiving the identity from which the antiface was manufactured in a composite face and that the effect shows size invariance (Experiment 1), (...)
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  31. Luigi Cattaneo Arthur M. Glenberg, Gabriel Lopez-Mobilia, Michael McBeath, Michael Toma, Marc Sato (2010). Knowing Beans: Human Mirror Mechanisms Revealed Through Motor Adaptation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 24.0
    Human mirror mechanisms (MMs) respond during both performed and observed action and appear to underlie action goal recognition. We introduce a behavioral procedure for discovering and clarifying functional MM properties: Blindfolded participants repeatedly move beans either toward or away from themselves to induce motor adaptation. Then, the bias for perceiving direction of ambiguous visual movement in depth is measured. Bias is affected by a) number of beans moved, b) movement direction, and c) similarity of the visual stimulus to the (...)
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  32. Thomas Ditye Claus-Christian Carbon (2012). Face Adaptation Effects Show Strong and Long-Lasting Transfer From Lab to More Ecological Contexts. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    A review on recent experiments on figural face aftereffects reveals that adaptation effects in famous faces can be quite sustainable, lasting for hours up to days. Such adaptations also seem to be highly reliable regarding test-retest designs as well as regarding the generalizability of adaptation across different adaptation routines and adaptations towards different kinds of facial properties. However, in adaptation studies conducted so far, the adaptation as well as the subsequent test phase was carried out (...)
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  33. Konstantinos Moutoussis Daphne Roumani (2012). Binocular Rivalry Alternations and Their Relation to Visual Adaptation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    When different stimuli are presented dichoptically, perception alternates between the two in a stochastic manner. After a long-lasting and rigorous debate, there is growing consensus that this phenomenon, known as binocular rivalry, is the result of a dynamic competition occurring at multiple levels of the visual hierarchy. The role of low- and high-level adaptation mechanisms in controlling these perceptual alternations has been a key issue in the rivalry literature. Both types of adaptation are dispersed throughout the visual system (...)
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  34. Kobe Desender & Eva Van den Bussche (2012). Is Consciousness Necessary for Conflict Adaptation? A State of the Art. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Facing response conflict, subjects try to improve their responses by reducing the influence of the detrimental information which caused the conflict. It was speculated that this adaptation to conflict can only occur when the conflicting information is consciously perceived. In this review we give an overview of the research looking at the possibility of unconscious stimuli to provoke this conflict adaptation. In a first part we discuss adaptation to conflict on a trial-by-trial basis. When the previous trial (...)
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  35. Cheryl Grady, Rebecca A. Charlton, He Yu & Claude Alain (2011). Age Differences in fMRI Adaptation for Sound Identity and Location. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 24.0
    We explored age differences in auditory perception by measuring fMRI adaptation of brain activity to repetitions of sound identity (what) and location (where), using meaningful environmental sounds. In one condition, both sound identity and location were repeated allowing us to assess non-specific adaptation. In other conditions, only one feature was repeated (identity or location) to assess domain-specific adaptation. Both young and older adults showed comparable non-specific adaptation (identity and location) in bilateral temporal lobes, medial parietal cortex (...)
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  36. Sytske F. Groenewald & Erwin Bulte (2013). Trust and Livelihood Adaptation: Evidence From Rural Mexico. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 30 (1):41-55.score: 24.0
    This paper explores the relationship between trust and household adaptation strategies for a sample of respondents in a Mexican agrarian community. In particular, we analyze how levels of personalized, generalized, and institutionalized trust shape the adaptation strategies of smallholders, and find that households characterized by low levels of generalized and institutionalized trust are less likely to be involved in a diversified livelihood strategy. Instead, they tend to continue with the traditional activity of maize production. In contrast, high levels (...)
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  37. Hiroshi Imamizu Hirokazu Tanaka, Kazuhiro Homma (2012). Illusory Reversal of Causality Between Touch and Vision has No Effect on Prism Adaptation Rate. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is “to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc.” In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between actions and consequences. In motor adaptation, causality between action and consequence is implicitly assumed so that a subject adapts to a new environment based on the consequence caused by her (...)
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  38. Rachael D. Seidler Jessica A. Bernard (2013). Cerebellar Contributions to Visuomotor Adaptation and Motor Sequence Learning: An ALE Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Cerebellar contributions to motor learning are well documented. For example, under some conditions, patients with cerebellar damage are impaired at visuomotor adaptation and at acquiring new action sequences. Moreover, cerebellar activation has been observed in functional MRI investigations of various motor learning tasks. The early phases of motor learning are cognitively demanding, relying on processes such as working memory, which have been linked to the cerebellum as well. Here, we investigated cerebellar contributions to motor learning using activation likelihood estimation (...)
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  39. Bradley R. King, Stuart M. Fogel, Geneviève Albouy & Julien Doyon (2013). Neural Correlates of the Age-Related Changes in Motor Sequence Learning and Motor Adaptation in Older Adults. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    As the world’s population ages, a deeper understanding of the relationship between aging and motor learning will become increasingly relevant in basic research and applied settings. In this context, this review aims to address the effects of age on motor sequence learning (MSL) and motor adaptation (MA) with respect to behavioral, neurological and neuroimaging findings. Previous behavioral research investigating the influence of aging on motor learning has consistently reported the following results. First, the initial acquisition of motor sequences is (...)
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  40. Megumi Kobayashi, Yumiko Otsuka, Emi Nakato, So Kanazawa, Masami K. Yamaguchi & Ryusuke Kakigi (2011). Do Infants Represent the Face in a Viewpoint-Invariant Manner? Neural Adaptation Study as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:153-153.score: 24.0
    Recent adult fMRI studies reported that face sensitive cortical areas showed attenuated responses to the repeated presentation of an identical facial image compared to the presentation of different facial images (fMRI-adaptation effects: e.g., Andrews & Ewbank, 2004). Building upon this finding, the current study, employing the adaptation paradigm, used NIRS to explore the neural basis of face processing in infants. In Experiment 1, we compared hemodynamic responses in the bilateral temporal regions during the repeated presentation of the same (...)
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  41. Eva Van den Bussche Kobe Desender (2012). Is Consciousness Necessary for Conflict Adaptation? A State of the Art. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Facing response conflict, subjects try to improve their responses by reducing the influence of the detrimental information which caused the conflict. It was speculated that this adaptation to conflict can only occur when the conflicting information is consciously perceived. In this review we give an overview of the research looking at the possibility of unconscious stimuli to provoke this conflict adaptation. In a first part we discuss adaptation to conflict on a trial-by-trial basis. When the previous trial (...)
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  42. Ben S. Webb Neil W. Roach (2013). Adaptation to Implied Tilt: Extensive Spatial Extrapolation of Orientation Gradients. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    To extract the global structure of an image, the visual system must integrate local orientation estimates across space. Progress is being made towards understanding this integration process, but very little is known about whether the presence of structure exerts a reciprocal influence on local orientation coding. We have previously shown that adaptation to patterns containing circular or radial structure induces tilt-aftereffects (TAEs), even in locations where the adapting pattern was occluded. These spatially ‘remote’ TAEs have novel tuning properties and (...)
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  43. Brendan Rooney, Helen Keyes & Nuala Brady (2012). Shared or Separate Mechanisms for Self-Face and Other-Face Processing? Evidence From Adaptation. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Evidence that self-face recognition is dissociable from general face recognition has important implications both for models of social cognition and for our understanding of face recognition. In two studies, we examine how adaptation affects the perception of personally familiar faces, and we use a visual adaptation paradigm to investigate whether the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of one’s own and other faces are shared or separate. In Study 1 we show that the representation of personally familiar faces is (...)
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  44. Styrmir Saevarsson (2013). Prism Adaptation Theory in Unilateral Neglect: Motor and Perceptual Components. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Prism adaptation theory in unilateral neglect: motor and perceptual components.
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  45. K. A. Shapiro, L. R. Moo & A. Caramazza (2011). Neural Specificity for Grammatical Operations is Revealed by Content-Independent fMR Adaptation. Frontiers in Psychology 3:26-26.score: 24.0
    The ability to generate novel sentences depends on cognitive operations that specify the syntactic function of nouns, verbs, and other words retrieved from the mental lexicon. Although neuropsychological studies suggest that such operations rely on neural circuits distinct from those encoding word form and meaning, it has not been possible to characterize this distinction definitively with neuroimaging. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that a brain area engaged in a given grammatical operation can be identified uniquely by (...)
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  46. Daichi Nozaki Takuya Honda, Masaya Hirashima (2012). Habituation to Feedback Delay Restores Degraded Visuomotor Adaptation by Altering Both Sensory Prediction Error and the Sensitivity of Adaptation to the Error. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Sensory prediction error, which is the difference between actual and predicted sensory consequences, is a driving force of motor learning. Thus, appropriate temporal associations between the actual sensory feedback signals and motor commands for predicting sensory consequences are crucial for the brain to calculate the sensory prediction error accurately. Indeed, it has been shown that artificially introduced delays in visual feedback degrade motor learning. However, our previous study has showed that degraded adaptation is alleviated by prior habituation to the (...)
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  47. Claus-Christian Carbon Tilo Strobach (2013). Face Adaptation Effects: Reviewing the Impact of Adapting Information, Time, and Transfer. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    The ability to adapt is essential to live and survive in an ever-changing environment such as the human ecosystem. Here we review the literature on adaptation effects of face stimuli to give an overview of existing findings in this area, highlight gaps in its research literature, initiate new directions in face adaptation research and help to design future adaptation studies. Furthermore, this review should lead to better understanding of the processing characteristics as well as the mental representations (...)
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  48. Konstantinos Moutoussis Vassilis Pelekanos, Daphne Roumani (2011). The Effects of Categorical and Linguistic Adaptation on Binocular Rivalry Initial Dominance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 24.0
    Binocular rivalry is an intriguing visual phenomenon, in which perception alternates between two different monocular stimuli. There has been a long debate regarding the nature of the brain mechanisms behind it, with a special emphasis on whether they are low-level or reside at a higher level of the visual pathway. Prior adaptation to one of the two monocular stimuli is known to affect the initial dominant percept in the following dichoptic presentation. In the present work, we use three different (...)
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  49. Andrew F. Smith (2003). Semantic Externalism, Authoritative Self-Knowledge, and Adaptation to Slow Switching. Acta Analytica 18 (30-31):71-87.score: 22.0
    I here argue against the viability of Peter Ludlow’s modified version of Paul Boghossian’s argument for the incompatibility of semantic externalism and authoritative self-knowledge. Ludlow contends that slow switching is not merely actual but is, moreover, prevalent; it can occur whenever we shift between localized linguistic communities. It is therefore quite possible, he maintains, that we undergo unwitting shifts in our mental content on a regular basis. However, there is good reason to accept as plausible that despite their prevalence we (...)
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  50. T. Lynne Barone (2000). Is the Siesta an Adaptation to Disease? Human Nature 11 (3):233-258.score: 22.0
    Why does the practice of the siesta vary across human cultures? One explanation is that it is a form of energy conservation in environments with high temperatures and/or agricultural labor. Disease palliation and prevention represents another area where the siesta might be beneficial. A preliminary study used the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) to examine the characteristics associated with siesta occurrence. Siestas were not statistically associated with high temperatures or agricultural labor (p>.05). They were, however, statistically associated with the occurrence (...)
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